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Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists

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We examined if supplementing trained cyclists (32 ± 2 year, 77.8 ± 2.6 kg, and 7.4 ± 1.2 year training) with 12 g/day (6 g/day L-Leucine, 2 g/day L-Isoleucine and 4 g/day L-Valine) of either branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, n = 9) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 9) over a 10-week training season affected select body composition, performance, and/or immune variables. Before and after the 10-week study, the following was assessed: (1) 4-h fasting blood draws; (2) dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition; (3) Wingate peak power tests; and (4) 4 km time-trials. No group × time interactions existed for total lean mass (P = 0.27) or dual-leg lean mass (P = 0.96). A significant interaction existed for body mass-normalized relative peak power (19 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01), and relative mean power (4 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01). 4 km time-trial time to completion approached a significant interaction (P = 0.08), as the BCAA group improved in this measure by 11 % pre- to post-study, though this was not significant (P = 0.15). There was a tendency for the BCAA group to present a greater post-study serum BCAA: L-Tryptophan ratio compared to the PLA group (P = 0.08). A significant interaction for neutrophil number existed (P = 0.04), as there was a significant 18 % increase within the PLA group from the pre- to post-study time point (P = 0.01). Chronic BCAA supplementation improves sprint performance variables in endurance cyclists. Additionally, given that BCAA supplementation blunted the neutrophil response to intense cycling training, BCAAs may benefit immune function during a prolonged cycling season.
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POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access
Ten weeks of branched chain amino acid
supplementation improves select performance
and immunological variables in trained cyclists
Wesley C Kephart
1
, Taylor D Wachs
1
, R Mac Thompson
1
, C Brooks Mobley
1
, Carlton D Fox
1
, James R McDonald
1
,
Brian S Ferguson
1
, Kaelin C Young
2
, Ben Nie
3
, Jeffrey S Martin
1,2
, Joseph M Company
4
, David D Pascoe
1,2
,
Robert D Arnold
3
, Jordan R Moon
5
, Michael D Roberts
1,2*
From The Twelfth International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) Conference and Expo
Austin, TX, USA. 11-13 June 2015
Background
We examined if supplementing trained cyclists (32 ± 2 yr,
77.8 ± 2.6 kg, and 7.4 ± 1.2 yr training) with 12g/d (6g/d
L-Leucine, 2g/d L-Isoleucine and 4g/d L-Valine) of either
branched chain amino acids (BCAAs, n = 9) or a malto-
dextrin placebo (PLA, n = 9) over a 10-week training sea-
son affected select body composition, performance,
and/or immune variables.
Methods
Before and after the 10-week study, the following was
assessed: a) 4-h fasting blood draws; b) dual X-ray
absorptiometry body composition; c) Wingate peak
power tests; and d) 4km time-trials.
Results
No group*time interactions existed for total lean mass
(p = 0.27) or dual-leg lean mass (p = 0.96). A significant
interaction existed for body mass-normalized relative
peak power (19% increase in the BCAA group pre- to
post-study, p = 0.01), and relative mean power
(4% increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, p =
0.01). 4km time-trial time to completion approached a
significant interaction (p = 0.08), as the BCAA group
improved in this measure by 11% pre- to post-study,
though this was not significant (p = 0.15). There was a
tendency for the BCAA group to present a greater post-
study serum BCAA: L-Tryptophan ratio compared to
the PLA group (p = 0.08). A significant interaction for
neutrophil number existed (p = 0.04), as there was a
significant 18% increase within the PLA group from
the pre- to post-study time point (p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Chronic BCAA supplementation improves sprint perfor-
mance variables in endurance cyclists. Additionally, given
that BCAA supplementation blunted the neutrophil
response to intense cycling training, BCAAs may benefit
immune function during a prolonged cycling season.
Authorsdetails
1
School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.
2
Edward Via
College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn Campus, Auburn, AL, USA.
3
Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.
4
Endurance Company, LLC, Bloomington, IL, USA.
5
MusclePharm Sports
Science Institute, Denver, CO, USA.
Published: 21 September 2015
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P20
Cite this article as: Kephart et al.: Ten weeks of branched chain amino
acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological
variables in trained cyclists. Journal of the International Society of Sports
Nutrition 2015 12(Suppl 1):P20.
* Correspondence: mdr0024@auburn.edu
1
School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Kephart et al.Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2015, 12(Suppl 1):P20
http://www.jissn.com/content/12/S1/P20
© 2015 Kephart et al. This is an Open Access artic le distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unr estricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited. The Cre ative Commons Public Do main Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/
zero/1.0/) applies to the data made availa ble in this article, unless otherwise stated.
... Participants were then subjected to a full body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (Lunar Prodigy; GE Corporation, Fairfield CT, United States). Our laboratory (Kephart et al., 2016) has previously shown same day reliability of the DXA during test-calibrate-retest on 10 participants yields an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.998 for total body lean mass and an absolute standard error of the measurement (SEM) of 0.47 kg. Associated software was used to derive whole-body lean soft tissue mass (bone-free; abbreviated as LSTM) and fat mass. ...
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... [47] A study among trained cyclists concluded that as BCAA supplementation blunted the neutrophil response to high-intensity cycling training, potentially, it benefits immune function during a prolonged season. [54] Also, a study revealed that BCAA supplementation before a prolonged intense race prevented the decrease in plasma glutamine concentration as well as modified advantageously the immune response to exercise. [55] Given that other studies have shown that glutamine supplementation in exercise did not prevent the decline of lymphocyte proliferation, these findings need to be considered with carefulness. ...
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... Conversely, other studies included within the present systematic review [67,68,75] reported no benefit of protein supplementation on cycling [67], running [75], or rowing [68] TT performance in response to concurrent training, despite two studies [67,68] having a nutrition protocol with supplemental protein to achieve 2-3.5 g/kg bodyweight/ day. The lack of an ergogenic effect of protein supplementation during concurrent training on TT performance aligns with studies incorporating single-mode endurance training, whereby protein/amino acid supplementation did not enhance TT performance in recreationally active individuals [56,161,162] or athletes [160,168] following prolonged (6-12 weeks) endurance training. ...
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... To explore the specific effects and mechanisms of supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on table tennis performance and display and analysis of images using the visual sensor technology, this article consulted a large number of related materials. Among them, Kephart et al. gave an introduction to table tennis, emphasizing that China is a strong country in table tennis, and pointed out that table tennis is a sport that consumes a lot of energy and requires very high physical fitness and reaction ability of athletes [4][5][6]. Chen et al. proposed in his article that table tennis is a highly competitive sport. Athletes will have a great exercise load in this sport, which puts the content secretion system and respiratory system of the athlete in a high-load state, so athletes are prone to sports fatigue [7]. ...
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Use the latest vision sensor technology for in-depth research. This article takes 20 professional table tennis players with the same sports score as the research object and divides the athletes into the control group and observation group supplemented with branch chain amino acids. For the observation group, the exercise plan is to design two one-hour table tennis games, divided into two days, with a 10-minute break after half an hour of the game, and the athletes in the observation group to have a weight of 0.3 g/kg before and during the rest of the game. Weight measurement supplemented with branched-chain amino acids, the control group, athletes supplemented with the same amount of ordinary mineral water, the athletes’ fatigue index, endurance index, and reaction ability index were scored, and the athlete’s blood was drawn to test the sports-related biochemical indicators after the end of table tennis. The results of the study showed that after supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, the fatigue index of the athletes in the observation group was (), the fatigue index of the control group was (), the endurance index of the observation group was (), that of the control group was (), the reaction ability index of the observation group was (), and the control group was (). At the same time, the athletes’ plasma antioxidant capacity and metabolism level of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Therefore, it can be seen that supplementing branched-chain amino acids can effectively improve the athletic ability of table tennis players. 1. Introduction The vision sensor appeared in the late 1950s and developed very rapidly. It is one of the most important sensors in robots. Robot vision began to deal with the world of building blocks in the 1960s and later developed to deal with indoor scenes such as tables, chairs, and lamps and then deal with the real world outside. Table tennis is based on other forms of aerobic exercise and supplemented by other forms of anaerobic exercise. Table tennis is very antagonistic, and athletes often need to consume a large amount of comprehensive ability and a large amount of physical reserve every day to successfully complete the game. With the continuous increase of human exercise intensity and the continuous increase of physical energy consumption, athletes will gradually produce some exercise fatigue. Amino acids and enzymes are the main raw materials for the metabolism and synthesis of various proteins in the body and are the main energy substances that are decomposed by oxidative cells in the body. The products of certain new amino acids or other enzyme metabolites are also a metabolic factor in the body [1]. Compared with human carbohydrate and human fat metabolism, amino acids are not the main source of energy metabolism in the metabolic process of aerobic exercise, but increasingly, research data has shown that aerobic exercise will continue to increase some amino acids, especially. It is said that it is the oxidation of some branched-amino acids in human muscle tissue [2]. Acute stroke and a certain concentration of serotonin in serum 5–6 can effectively delay the symptoms of central brain fatigue and improve and help improve the ability of football players [3]. To explore the specific effects and mechanisms of supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on table tennis performance and display and analysis of images using the visual sensor technology, this article consulted a large number of related materials. Among them, Kephart et al. gave an introduction to table tennis, emphasizing that China is a strong country in table tennis, and pointed out that table tennis is a sport that consumes a lot of energy and requires very high physical fitness and reaction ability of athletes [4–6]. Chen et al. proposed in his article that table tennis is a highly competitive sport. Athletes will have a great exercise load in this sport, which puts the content secretion system and respiratory system of the athlete in a high-load state, so athletes are prone to sports fatigue [7]. Yokota et al. elaborated on the constituent elements, chemical properties, and biological characteristics of branched-chain amino acids, emphasized the importance of branched-chain amino acids to human functions, analyzed the relationship between branched-chain amino acids and exercise, and discussed branched-chain amino acids and the mechanism of action of exercise [8]. 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... Research concerning the protein needs and effects on HIIT adaptations, beyond a single session, are very limited (Forbes et al. 2020). Ten-weeks of branched chain amino acid supplementation has been shown to increase Wingate peak power and potentially increase time trial performance in male cyclists (Kephart et al. 2016). However, 6-10 weeks of protein supplementation in combination with endurance training failed to lead to improvements in VO 2 , performance time, and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (Forbes et al. 2020). ...
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