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Dermatologic Uses and Effects of Lycium Barbarum

  • Sunny BioDiscovery

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Lycium barbarum (LB) is one of the most intriguing medicinal plants in China. The beauty of its berries combined with the amount of beneficial effects assigned to it would logically make it a strong candidate for skin use, yet relatively few scientific publications address such application. Here, we will review the skin-related effects of oral and topical preparations of LB, based on the published scientific literature and work done in our own laboratory. We will also discuss the obstacles and opportunities for LB in today’s dermatological field.
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ISBN 978-94-017-9657-6 ISBN 978-94-017-9658-3 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9658-3
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Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Department of Anatomy
LKS Faculty of Medicine the University
of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Kwok-Fai So
Department of Anatomy
LKS Faculty of Medicine the University
of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
The fruit of Lycium barbarum (also called Wolfberry) is known to be anti-aging and
nurtures the eyes or vision. It is an upper class Chinese medicine, meaning that it can
be used as medicine for therapy as well as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine. Collective
efforts from different research teams have proven that the fruits of Lycium barbarum
have rich sources that protect our whole body, from the skin to the liver, brain and eyes.
Therefore, regular consumption of Lycium barbarum can help us to keep the balance
of Yin/Yang in our body to fight against any possible age-associated diseases.
There is a famous Chinese story related to Lycium barbarum. One day a young
man was walking in a village. On his way, he found two people arguing with each
other in a narrow lane. He went to see what had happened and found a relatively
young and strong man with black hair arguing with a weak elder with grey hair. It
looked like the elder had been blamed for something. In Chinese culture, we all
have great respect for the elderly. This was why this young man did not feel quite
right and thought that the man with black hair was not paying respect to his senior.
He asked this weak elder with grey hair whether the black-haired man had done him
some injustice. The grey-haired man then pointed to the strong black-haired man,
saying, ‘he is my big brother’. The strong black-haired big brother said that his little
brother did not listen to him and take Lycium barbarum. This was why his little
brother looked old and weak.
From this story, we have insight into the beneficial effects of Lycium barbarum.
In this book, we have carefully arranged the content from the plant, the chemical
components and the effects on different organs/biological systems as well as its
potential harmful effects. Authors in every chapter used different scientific methods
to prove the effects of Lycium barbarum. We are not just showing the benefits of Ly-
cium barbarum. Some people may be allergic to Lycium barbarum. This book is the
first book about Lycium barbarum written in English. As more people are searching
for health food supplements and there are many so-called ‘secrete formulations of
herbs and health food supplements’, we should look for some reliable health food
with solid scientific evidence and be cautious of any possible deleterious effects.
We hope that this book gives us a comprehensive understanding of the pros and
cons of this anti-aging Lycium barbarum.
Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
Kwok-Fai SO
1 Chemical and Genetic Diversity of Wolfberry ........................................ 1
Ying Wang, Hao Chen, Min Wu, Shaohua Zeng, Yongliang Liu
and Jingzhou Dong
2 Immunoregulation and Lycium Barbarum............................................... 27
Xiaorui Zhang, Wenxia Zhou and Yongxiang Zhang
3 The Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiapoptotic
Effects of Wolfberry in Fatty Liver Disease ............................................ 45
Jia Xiao and George L. Tipoe
4 Effects of Lycium barbarum on Modulation of Blood Vessel
and Hemodynamics .................................................................................... 65
Xue-Song Mi, Ruo-Jing Huang, Yong Ding, Raymond Chuen-Chung
Chang and Kwok-Fai So
5 Dermatologic Uses and Effects of Lycium Barbarum .............................. 79
Hui Zhao and Krzysztof Bojanowski
6 Lycium Barbarum and Tumors in the Gastrointestinal Tract ................ 85
Peifei Li, Bingxiu Xiao, Huilin Chen and Junming Guo
7 Prevention of Neurodegeneration for Alzheimer’s Disease by
Lycium barbarum ........................................................................................ 99
Yuen-Shan Ho, Xiao-ang Li, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung and Raymond
Chuen-Chung Chang
8 Prosexual Effects of Lycium Barbarum .................................................... 113
Benson Wui-Man Lau, Mason Chin-Pang Leung, Kai-Ting Po,
Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So
9 Lycium Barbarum: Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke ............ 125
Amy CY Lo and Di Yang
10 Secondary Degeneration After Partial Optic Nerve Injury
and Possible Neuroprotective Effects of Lycium Barbarum
(Wolfberry) ............................................................................................... 135
Hong-Ying Li, Henry HL Chan, Patrick HW Chu,
Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So
11 Role of Lycium Barbarum Extracts in Retinal Diseases ........................ 153
María Benlloch, María Muriach, Gloria Castellano, Francisco Javier
Sancho-Pelluz, Emilio González-García, Miguel Flores-Bellver
and Francisco J. Romero
12 Allergenic Sensitisation Mediated by Wolfberry................................... 179
Jerónimo Carnés, Carlos H. de Larramendi, María Angeles
López-Matas, Angel Ferrer and Julio Huertas
viii Contents
Chapter 5
Dermatologic Uses and Effects
of Lycium Barbarum
Hui Zhao and Krzysztof Bojanowski
K. Bojanowski () · H. Zhao
Sunny BioDiscovery, Inc., 972 E. Main St., Santa Paula, CA 93060, USA
Abstract Lycium barbarum (LB) is one of the most intriguing medicinal plants
in China. The beauty of its berries combined with the amount of beneficial effects
assigned to it would logically make it a strong candidate for skin use, yet rela-
tively few scientific publications address such application. Here, we will review the
skin-related effects of oral and topical preparations of LB, based on the published
scientific literature and work done in our own laboratory. We will also discuss the
obstacles and opportunities for LB in today’s dermatological field.
Keywords Wounds · Skin · Aging · Tightening · Wrinkles · Peptidoglycans
5.1 Skin Care
Skin is our largest and most conspicuous organ. It is also the only one, that humans
constantly expose to treatments not only to preserve its health, but also its beauty.
Historically, these treatments have been botanical in nature. In this respect, our
integumentary system is also unique—no other organ in the human body has been
target of so many botanical treatment modalities. Hundreds of plant extract com-
binations have been designed and applied to skin with expectations ranging from
the promise of eternal beauty to the cure of syphilis, leper, cancer, and other deadly
diseases. The purpose of the vast majority of these preparations is, however, some-
how more prosaic—to remedy various forms of inflammatory conditions (eczema,
psoriasis…) or to limit water loss by improving the barrier function of the skin.
Lycium barbarum (LB) is well positioned to provide both functionalities. With
respect to inflammation, it has been found in our and other laboratories that its fruits
(Wang et al. 2002; Chung et al. 2014), leaves (Dong et al. 2009), and bark (Zhang
et al. 2013) contain antioxidant components, which provide anti-inflammatory ac-
tivity, at least partially through the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling (Conner and
Grisham 1996; Oh et al. 2012). Animal studies linked this antioxidant activity to
a general senescence-inhibitory effect (as measured by a panel of oxidative stress
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015
R. C-C. Chang, K-F. So (eds.), Lycium Barbarum and Human Health,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9658-3_5
80 H. Zhao and K. Bojanowski
parameters, motor skills, cognition, and nonenzymatic glycation level), bearing fur-
ther relevance to the antiaging skin care application (Deng et al. 2003; Li et al.
2007; Yi et al. 2013), in agreement with the free-radical theory of aging (Harman
The predominant LB components with antioxidant activity are peptidoglycans
(also called LB polysaccharides, or LBP) (Qiu et al., 2014 and Zhang, 1993); vita-
min B, C, taurine, and carotenoids in fruits; while flavonoids, such as rutin prevail
in the leaves (Jin et al. 2013). The seeds of Fructus lycii also contain oils, which not
only have antioxidant activity, but may improve skin barrier and decrease transepi-
thelial water loss through their ability to interact with the lipid matrix of stratum
corneum, such as it is the case of other bioactive oils (Tollesson and Frithz 1993).
LB oils may also provide vehicle function facilitating the intracellular absorption
of other bioactive components, such as carotenoids (as evidenced by the orange-
yellow color). A factor limiting the use of LB oils in cosmetics is the high extraction
cost due to low content (unlike peptidoglycans, which represent up to 40 % of the
fresh fruit pulp).
Despite the theoretically high potential for beneficial activity, there are only few
peer-reviewed studies specifically describing cutaneous benefits of LB. One of them
reports that ingesting the aqueous extract (juice) of LB protects mice from UV-in-
duced damage, such as inflammatory oedema, immunosuppression, and sunburn re-
actions (Reeve et al. 2010). Here also the antioxidant mechanism of action appears
to be implicated, as quantified by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. This study
was tangentially corroborated by Wang and collaborators (2011), who reported that
pretreatment of human dermal fibroblasts with LBP prior to UVB irradiation saved
these cells from G1 growth arrest. Another report comes from our laboratory, where
LBP were applied topically on full thickness human skin explants with the result of
a selective metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition. When one of these peptidoglycans
(LBGp5) was applied on fibroblasts cultured in suboptimal conditions, it was found
to stimulate the production of type I collagen and to promote cell viability (Zhao
et al. 2005). Interestingly, LBGp5 is the peptidoglycan with the highest antioxidant
activity among the five major LBPs (Huang et al. 2001). This report indicates that
the peptidoglycan fraction of LB has a beneficial effect on human skin when ap-
plied topically and warrants the development of LBP-based skin care products.
And yet, the Lycium barbarum-containing skin care formulations supported by
clinical studies are rare. One reason may be the presence of immunostimulatory
components in LB, which may be beneficial for fighting cancer (Tang et al. 2012),
but not necessary in skin care. The authors are not aware of any reports of skin re-
actions to topically applied LB, although allergy to ingested LB has been reported
(Monzón Ballarín et al. 2011; Larramendi et al. 2012) in individuals sensitive to
multiple food allergens, including tomato (there was cross-reactivity between lipid
transfer proteins of LB and tomato, which both belong to the same family—Sola-
nacea). Hence the importance of a careful, bioactivity-guided LB fractionation for
skin care applications.
Another reason for low skin care use of LB may be its regulatory status in some
countries, such as China and Japan, where this herb tends to be perceived as a
therapeutic modality and thus is not registered as a cosmetic ingredient. Because it
5 Dermatologic Uses and Effects of Lycium Barbarum
indeed has multiple therapeutic activities, one can say that LB is there a victim of its
own success. However, given its widespread dietary and even culinary use, regula-
tory restrictions specifically aimed at skin care formulations are nevertheless dis-
concerting. Furthermore, they cannot be substantiated by genotoxic concerns, since
LB was demonstrated to be genoprotective rather than genotoxic, using mitomycin
C-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in lymphocytes and Ames methods.
Same study claimed that SCE in elderly (60 and over) patients ingesting LB poly-
saccharides was significantly ( p < 0.001) lower than in the same age control group
and became comparable with the SCE rate in young adults (Hong 1995).
In the US, where the topical use of LB is not restricted, two companies—Re-
sources of Nature (RON) and Grant Industries—appear to be leaders in LB ingre-
dient formulations. The clinically tested DC InstaliftTM Goji (RON, Fig. 5.1) and
Invisaskin GMTM (Grant Industries), which intelligently combine the physioco-
chemical and biological properties of LB peptidoglycans, have over 10 years (as of
2014) of history and underlie many finished skin care products with LB component.
5.2 Wound Healing
Given the above-mentioned beneficial effects of LB on human skin, we searched
and failed to locate any publications pertaining to the effect—whether positive or
negative—of this medicinal plant on wound healing. Therefore, we conducted a
3-day study on a partial thickness wound model in FT (full thickness) skin sub-
stitutes (MatTek, Ashland, MA), where the epidermal layer is peeled off and the
underlying dermal layer is exposed. The histochemical Masson trichrome stain
at day 3 (Fig. 5.2) shows that compared to the untreated control, the LBP-treated
Fig. 5.1  a, b Smoothing
effect of 3 % Instalift™ Goji
solution applied to mature
facial skin (a: time 0; b: time
60 min). Note the transfor-
mation in b of the initially
well-visible ( yellow arrows)
wrinkles in a. c, d Micro-
scopic image of the tighten-
ing effect of same solution
spread on glass slide ( left of
the meniscus line pointed by
black arrow), indicating the
possible mechanism of action
in vivo (mag.: ×40, c: time 0;
d: time 60 min). (Reprinted
with permission from RON)
82 H. Zhao and K. Bojanowski
wounds present a more advanced stage of healing. The difference with controls
consists in fibroblasts (dark purple stain), which appear to migrate upward provid-
ing topical coverage of the wound, while increasing the collagen output (the blue
stain) to facilitate this migration (Sunny BioDiscovery, Inc. unpublished results).
This is in agreement with the other two reports of the stimulatory effect of LBP on
human dermal fibroblasts (Zhao et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2011) and with the general
understanding of the role of the directional migration of fibroblasts during wound
healing (Song et al. 2013). However, there is no straight path to LBP-based wound
dressings. This is because LB peptidoglycans were reported to potentiate the effect
of warfarin—a blood thinner, raising concerns about the adverse effects on blood
coagulation (Lam et al. 2001; Ge et al. 2014). Interestingly, both coagulants and an-
ticoagulants have been reported to stimulate wound healing (Carney et al. 1992; Fan
et al. 2014) and whether LB interferes with this process in the absence of warfarin,
as well as the utility of LB in wound dressings remain to be discovered.
LB is a versatile medicinal herb with many health benefits and a few, mostly benign
side effects (such as temporary nosebleed following overconsumption (> 1 g) of
LBP). The dermatologic activities of LB are poorly understood, in part because of
the lack of motivation due to the regulatory constrains in Asian countries tradition-
ally utilizing this plant. We hope that this chapter conveys the potential of LB in
skin and wound care, and encourages more preclinical and clinical explorations in
this direction.
Acknowledgments We would like to thank Stephanie Ma for her expert assistance in this project
and George Majewski for helpful discussions.
Fig. 5.2  Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on early-stage (day 3) wound heal-
ing in epidermis-stripped human skin substitutes (MatTek), as visualized by the trichrome stain
(mag. × 200). a Control (water); b LBP (500 μg/mL). Note more intense blue collagen stain and
more fibroblasts migrated upward to the wound bed in the LBP-treated tissue as compared with
the water control
5 Dermatologic Uses and Effects of Lycium Barbarum
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... In addition, the juice was able to protect against immunosuppression promoted by UV radiation. Zhao and Bojanowski (2015) described the dermatological uses of Lycium barbarum. These authors found that, although this fruit is a strong candidate for dermatological use, few publications report its use. ...
... These authors found that, although this fruit is a strong candidate for dermatological use, few publications report its use. Some previously reported effects include antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities (Zhao, Bojanowski, 2015). However, no publications exist in the literature about a nanostructured system containing this extract. ...
Full-text available
Based on previous studies, it has been found that goji berry (GB), popularly known as a ‘miracle fruit’, has excellent antioxidant potential and can be used in the treatment of skin disorders associated with ageing. This study aimed to incorporate GB into a structured cosmetic in order to optimise its penetration. Stability studies of the formulation, determination of the antioxidant activity of the extract and of the formulation, rheological measurements, SAXS, polarised light microscopy and bioadhesion analyses were performed. The results indicated the antioxidant activity of the extract, which can be incorporated into an emulsified cosmetic formulation. The emulsified formulation containing the extract remained stable, even after being submitted to thermal and luminous stresses for 30 days. In addition, rheological tests revealed that the addition of the GB soft extract reduced the viscosity of the formulation, increasing thixotropy and deformation. These systems were characterised by SAXS as a lamellar phase, which was confirmed by polarised light microscopy. These highly organised structures indicate their excellent stability. In vitro bioadhesion experiments revealed that these formulations exhibited skin adhesion strength statistically similar to commercial anti-ageing formulation. These results suggest that this formulation has excellent potential to be used as a topical treatment for ageing.
... Plant substances can also have a beneficial effect on wound healing. Several experiments have demonstrated the stimulating effect of LBP on human skin fibroblasts and the role of directional fibroblast migration during wound healing has been explained (Wang et al., 2011;Song et al., 2013;Zhao and Bojanowski, 2015). These experiences justify the advisability of developing the production of cosmetics based on LBP. ...
Full-text available
Goji (Lycium L.) fruit has been an important element of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In Asian countries, they are used as an essential component of a healthy diet, a source of many nutrients. Due to their health-promoting properties and chemical composition (phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, coumarins, tannins, carotenoids, anthocyanins), they deserved the term superfruit. In recent years, goji berries have also become very popular in Europe and America. The fruit is used primarily after drying and is available in the form of various supplements. Two species of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. are cultivated on a larger scale. These species are closely related to each other. They differ slightly in morphological features. L. chinense leaves are longer and wider than L. barbarum. L. chinense fruits are slightly smaller and more elongated. There are several less specific species and botanical varieties in natural sites in central and western China, such as L. barbarum var. aurantiocarpum, L. chinense var. potaninii, L. ruthenicum, L. truncatum. Not only fruits contain biologically active substances, but also other parts of plants, especially leaves. This review highlights the healing properties of the fruits and leaves of these species. The most valuable and most interesting component of goji berries is the water-soluble bioactive polysaccharide complex LBP (Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides) playing an important therapeutic role. The LBP complex has a beneficial effect on the functions of the immune system, inhibits the growth of cancer cells, has antioxidant properties, improves the function of the digestive tract, well-being and sleep quality. Due to the presence of LBP, goji fruit extracts have a hypoglycemic effect, lowering the content of lipids in the blood serum. The diversity of their use as food, medicinal and cosmetic agents was shown.
Several studies have shown that the consumption of goji berries, which belong to the Lycium genus, can reduce the risk of developing carcinogenic, neurodegenerative, ocular, nephrological and liver diseases. This fruit’s functional characteristics have attracted the attention of researchers and industries from different areas. In this review, we present a critical and detailed analysis of the studies published for the last five years that are related to the techniques of geographic characterisation, biological activities in vitro and in vivo, processing methods and technological applications of goji berry. The studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds of goji berry and their beneficial effects on the human organism are important for geographical classification, processing methods and particularly the development of new products for specific purposes. The current study will allow researchers to investigate new benefits of goji fruits and hence develop innovative products in different industrial segments.
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Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.
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New foods are frequently introduced in Western diets for their healthy properties; however, they may produce adverse effects. After attending a patient who experienced an allergic reaction to Goji berries, we evaluated the allergenic potential of this food in plant food-allergic individuals, a group that is considered to be at high risk of experiencing a reaction. We recruited 30 additional plant food-allergic individuals in Spain during 3 months in 2010. Four patients reported symptoms on intake, 6 tolerated the berries, and 20 had never tried Goji berries. Patients underwent skin prick tests with Goji berries, as well as with peach peel and plant food panallergens as markers of cross-reactivity between unrelated foods. We carried out in vitro tests in symptomatic patients. Skin tests to Goji berries were positive in 24 patients (77%): 5 symptomatic patients and 19 asymptomatic patients. Positivity to Goji berries was associated with positivity to peach peel and to the panallergen nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP). Nearly half of the patients reported symptoms (45%), but 89% of the skin test-positive patients had never eaten Goji berries. We detected specific immunoglobulin E to Goji berries in all cases, and several individuals recognized 2 protein bands in the immunoblot. Addition of LTP to sera mostly inhibited immunoglobulin E binding to an LTP-like band, suggesting a role for this panallergen in sensitization to Goji berries. Our results demonstrate the allergenic potential of Goji berries in high-risk individuals, which is probably due to cross-reactivity with LTP from other foods. The risks of Goji berries should be taken into consideration in individuals with food allergy, especially those who are allergic to LTP.
Research purposes: 75 kg/m rail with new profile (75N rail) is designed for adverse match the wheel-rail of the early stages of rail use in Datong-Qinhuangdao railway heavy line. The contact state and the geometry relation are compared and analyzed by simulation before and after optimization of 75 kg/m rail, 75N rail is tested in Datong-Qinhuangdao railway heavy line.
Tissue engineering is aiming to build an artificial environment or biological scaffold material that imitates the living environment of cells in the body. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates were prepared by reacting carboxymethyl cellulose with (N(SO3Na)3) which was synthesized by sodium bisulfite and sodium nitrite in aqueous solution. The reaction conditions affected the degree of substitution (DS) were measured by the barium sulfate nephelometry method. And the anticoagulant activity of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates with different DS, concentration and molecular weights were investigated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). In addition, the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates on wound healing had been evaluated by the rate of wound healing and the histological examinations. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates improved its anticoagulant activity, and the wound dressings treated with carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates obviously promoted wound healing.
Four new compounds 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid 3-octadecanoyl-4-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl (2a→1b)-2a-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), 2,6,10-trimethyl-n-dodec-2-en-1-oyl-1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2f→1g)-2f-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (2), n-docos-9,12-dienoyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-α-d-glucopyranoside (3), β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-β-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-β-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-β-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-β-l-arabinopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (4) along with some know compounds, were isolated and identified from a methanol extract Lycium chinense fruits. Their structures were determined of the new compounds using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination by IR, FAB/MS and HR-FAB/MS. The compounds 1-4 were investigated for the antioxidant potential using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity and the results demonstrate that the compounds (2 and 3) has potential as a natural antioxidant whereas the compound (4) exhibited moderate activity and the compound (1) exhibited weak antioxidant activity.
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) was modified by HNO3–Na2SeO3 method according to L9(34) orthogonal design to obtain nine selenizing LBPs (sLBPs), sLBP1–sLBP9. Their antioxidant activities in vitro were compared by free radical-scavenging test. sLBP6, sLBP8 and sLBP9 presented stronger activity. In vivo test, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sLBP6, sLBP8 and sLBP9 taking LBP as control, and serum GSH-Px and SOD activities and MDA content were determined. The results showed that three sLBPs could significantly enhance GSH-Px and SOD activities and decrease MDA content. The actions of sLBPs were significantly stronger than that of unmodified LBP. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the antioxidant activities of LBP, sLBP6 possessed the best efficacy and could be exploited into an antioxidant. The optimal modification conditions were 400 mg of sodium selenite for 500 mg of LBP, reaction temperature of 70 °C and reaction time of 6 h.
The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.
Cells are inherently exposed to a number of different biophysical stimuli such as electric fields, shear stress, and tensile or compressive stress from the extracellular environment in vivo. Each of these biophysical cues can work simultaneously or independently to regulate cellular functions and tissue integrity in both physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, it is vital to understand the interaction of multiple stimuli on cells by decoupling and coupling the stimuli in simple combinations and by investigating cellular behaviors in response to these cues. Here, we report a novel microfluidic platform to apply the combinatorial stimulation of an electric field and fluid shear stress by controlling two directional cues independently. An integrated microfluidic platform was developed using soft lithography to monitor the cellular migration in real-time in response to an electric field and fluid shear stress in single, simultaneous, and sequential modes. When each of these stimulations is applied separately, normal human dermal fibroblasts migrate toward the anode and in the direction of fluid flow in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous stimulation with an electric field and shear stress, which mimics a wound in vivo, enhances the directional migration of fibroblasts by increasing both directedness and trajectory speed, suggesting the plausible scenario of cooperation between two physical cues to promote wound healing. When an electric field and shear stress are applied sequentially, migration behavior is affected by the applied stimulation as well as pre-existing stimulating conditions. This microfluidic platform can be utilized to understand other microenvironments such as embryogenesis, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.
Seven new neolignanamides (1-7), including two pairs of cis- and trans-isomers, and a new lignanamide (8) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an EtOH extract of the root bark of Lycium chinense, together with 22 known phenolic compounds (9-30), four of which were obtained from the genus Lycium for the first time. Compounds 5, 6, and 7 are unusual dimers having a rare connection mode between the two cinnamic acid amide units, while compounds 6, 7, and 8 are the first naturally occurring dimers derived from two dissimilar cinnamic acid amides. The cinnamic acid amides, neolignanamides, and lignanamides possess moderate radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and superoxide radicals.
Recently, isolation and investigation of novel ingredients with biological activities and health benefit effects from natural resources have attracted a great deal of attention. The fruit of Lycium barbarum L., a well-known Chinese herbal medicine as well as valuable nourishing tonic, has been used historically as antipyretic, anti-inflammation and anti-senile agent for thousands of years. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that polysaccharide is one of the major ingredients responsible for those biological activities in L. barbarum. It has been demonstrated that L. barbarum polysaccharides had various important biological activities, such as antioxidant, immunomodulation, antitumor, neuroprotection, radioprotection, anti-diabetes, hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporosis, antifatigue, and so on. The purpose of the present review is to summarize previous and current references regarding biological activities as well as potential health benefits of L. barbarum polysaccharides.