Article

Grapsoid and Gall Crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea and Cryptochiroidea) of Easter Island 1

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Abstract

The grapsoid and gall crab fauna of Easter Island is reviewed, based on historical records and material collected by the Science Museum of Long Island Easter Island Expedition of 1998-1999. Previously, nine grapsoids identified to the species level, but no gall crabs, were recorded from the island. The present work reports on eight species of grapsoids: Pachygrapsus laevimanus Stimpson, 1858 (previously recorded from the island as Pachygrapsus transversus [Gibbes, 1850]); Pachygrapsus plicatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (new record); Leptograpsus variegatus (Fabricius, 1793); Cyclograpsus longipes Stimpson, 1858; Ptychognathus easteranus Rathbun, 1907; Percnon pascuensis Retamal, 2002 (redescribed and figured); Guinusia dentipes (De Haan, 1835); and Guinusia integripes (Garth, 1973) (new combination). Geograpsus crinipes (Dana, 1851) and Guinusia chabrus (Linnaeus, 1758) have been previously recorded from the island; no material of the former was collected and the latter is considered an erroneous identification of Guinusia dentipes. Dacryomaia japonica (Takeda & Tamura, 1981) is the first identified gall crab from the island. Color notes for six species and illustrations for several important morphological characters of Percnon pascuensis are provided.

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... Numerous specimens of marine invertebrates, particularly crustaceans, were collected (see Boyko 2001, Boyko and Williams 2001, Johnsson et al. 2002, Kensley 2003, Gómez and Boyko 2006, but none of the brachyurans collected were identified beyond family level at the time of collection. Recently, papers on the species diversity of the island's portunoids (Boyko and Liguori 2014) and grapsoids and cryptochiroids (Boyko and Liguori 2015) were published. A paper describing a new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817 (Majoidea: Inachidae) has recently been published ( Ng and Boyko 2016), and a review of brachyurans associated with corals (Carpiliidae and Trapeziidae) is also forthcoming (Boyko et al. 2017). ...
... Numerous specimens of marine invertebrates, particularly crustaceans, were collected (see Boyko 2001, Boyko and Williams 2001, Johnsson et al. 2002, Kensley 2003, Gómez and Boyko 2006, but none of the brachyurans collected were identified beyond family level at the time of collection. Recently, papers on the species diversity of the island's portunoids (Boyko and Liguori 2014) and grapsoids and cryptochiroids (Boyko and Liguori 2015) were published. A paper describing a new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817 (Majoidea: Inachidae) has recently been published ( Ng and Boyko 2016), and a review of brachyurans associated with corals (Carpiliidae and Trapeziidae) is also forthcoming (Boyko et al. 2017). ...
Article
The diversity of seven families of brachyurans occurring on Easter Island is reviewed based on historical and more recently collected specimens. Lewindromia unidentata (Rüppell, 1830) (Dromiidae) is confirmed to occur, and Dynomene hispida (Latreille, in Milbert, 1812) (Dynomenidae) and Actaeomorpha erosa Miers, 1877 (Aethridae) are recorded for the first time from the island. The sole homolid species known from Easter Island, previously identified only to family, is provisionally identified as Latreillopsis cf. okala Castro & Naruse, 2014. A new species of Daldorfia Rathbun, 1904 (Parthenopidae), previously confused with D. horrida (Linnaeus, 1758), is described. The taxonomic issues with Schizophroida Sakai, 1933 (Majidae) are reviewed: S. simodaensis Sakai, 1933, from Japan is synonymized with S. manazuruana Sakai, 1933, also from Japan, and a new species is described from Easter Island; an earlier record of Ageitomaia baeckstroemi (Balss, 1924) from Salas y Gómez is shown to be a misidentification of this new species. The presence of a Huenia, possibly H. aff. pacifica (Miers, 1879) (Epialtidae), on the island is also confirmed.
... The oceanic islands of the Pacific harbour proportionally high marine biodiversity, but many previously described taxa remain poorly known, whereas potentially new taxa are being continuously discovered (Paulay 2003). Brachyuran crabs, however, are among the better-studied groups in some islands, such as Guam, the Hawaiian Islands, and Easter Island Castro 2011;Boyko and Liguori 2015). Five species of the sesarmid crab genus Parasesarma are known from oceanic islands of the Western Pacific to date: P. ellenae (Pretzmann, 1968) from New Caledonia (Pretzmann 1968); P. lividum (A. ...
Article
Some brachyuran crab species of the Western Pacific appear to be widespread throughout the region and distributed across a large geographic area, without obvious phylogeographic structuring. In the present study, we describe a new species of Parasesarma that appears to be restricted to Western Pacific islands (so far Guam, Palau, Vanuatu, Fiji, Wallis and New Caledonia). Comparisons of partial sequences of the COX1 gene show that individuals of this species, though from relatively isolated and widely separated islands, are monophyletic and, surprisingly, genetically uniform. These results give credence to the hypothesis that these oceanic islands serve as ‘stepping stones’ for the current-mediated dispersal and genetic homogenisation of coastal–littoral marine species. Morphologically, the new species differs most significantly from similar congeners in the tuberculation pattern of the chelar dactyli, whereas genetically it is markedly divergent from other morphologically similar species of Parasesarma, with a minimum COX1 p-distance of 6.9%. With such evidence, the new species is here formally described as Parasesarma daviei sp. nov. It is the fifth species of Parasesarma reported from oceanic islands of the Western Pacific. Compared to other congeners, P. daviei sp. nov. shows a close relationship with a clade including P. calypso. Therefore, P. calypso (De Man, 1895), and three of its former subspecies or varieties were subjected to a closer examination and are here rediagnosed and illustrated. In consequence, we suggest full species status for P. kuekenthali (De Man, 1902), P. lanchesteri (Tweedie, 1936), and P. ellenae (Pretzmann, 1968).
... Once in the laboratory, specimens were identified to the lowest taxonomic level using available literature for continental (Ampuero, Palma, Veliz, & Pardo, 2010;Fagetti & Campodonico, 1970, 1971González, Haye, Balanda, & Thiel, 2008;Retamal & Moyano, 2010;Rozbaczylo, 1980) and insular fauna (Boyko & Liguori, 2015;Coloma, Moyano, Ruiz, & Marchant, 2004;de los Ríos-Escalante & Ibáñez-Arancibia, 2016;Gonzalez-Gordillo, Tsuchida, & Schubart, 2000;Kensley, 2003;Osorio, 2018;Poupin, 2003;Raines, 2002Raines, , 2003Raines, , 2007Raines & Huber, 2012;Rehder, 1980;Retamal, 2004; F I G U R E 1 Schematic representation of sampling sites at Rapa Nui's coral reefs (Poike; above) and Robinson Crusoe's rocky reefs (Adriatico; below). Photo credits: S.A. Carrasco Yáñez et al., 2009). ...
Article
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• Identifying the diverse assemblage of species inhabiting rocky and coral reef habitats in isolated oceanic environments, and the important sound cues emitted from the reef, are crucial components to understand how species locate suitable habitats for the completion of their life‐cycle and, thus, the functioning of these vulnerable ecosystems. • Recent field information suggests that the majority of reef biodiversity comprises small cryptic invertebrates; however, knowledge on these small components is extremely scarce. • The present study used light attraction methods to explore the diversity of larval, post‐larval and macrobenthic cryptic fauna, and hydrophones to characterize the natural soundscape of rocky and coral reef habitats at the Robinson Crusoe island (Juan Fernandez Archipelago; 33°38′S, 78°50′W), and Rapa Nui (Easter Island; 27°7′S, 109°21′W), respectively. • Pelagic collections found important site‐specific patterns and identified two main species assemblages: early‐life stages (e.g. eggs, larval and juvenile stages of crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes) and emerging macrobenthos (e.g. demersal zooplankton such as peracarid crustaceans, ostracods, copepods, and polychaetes), with the latter contributing between 73 and 98% to the total catches. • The soundscape records showed marked differences among sites and seasons at Robinson Crusoe island, with variable differences found between day and night. However, at Rapa Nui, there were no differences between sites, but the ambient sound was higher at night possibly due to higher snapping shrimp activity. • This information highlights the importance of considering small‐scale (site‐to‐site) patterns when evaluating overlooked components of diversity (i.e. biological or acoustic) in oceanic habitats, and provides the basis for understanding the importance of natural noise in the settlement of most reef‐associated species, crucial features for the conservation of these remote and vulnerable ecosystems.
... In 1998 and 1999, teams of researchers (including the first author in 1999) were assembled by Dr. John Tanacredi, then of the Gateway National Recreation Area, U.S. National Park Service, to form the Science Museum of Long Island Easter Island Expedition of 1998-1999 in order to survey the near-shore marine environment of Easter Island. Reports on the diversity of the portunoids (Boyko & Liguori 2014), grapsoids and cryptochiroids (Boyko & Liguori 2015) of the island were published based in large part on material collected by this expedition. A new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817 (Majoidea) was also recently described from the island (Ng & Boyko 2016). ...
Article
A review is made of those brachyurans that are symbiotic or otherwise associated with scleractinian corals on Easter Island, southeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven species is reported, including three species from two families not previously known from the island. Earlier records of Trapezia are analyzed and, although as many as six species have been previously reported, we conclude that only three species are known to occur on the island with certainty.
... In 1998 and 1999, teams of researchers (including the second author in 1999) were assembled by Dr. John Tanacredi, then of the Gateway National Recreation Area, U.S. National Park Service, to form the Science Museum of Long Island -Easter Island Expedition of 1998-1999 in order to survey the near-shore marine environment. Recently, papers on the diversity of the island's portunoids (Boyko and Liguori, 2014), grapsoids and cryptochiroids (Boyko and Liguori, 2015) were published based, in large part, on material collected by this expedition. In the present paper, a new species of majoid belonging to the genus Achaeus Leach, 1817, is described and dedicated it to the memory of the late Michael Türkay. ...
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In the present paper, a new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817, is described from Easter Island and dedicated to the memory of Michael Türkay. This record represents the first inachid spider crab and the sixth endemic brachyuran to be described from the island. It can be differentiated from congeners by its relatively short carapace, with the postorbital region not elongated, the arrangement and number of tubercles on the dorsal carapace surface, prominent hepatic lobe, presence of a large anterodistal lobe on the ocular peduncle, as well as structures of the third maxilliped and ambulatory legs.
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From a bibliographic compilation and, to a lesser extent, from material collected in the field, 401 littoral and sublittoral decapods (Palinura, Anomura, Brachyura), are reported from French Polynesia. The Brachyura prevail, with 313 species, mainly Xanthidae (123 species), Portunidae (54 species), and Grapsidae (35 species). The Anomura are represented by 74 species, and the Palinura by only 14 species. The list of the deep species, ie living in depths of 100m or more, is updated. Ninety-two species are listed, making a total of 493 Polynesian species. Amongst the material recently collected, 16 species are recorded for the first time in the area: Calcinus guamensis, Calcinus imperialis, Dardanus australis, Dardanus brachyops, Albunea speciosa, Parthenope contrarius, Portunus macrophthalmus, Portunus orbitosinus, Thalamita danae, Thalamita macropus, Thalamita mitsiensis, Thalamita philippinensis, Quadrella maculosa, Planes cyaneus, Percnon guinotae, and Macrophthalmus serenei. Moreover, after the examination of the type material, Ruppelia granulosa A. Milne Edwards, 1867, originally describe from the Marquesas, is here proposed as a junior synonym of Lydia annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1834). Only 8 species, related to well defined species, are known solely from French Polynesia: Parribacus holthuisi, Micropagurus polynesiensis, Nucia rosea, Nursia mimetica, Acanthophrys cristimanus, Lissocarcinus elegans, Ozius tricarinatus, and Macrophthalmus consobrinus. For some of them, however, it is probable that their distributions extend at least to western Polynesia. The French Polynesian fauna is typically Indo-West Pacific in its composition, with few endemic forms, and a low diversity compared to the Indo-Malaysian area. It includes, however, many more species than the Hawaiian fauna, possibly because the Polynesian islands are less isolated than the Hawaiian islands. The Society, Tuamotu, and Gambier archipelagos have been well investigated, with numerous expeditions organised in these areas. In contrast, the Austral and Marquesas Islands, still remain poorly known. The French Polynesian fauna is more or less homogenous, with few regionally distinctive features. The single obvious exception is for the isolated southernmost islands, Rapa and Marotiri, subjected to a subtropical climate. In these islands, species that are very common elsewhere, are missing (Coenobita perlatus, Birgus latro, Cardisoma carnifex), and, on the contrary, at least one common species is still unknown in the northern part of French Polynesia (Panulirus pascuensis).
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Marine provinces, founded on contrasting floras or faunas, have been recognized for more than 150 years but were not consistently defined by endemism until 1974. At that time, provinces were based on at least a 10% endemism and nested within biogeographic regions that covered large geographic areas with contrasting biotic characteristics. Over time, some minor adjustments were made but the overall arrangement remained essentially unaltered. In many provinces, data on endemism were still not available, or were available only for the most widely studied vertebrates (fishes), a problem that is ongoing. In this report we propose a realignment for three reasons. First, recent works have provided new information to modify or redefine the various divisions and to describe new ones, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southern Ocean, Tropical East Pacific and Northeast Pacific. Second, phylogeographic studies have demonstrated genetic subdivisions within and between species that generally corroborated provinces based on taxonomic partitions, with a notable exception at the Indian–Pacific oceanic boundary. Third, the original separation of the warm-temperate provinces from the adjoining tropical ones has distracted from their close phylogenetic relationships. Here we propose uniting warm-temperate and tropical regions into a single warm region within each ocean basin, while still recognizing provinces within the warm-temperate and tropical zones. These biogeographic subdivisions are based primarily on fish distribution but utilize other marine groups for comparison. They are intended to demonstrate the evolutionary relationships of the living marine biota, and to serve as a framework for the establishment of smaller ecological units in a conservation context.
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Isopods from 29 shallow-water stations around Easter Island were identified. Thirteen species in three suborders are described as new: suborder Anthuridea, Mesanthura pascuaensis, Sauranthura rapanui, Califanthura dodecaseta, Paranthura nordenstami; suborder Asellota, Joeropsis acoloris, Joeropsis bicornis, Joeropsis limbatus, Joeropsis trilabes, Salvatiella islapascua, Uromunna biloba, Paramunna pellucida, Santia longisetae; suborder Flabellifera, Exosphaeroides quadricosta. Seven species were identified only to genus: Apanthura sp., Eisothistos sp., Carpias sp., Maresiella sp., Metacirolana sp., Munna sp., Panathura sp. The shallow-water marine isopods show an endemism of over 90%.
  • Ng
– f, 14 b, 15 b, 16; Ng et al., 2008: 217 [list]. Pachygrapsus transversus, Rathbun, 1907:29 [Eas ter Island re cord]; B á ez and Ruiz, 1985:105 [Eas ter Island re cord]; Poupin, 2003: 7, 10, 13, 31, 41 [sum mary of Eas ter Island re cords) (not Pachygrapsus transversus [Gibbes, 1850]).
Eas ter Island: LACM MBPC 14109, 1 claw (ex star fi sh Astrostole paschae
  • Inedh L Ma
  • Clark
ma te rial ex am ined: Eas ter Island: LACM MBPC 14109, 1 claw (ex star fi sh Astrostole paschae [H. L. Clark, 1920]), Hanga Roa, coll. A. J. Kohn, April 1977. LACM MBPC 14114, 1 male (13.4 × 10.3 mm), Hanga Roa, coll. I. E. Efford, 23 De cem ber 1964.
31 De cem ber 1964. LACM MBPC 14112
  • E Efford
E. Efford, 31 De cem ber 1964. LACM MBPC 14112, 1 ovigerous fe male (11.9 ×
fe males (7.5 × 6.0 mm; 6.6 × 5.3 mm), 3 males
  • L C R Rehder
  • B A Lacm
  • Mbpc
Rehder, L.C.R., B.A. LACM MBPC 14115, 2 fe males (7.5 × 6.0 mm; 6.6 × 5.3 mm), 3 males (6.6 × 5.7 mm; 9.0 × 7.2 mm; 6.6 × 5.9 mm), Ahu Vaipu in tide pool, coll. I. E. Efford, 3
5 ju ve niles (larg est 3.9 × 3.2 mm; smallest 3.4 × 3.1 mm) Ahu Te Pito Kura, coll
  • S C B Boyko
  • S Reanier
  • Lopez
fe male (6.4 × 5.2 mm), 5 ju ve niles (larg est 3.9 × 3.2 mm; smallest 3.4 × 3.1 mm), Ahu Te Pito Kura, coll. C. B. Boyko, S. Reanier, S. Lopez, 27 Au gust 1999. USNM 1246565, 1 fe male (7.8 × 6.3 mm), Hanga Tee O Vaihu, coll. C. B. Boyko and J. T. Tanacredi, 24510Au gust 1999. USNM 1246566, 1 male (12.5 × 10.9 mm), Ahu Akahanga, coll.
30 Au gust 1999. USNM 1246570, 1 ju ve nile (3.0 × 2.5 mm), coll
  • S Boyko
  • E Reanier
  • S M L I E I E Marsh
Boyko, S. Reanier, E. Marsh, 30 Au gust 1999. USNM 1246570, 1 ju ve nile (3.0 × 2.5 mm), coll. S.M.L.I.E.I.E., 24 Au gust 1998. " EI 82, " USNM 1246571, 1 ju ve nile (4.2 × 3.4 mm), coll. B.B., J. T. Tanacredi, 22 Au gust 1999. USNM 1246572, 1 ovigerous fe male (8.4 ×
A realign ment of ma rine bio geo graphic provinces with par tic u lar ref er ence to fi sh dis tri bu tions
  • J C Briggs
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Briggs, J. C., and B. W. Bowen. 2012. A realign ment of ma rine bio geo graphic provinces with par tic u lar ref er ence to fi sh dis tri bu tions. J. Biogeogr. 39:12 -30.
The ma rine fauna of Rapanui, past and pres ent
  • L H Disalvo
  • J E Randall
DiSalvo, L. H., and J. E. Randall. 1993. The ma rine fauna of Rapanui, past and pres ent. Pages 16 -23 in S. R. Fischer, ed. Eas ter Island Studies. Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxbow Monogr. 32. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Ecological re con nais sance of the Eas ter Island sub lit to ral ma rine en vi ronment
  • L H Disalvo
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