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Abstract

The objective of this research was to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive lock-in. Cognitive lock-in describes a situation in which a consumer has learned how to use a website, based on repeated interactions with it, with the consequence that more experience reduces the probability to switch to a competitor's website. A major reason for the reduced switching probability is that interaction with an unfamiliar website typically implies high levels of cognitive load. Researchers conducted an experiment measuring cognitive load while consumers performed online purchasing tasks. Results show that participants visiting the same website multiple times have different cognitive load patterns than participants visiting different websites. The former group rapidly moved from controlled processing to automatic processing, which is metabolically less costly, leading to cognitive lock-in. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.

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... The repeated use of a brand of ICT products for a time period creates personal knowledge and use skills. This is the form of personalized "brand-specific training" [78]. When using the same brand of ICT brand products, consumers automatically and intuitively know and perform their tasks, which can bypass their working memory. ...
... As suggested by Sénécal, Fredette, Léger, Courtemanche, and Riedl [78], consumers develop cognitive lock-in when they can process information and perform tasks intuitively after certain practice. This lockin effect can be much strong when an individual has intensively used ICT products such as a smartphone and formed a strong sense of familiarity and personal preference. ...
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... Cognitive lock-in thus denotes a condition wherein a consumer has learned how to use a specific media environment, thanks to multiple interactions with it, with the effect that more familiarity decreases his propensity to search for and switch to competing media alternatives. Research has demonstrated these effects for websites [53,54], as well as for print media [43]. We believe this thinking may be applicable for a broad range of media environments and applying it to the content marketing context leads us to believe that if customers are already accustomed to use specific content offerings, they see no need to switch to a new content offering. ...
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... Transferring information and skills from one product to another can be sometimes difficult to achieve (Chen & Shen, 2015). Sénécal et al. (2015) recommended that customers establish intellectual entrench when they execute functions and accordingly process the information instinctively. When customers exhaustively use their smartphone, the entrenched effect can be multiplied as with continued use, customers tend to establish a sense of closeness and fondness for the product. ...
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Chapter
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... The effort/accuracy decision-making framework [12] could be useful to investigate the tradeoff between decision effort and accuracy users are willing to make in their professional context. As user behavior changes over time [7] [14], longitudinal studies of RA usage will also contribute to understanding how the user-RA relationship evolves in terms of perceptions and behaviors. ...
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... For instance, Aljukhadar et al. [14] used a self-reported measure of cognitive load to assess the influence of decision set size on consumers' cognitive load. However, only a few studies in consumer and information system research used implicit cognitive load measures (e.g., [15][16][17]). Because cognitive load may fluctuate rapidly during a decision-making task and that a decision maker may not be self-conscious of her cognitive load at all times, we used an implicit cognitive load measure. ...
Chapter
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... The index is computed independently on the four scalp sites and then averaged. Since its first publication, this index was used in numerous studies with different types of tasks, for example, in ergonomy (Freeman, Mikulka, Scerbo, & Scott, 2004;Mikulka et al., 2002), biofeedback (Cox et al., 1998), Human-Computer Interactions (Berka et al., 2004;Johnson et al., 2011), information systems (Léger, Davis, Cronan, & Perret, 2014), and e-commerce (Sénécal, Fredette, Léger, Courtemanche, & Riedl, 2015). ...
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... A large amount of neurophysiological data has already been collected. For example, data collected in this lab were used in [4][5][6][7][8][9]. We will use these various datasets, and more datasets recently collected or to be collected soon, to implement and compare the models already used and the new ones proposed in this research. ...
Conference Paper
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Chapter
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Chapter
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The emerging discipline of neuroeconomics employs methods originally used in brain research for investigating economic problems, and furthers the advance of integrating neuroscientific findings into the economic sciences. Neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience is a sub-area of neuroeconomics that addresses marketing relevant problems with methods and insights from brain research. With the help of advanced techniques of neurology, which are applied in the field of consumer neuroscience, a more direct view into the “black box” of the organism should be feasible. Consumer neuroscience, still in its infancy, should not be seen as a challenge to traditional consumer research, but constitutes a complementing advancement for further investigation of specific decision-making behavior. The key contribution of this paper is to suggest a distinct definition of consumer neuroscience as the scientific proceeding, and neuromarketing as the application of these findings within the scope of managerial practice. Furthermore, we aim to develop a foundational understanding of the field, moving away from the derisory assumption that consumer neuroscience is about locating the “buy button” in the brain. Against this background the goal of this paper is to present specific results of selected studies from this emerging discipline, classified according to traditional marketing-mix instruments such as product, price, communication, and distribution policies, as well as brand research. The paper is completed by an overview of the most prominent brain structures relevant for consumer neuroscience, and a discussion of possible implications of these insights for economic theory and practice. Copyright
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While there is a growing literature on investigating the Internet clickstream data collected for a single site, such datasets are inherently incomplete because they generally do not capture shopping behavior across multiple websites. A customer's visit patterns at one or more other sites may provide relevant information about the timing and frequency of his or her future visit patterns at the site of interest. We develop a stochastic timing model of cross-site visit behavior to understand how to leverage information from one site to help explain customer behavior at another. To this end, we incorporate two sources of association in browsing patterns: one for the observable outcomes (i.e., arrival times) of two timing processes and the other for the latent visit propensities across a set of competing sites. This proposed multivariate timing mixture model can be viewed as a generalization of the univariate exponential-gamma model. In our empirical analysis, we show that a failure to account for both sources of association not only leads to poor fit and forecasts, but also generates systematically biased parameter estimates. We highlight the model's ability to make accurate statements about the future behavior of the “zero class” (i.e., previous nonvisitors to a given site) using summary information (i.e., recency and frequency) from past visit patterns at a competing site.
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Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemas is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem-solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of means-ends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing capacity which is consequently unavailable for schema acquisition. A computational model and experimental evidence provide support for this contention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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In this paper we examine the role of skill acquisition in the development of interface loyalty from a human capital perspective. It has long been recognized that humans are able to improve task performance as a result of repeated experience with a particular task, and that this type of learning consistently adheres to the Power Law of Practice. However, less attention has been given to the impact that practice, and the acquisition of skill, have on a users' loyalty to a particular software interface. We review the notion of human capital, and discuss specific examples from research into online shopping, in an effort to better understand the role of learning in the development of interface loyalty.
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The integration of brain monitoring into the man-machine interface holds great promise for real-time assessment of operator status and intelligent allocation of tasks between machines and humans. This article presents an integrated hardware and software solution for acquisition and real-time analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to monitor indexes of alertness, cognition, and memory. Three experimental paradigms were evaluated in a total of 45 participants to identify EEG indexes associated with changes in cognitive workload: the Warship Commander Task (WCT), a simulated navy command and control environment that allowed workload levels to be systematically manipulated; a cognitive task with three levels of difficulty and consistent sensory inputs and motor outputs; and a multisession image learning and recognition memory test. Across tasks and participants, specific changes in the EEG were identified that were reliably associated with levels of cognitive workload. The EEG indexes were also shown to change as a function of training on the WCT and the learning and memory task. Future applications of the system to augment cognition in military and industrial environments are discussed.
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Several measurement scales have been designed by both practitioners and researchers to evaluate perceptions of electronic service Quality. This article tests three of the main academically developed scales: Sitequal (Yoo & Donthu, 2001), Webqual 4 (Barnes & Vidgen, 2003) and EtailQ (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2003) and compares them against the scale ensuing from our research: NetQual (Bressolles, 2006). Based on 204 evaluations of consumers that participated in a laboratory experiment involving two Canadian Web sites in travel and online insurance, NetQual best fits the data and offers the highest explanatory power. Then the impact of nature of task and success or failure to complete the task on the evaluation process of electronic service quality and attitude toward the site is examined and discussed on over 700 respondents that navigated on six different Web sites.
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Subtitled "An introduction to human ecology," this work attempts systematically to treat "least effort" (and its derivatives) as the principle underlying a multiplicity of individual and collective behaviors, variously but regularly distributed. The general orientation is quantitative, and the principle is widely interpreted and applied. After a brief elaboration of principles and a brief summary of pertinent studies (mostly in psychology), Part One (Language and the structure of the personality) develops 8 chapters on its theme, ranging from regularities within language per se to material on individual psychology. Part Two (Human relations: a case of intraspecies balance) contains chapters on "The economy of geography," "Intranational and international cooperation and conflict," "The distribution of economic power and social status," and "Prestige values and cultural vogues"—all developed in terms of the central theme. 20 pages of references with some annotation, keyed to the index. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article examines how dynamic changes in information cost structure and time preferences affect consumers' search and switching behavior over time and lead to lock-in. The information cost structure is conceptualized as a trade-off of initial setup costs and ongoing usage costs. Lock-in is defined as consumers' decreased propensity to search and switch after an initial investment, which is determined both by a preference to minimize immediate costs and by an inability to anticipate the impact of future switching costs. The results of three experiments support the proposed mechanism. Experiment 1 shows that a small initial investment is sufficient to produce lock-in. Experiment 2 shows that the results of a prior investment on lock-in are not due to psychological commitment but to a shift in relative costs of incumbent and new options. Experiment 3 shows that respondents fail to anticipate how their prior investment will lock them in. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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The application of heart rate and respiratory measures to the human factors of flight is discussed. The concept of pilot workload is related to the concept of arousal and distinguished from physical workload. Finds from studies of pilot workload using heart rate measures are reviewed for flight, simulated flight and related real-life challenges. Measurement techniques and transducers are discussed from the perspective of field measurement. Recommended procedures are presented as are directions for future work.
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Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate (GMR) quantified with positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was measured twice in 8 young men performing a complex visuospatial/motor task (the computer game Tetris), before and after practice. After 4-8 weeks of daily practice on Tetris, GMR in cortical surface regions decreased despite a more than 7-fold increase in performance. Subjects who improved their Tetris performance the most after practice showed the largest glucose metabolic decreases after practice in several areas. These results suggest that learning may result in decreased use of extraneous or inefficient brain areas. Changes in regional subcortical glucose metabolic rate with practice may reflect changes in cognitive strategy that are a part of the learning process.
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A biocybernetic system has been developed as a method to evaluate automated flight deck concepts for compatibility with human capabilities. A biocybernetic loop is formed by adjusting the mode of operation of a task set (e.g., manual/automated mix) based on electroencephalographic (EEG) signals reflecting an operator's engagement in the task set. A critical issue for the loop operation is the selection of features of the EEG to provide an index of engagement upon which to base decisions to adjust task mode. Subjects were run in the closed-loop feedback configuration under four candidate and three experimental control definitions of an engagement index. The temporal patterning of system mode switching was observed for both positive and negative feedback of the index. The indices were judged on the basis of their relative strength in exhibiting expected feedback control system phenomena (stable operation under negative feedback and unstable operation under positive feedback). Of the candidate indices evaluated in this study, an index constructed according to the formula, beta power/(alpha power + theta power), reflected task engagement best.
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The sensitivity of physiological measures to evaluate workload was investigated in a simulated flight task. Heart rate, blood pressure (from beat to beat), respiration and eye blinks were recorded in 14 subjects while they performed a complex task in a flight simulator. Workload was manipulated by introducing an additional task and by varying the task difficulty of segments of the flight scenarios. Heart rate and blood pressure were both affected by the different levels of task difficulty. Heart-rate variability was found to be confounded by respiration. Slow respiratory activity contributed considerably to heart rate variability, especially after periods of high workload (for example, after landing). The gain between blood-pressure and heart-rate variability (modulus) was sensitive to mental effort and was not influences by respiration. Eye blinks, in particular the duration, were specifically affected by the visual demands of the task and not by the workload in general. When subjects had to process visual information, the number and duration of blinks decreased.
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Evidence is presented that EEG oscillations in the alpha and theta band reflect cognitive and memory performance in particular. Good performance is related to two types of EEG phenomena (i) a tonic increase in alpha but a decrease in theta power, and (ii) a large phasic (event-related) decrease in alpha but increase in theta, depending on the type of memory demands. Because alpha frequency shows large interindividual differences which are related to age and memory performance, this double dissociation between alpha vs. theta and tonic vs. phasic changes can be observed only if fixed frequency bands are abandoned. It is suggested to adjust the frequency windows of alpha and theta for each subject by using individual alpha frequency as an anchor point. Based on this procedure, a consistent interpretation of a variety of findings is made possible. As an example, in a similar way as brain volume does, upper alpha power increases (but theta power decreases) from early childhood to adulthood, whereas the opposite holds true for the late part of the lifespan. Alpha power is lowered and theta power enhanced in subjects with a variety of different neurological disorders. Furthermore, after sustained wakefulness and during the transition from waking to sleeping when the ability to respond to external stimuli ceases, upper alpha power decreases, whereas theta increases. Event-related changes indicate that the extent of upper alpha desynchronization is positively correlated with (semantic) long-term memory performance, whereas theta synchronization is positively correlated with the ability to encode new information. The reviewed findings are interpreted on the basis of brain oscillations. It is suggested that the encoding of new information is reflected by theta oscillations in hippocampo-cortical feedback loops, whereas search and retrieval processes in (semantic) long-term memory are reflected by upper alpha oscillations in thalamo-cortical feedback loops.
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A system was evaluated for use in adaptive automation using two experiments with electroencephalogram (EEG) indices based on the beta, alpha, and theta bandwidths. Subjects performed a compensatory tracking task while their EEG was recorded and converted to one of three engagement indices: beta/(alpha + theta), beta/alpha, or 1/alpha. In experiment one, the tracking task was switched between manual and automatic modes depending on whether the subject's engagement index was increasing or decreasing under a positive or negative feedback condition. Subjects were run for three consecutive 16-min trials. In experiment two, the task was switched depending on whether the absolute level of the engagement index for the subject was above or below baseline levels. It was hypothesized that negative feedback would produce more switches between manual and automatic modes, and that the beta/(alpha + theta) index would be most effective. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Tracking performance was better under negative feedback in both experiments; also, the use of absolute levels of engagement in experiment two resulted in better performance. There were no systematic changes in these effects over three 16-min trials. The implications for the use of such systems for adaptive automation are discussed.
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Interest in the neural systems underlying social perception has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. However, gaps between behavioral literatures in social perception and neuroscience are still abundant. In this article, we apply the concept of dual-process models to neural systems in an effort to bridge the gap between many of these behavioral studies and neural systems underlying social perception. We describe and provide support for a neural division between reflexive and reflective systems. Reflexive systems correspond to automatic processes and include the amygdala, basal ganglia, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex. Reflective systems correspond to controlled processes and include lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe region. This framework is considered to be a working model rather than a finished product. Finally, the utility of this model and its application to other social cognitive domains such as Theory of Mind are discussed.
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Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested.
Emotional response in enterprise resource planning (ERP) system decision making
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