ArticlePDF Available

Chipped stone assemblage from the Early Neolithic site of Zadubravlje

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The paper presents the results of the lithic analysis of chipped stone artefacts from a Starčevo culture site at Zadubravlje. Blanks for tool production (flakes, blades and bladelets) were produced at the site itself, mostly on the surface, although pit 19 probably functioned as a working area. It was established that the blades were produced by indirect percussion. Predominant tools are pieces with partial retouch and those with one retouched edge. Geometric forms are also present, although in small percentage.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
5
Cijepani litički materijal s ranoneolitičkog nalazišta Zadubravlje
Chipped stone assemblage from the Early Neolithic site of Zadubravlje
IVOR KARAVANIĆ
Odsjek za arheologiju
Filozofski fakultet
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
I. Lučića 3
HR-10000 Zagreb
ikaravan@ffzg.hr
RAJNA ŠOŠIĆ KLINDŽIĆ
Odsjek za arheologiju
Filozofski fakultet
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
I. Lučića 3
HR-10000 Zagreb
rsosic@ffzg.hr
MAJA BUNČIĆ
Arheološki muzej Zagreb
Trg Nikole Šubića Zrinskog 19
HR-10000 Zagreb
mbuncic@amz.hr
DRAŽEN KURTANJEK
Geološki odsjek
Prirodoslovno-matematički fakultet
Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Horvatovac bb
HR-10000 Zagreb
drkurtan@inet.hr
Izvorni znanstveni rad
Prapovijesna arheologija
Original scienti c paper
Prehistoric archaeology
UDK/
UDC
903.01(497.5-37 Slavonski Brod)”6343”
Primljeno/
Received
: 31. 3. 2009.
Prihvaćeno/
Accepted
: 4. 12. 2009.
U radu se donose rezultati litičke analize cijepanih rukotvorina s lokaliteta starčevačke kulture Zadubravlje. Prozivodnja poluproizvoda za
izra du alat ki (od bojaka , sječ iva i pl očica) o dvija la se n a samo m lokal itetu, uglav nom na površi ni, pr emda j e jama 19 vjero jatno bila radni pros-
tor. Ustanovlj en je postupak neizravnog odbijanja sječiva. Među alatkama prevladavaju komadići s djelomičnom obradom i oni s obrađ enim
jednim rubom, a u malom postotku prisutni su i geometrijski oblici.
Ključne riječi: litička analiza, rani neolitik, starčevačka kultura, Zadubravlje, Slavonija, Hrvatska
The paper presents the results of the lithic analysis of chipped stone artefacts from a Starčevo culture site at Zadubravlje. Blanks for tool pro-
duction ( akes, blades and bladelets) were produced at the site itself, mostly on the surface, alth ough pit 19 probably functioned as a working
area. It was established that the blades were produced by indirect percussion. Predominant tools are pieces with partial retouch and those with
one retouched edge. Geometric forms are also present, although in small percentage.
Key words: lithic analysis, Early Neolithic, Starčevo culture, Zadubravlje, Slavonia, Croatia
1. UVOD
Analiziranje litičkih nalaza nije važno i potrebno samo
za razumijevanje paleolitika i mezolitika, već i za kasnija
razdoblja, gdje se ti nalazi također pojavljuju. Premda po-
stoje mnogobrojne studije litičkog materijala iz razdoblja
neolitika u središnjoj Europi, kod nas je ta praksa još prilično
rijetka. Zadubravlje je jedno od važnih neolitičkih nalazišta
u Slavoniji, koje je dalo dosta litičkog materijala.
Pri rekognosciranju uz južnu trasu Autoceste Zagreb-Be-
1. INTRODUCTION
The analysis of lithic  nds is not only important and nec-
essary for understanding the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, but
also for later periods, when they also appear. Even though a
number of studies have focused on the lithic material from
the Neolithic of Central Europe, this still remains a relatively
rare practise in Croatia. Zadubravlje ranks among the most
important Neolithic sites in Slavonia, which yielded a lot of
lithic  nds.
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
6
ograd (dionica Slavonski Brod-Velika Kopanica) na zemljištu
“Dužine-Čaklovac“ kod Zadubravlja, godine 1988. otkrive-
no je naselje starčevačke kulture (Minichreiter 1993b, 39,
49). Zaštitno arheološko istraživanje provedeno je 1989. i
1990. godine, a istražena površina iznosila je 6200 m (Mi-
nichreiter 1992, 5). U ovom radu po prvi put donosimo re-
zultate preliminarne analize cijepanog litičkog materijala iz
Zadubravlja. Uza standardnu analizu lomljevine, odnosno
litičkih proizvoda i tipova alatki, načinjena je petrografska i
preliminarna spacijalna analiza pa je ovaj rad ujedno i prva
kvantitativna analiza cjelokupnoga cijepanoga litičkog ma-
terijala s jednoga ranoneolitičkog nalazišta u Hrvatskoj.
2. SMJEŠTAJ I ZNAČAJKE NALAZIŠTA
Slavonski Brod nalazi se u središnjem dijelu slavonske
Posavine, na mjestu gdje se Sava najviše približila južnim
izdancima Dilj-gore (sl. 1). Suženi prostor savske nizine kod
Broda ima značajke prirodnoga koridora. Brodskoj okolici
pripada i ugodan brdski kraj, šumovit predio diljskog pri-
gorja (Marković 1994, 11). Brodsko je Posavlje na sjeveru
omeđeno Dilj-gorom i njezinim južnim izdankom Brdom,
dok na južnoj strani to područje zatvaraju planine Motaji-
ca, Markovac i Vučjak (Rubić 1953, 6). Glavni morfološki dio
brodskog Posavlja je aluvijalna ravnica kroz koju je Sava sa
svojim pritocima često mijenjala tok i korito (Rubić 1953, 7).
Već od najranijeg neolitika na ovom prostoru smještaju se
brojna naselja. Tada su već male visinske razlike značile pu-
no pri odabiru pogodnog položaja za smještaj naselja. Ipak,
svojim današnjim tokom Sava se nalazi desetak kilometa-
ra južnije od starčevačkog naselja kod Zadubravlja, koje
je smjteno 17 km istočno od Slavonskog Broda. Položaj
Dužine nalazi se oko dva kilometra istočno od Zadubravlja,
na valovitom zemljištu uz lateralni kanal kojim je nekada te-
kao potok Brezna (Minichreiter 1990, 24; 1993a, 49).
Nositelji starčevačke kulture naselja su uspostavljali na
A 1988 survey along the southern route of the Zagreb-
Belgrade highway (the Slavonski Brod-Velika Kopanica
section) led to the discovery Starčevo culture settlement
(Minichreiter 1993b, 39, 49) at the ‘’Dužine-Čaklovac’’ plot
near Zadubravlje. Salvage archaeological excavations were
carried out in 1989 and 1990, covering a surface of 6200 m
(Minichreiter 1992, 5). We present here for the  rst time the
results of the preliminary lithic analysis of the chipped stone
material from Zadubravlje. In addition to the standard anal-
ysis of the assemblage, that is, debitage and tool types, we
carried out a petrographic and preliminary spatial analysis,
which renders this paper at the same time the  rst quanti-
tative analysis of the entire chipped lithic material from an
Early Neolithic site in Croatia.
2. THE POSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE SITE
Slavonski Brod is situated in the central part of the Sla-
vonian Posavina region, at the point where the Sava comes
closest to the southern spurs of the Dilj-Gora Mountain (Fig.
1). The Sava Plain in the area of Slavonski Brod is rather nar-
row and bears traits of a natural corridor. The pleasant hilly
wood-covered area of the hills of the Dilj-Gora Mountain
also lies in the vicinity of Slavonski Brod (Marković 1994:
11). The Posavina region around Slavonski Brod is bounded
on the north by the Dilj-Gora and its southern spur – Brdo,
while on the south this area is bounded by the Motajica,
Markovac and Vučjak Mountains (Rubić 1953, 6). The prin-
cipal morphological feature of the Brodsko Posavlje region
is the alluvial plain of the Sava river, which, together with
its tributaries frequently changed its course and bed (Rubić
1953, 7). Numerous settlements were formed in this area
from the earliest period of the Neolithic, when even small
di erences in the altitude meant a lot in the selection of a
suitable position to found a settlement. The present course
Sl. 1 Karta s položajem nalazišta
Fig. 1 Map with the marked position of the site
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
7
visokim terasama uz veće riječne tokove (Erdut, Vinkovci,
Sarvaš, Vukovar, Slavonski Brod), na niskim brežuljcima uz
dolinu s vodotocima (Bukovlje, Kneževi Vinogradi, Pepela-
ne, Podgorač) ili na blago povišenim terenima u ravnici uz
manji vodotok (Gornja Vrba, Lipovac, Vrpolje, Zadubravlje).
Naselja nikad nisu izolirana, odnosno daleko jedna od dru-
gih (Minichreiter 1992, 37).
Istočni dio istraženog dijela naselja u Zadubravlju sadr-
žavao je brojne rupe za manje kolce - vjerojatno se radilo o
nadzemnim objektima, veliko ognjište te nekoliko jama is-
punjenih pepelom. Prema središtu naselja smjestila se sku-
pina od nekoliko jama bogatih cijepanim kamenim izrađe-
vinama. Jama 19 bila je središnji radni prostor, i najveća od
spomenute tri jame, dok su manje bile smještene sjeverno
(jama 20) i istočno (jama 21) od nje. Kornelija Minichreiter
zbog velikog broja nalaza cijepanoga litičkog materijala, a
tek nekoliko ulomaka keramike, determinira objekt kao ra-
dionicu litičkih izrađevina (Minichreiter 1992, 31; 1993b, 97,
104). U središnjem dijelu naselja bile su smještene tri zemu-
nice s pomoćnim jamama i ograđenim prostorima te kružno
ograđen centralni prostor. Zemunica broj 6, najistočnija je u
tom središnjem dijelu, ali nalazila se u pravcu sjeverno od ja-
ma broj 19 i 20. Sjeveroistočni prostor zemunice sadržavao
je veću količinu kamenih izrađevina. Najveća zemunica (broj
10) ujedno je i zauzimala središnje mjesto u naselju. Isticala
se i bogatstvom nalaza – velike količine keramike, cijepanih
i glačanih kamenih izrađevina, žrvnjeva te životinjskih kosti-
ju. Zapadno od zemunice, u ograđenom prostoru nalazio se
još jedan radni prostor, na što upućuju brojni nalazi utega
i veći ulomci žrvnjeva (Minichreiter 1992, 31). Najsjevernija
od tri središnje zemunice (zemunica 9) sadržavala je čak če-
tiri peći – dvije cilindrične i dvije kalotaste. S vanjske strane
ograde koja se produžavala iz ove zemunice nalazio se bu-
nar (Minichreiter 1990, 24; 1992, 32; 1993b, 97).
U zapadnom dijelu naselja nalazili su se objekti potrebni
za proces izrade keramike. Riječ je o jamama za vađenje gli-
ne te nekoliko peći (Minichreiter 1992, 35; 1993b, 97).
Istraženi objekti pokazuju sve značajke dobro organizi-
ranog naselja s izdvojenim, namjenskim prostorima za izra-
du keramičkog posuđa i kamenih alatki, za tkanje, pripremu
hrane i ostalo (Minichreiter 1992, 2001).
Rezultati radiokarbonske analize pokazali su vremenski
raspon objekata iz naselja kod Zadubravlja od 6610 do 5300
cal. BC (Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić 2006, 13). Rezultati dati-
ranja su kalibrirani korištenjem OxCal programa za kalibraci-
ju (Krajcar-Bronić, Minichreiter, Obelić, Horvatinčić, 2004, 8).
Datirani su uzorci ugljena iz pet objekata (bunar, jama 6, jama
9, jama 10, jama 12). Prema rezultatima datiranja, objekt 11
je najstariji (Z-2924, 7620±140 BP, 6610-6340 cal BC, 57,2%;),
te značajnije odstupa od ostalih datiranih uzoraka (Krajcar-
Bronić, Minichreiter, Obelić, Horvatinčić, 2004). S obzirom
na činjenicu da je dobiveni rezultat nekoliko stoljeća stariji
od najranijeg neolitika u Podunavlju te da potječe iz bunara,
ne smije se zanemariti mogućnost pogreške kao i moguća
velika starost drveta, čiji je uzorak datiran (Boucquet-Appel,
Naji, Vander Linden, Kozłowski 2009, 808). Bunar bi možda
mogao pripadati nekome drugom naselju, s obzirom na
svoj položaj u istraženom prostoru (Minichreiter, Krajcar-
Bronić 2006). Svi su ostali rezultati u rasponu 5930-5040
cal BC: jama 6; Z-2921, 6710±115, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%);
jama 9; Z-2922 6705±95 BP, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); jama
10; Z-2923, 6995±115 BP, cal BC 5930-5740 (55,5%); i jama 12;
Z-2925, 6260±130 BP, cal BC 5370-5040 (68,2%). Jame 6, 9
i 10 detaljnije su obrađene u ovome radu zbog ve kon-
centracije litičkih rukotvorina, a rezultati datiranja tih jama
of the Sava runs around ten kilometres south of the Starčevo
settlement at Zadubravlje, situated 17 km east of Slavonski
Brod. The Dužine site lies around two kilometres east of
Zadubravlje, at an undulating terrain next to a lateral canal
that was once the bed of the Brezna stream (Minichreiter
1990, 24; 1993a, 49).
The bearers of the Starčevo culture established their
settlements on elevated terraces along major rivers (Er-
dut, Vinkovci, Sarvaš, Vukovar, Slavonski Brod), on low hills
bordering a plain with watercourses (Bukovlje, Kneževi
Vinogradi, Pepelane, Podgorač) or on gently elevated ter-
rains in the plain adjacent to a minor watercourse (Gornja
Vrba, Lipovac, Vrpolje, Zadubravlje). The settlements were
never isolated, that is, standing far from each other (Mini-
chreiter 1992, 37).
The eastern part of the investigated portion of the set-
tlement at Zadubravlje contained numerous smaller holes,
probably post holes for above-ground structures, a large
hearth and several pits  lled with ash. A cluster of several
pits with rich assemblages of stone artefacts occupied an
area near the centre of the settlement. Pit 19, the largest
of the three mentioned pits, was the central working area,
while the smaller pits lay north (pit 20) and east (pit 21) of
it. Due to the large quantity of chipped lithic  nds and only
few ceramic fragments, Kornelija Minichreiter interpreted
the structure as a workshop for lithic artefacts (Minichreiter
1992, 31; 1993b, 97, 104). An area delimited by a circular fence
serving as the central zone, together with three pit-houses
with accessory pits and fenced areas, occupied the centre of
the settlement. Pit-house 6 was the easternmost structure
in that central part, but it lay north of pits 19 and 20. The
northeastern zone of the pit-house yielded a large quan-
tity of stone artefacts. The largest pit-house (no. 10) at the
same time occupied the central position in the settlement.
It stood out also by the wealth of the  nds – large quantities
of ceramics, chipped and polished stone artefacts, grind-
stones and animal bones. Numerous  nds of weights and
large fragments of grindstones point to the existence of an-
other working area in the fenced zone west of the pit-house
(Minichreiter 1992, 31). The northernmost of the three cen-
tral pit-houses (pit-house 9) contained as much as four ov-
ens – two circular ones and two dome-shaped ones. At the
outer side of the fence that led from this pit-house there
was a well (Minichreiter 1990, 24; 1992, 32; 1993b, 97).
The western part of the settlement housed features that
had a role in the production of ceramics, such as clay-ex-
traction pits and several kilns (Minichreiter 1992, 35; 1993b,
97).
The investigated structures and features exhibit traits of
a well-organized settlement with areas designated for the
production of ceramic vessels and stone tools, weaving,
food preparation and other activities (Minichreiter 1992,
2001).
The results of radiocarbon analysis revealed that the
time span of the structures in the settlement at Zadubravlje
was between 6610 and 5300 cal. BC (Minichreiter, Krajcar-
Bronić 2006, 13). The results were calibrated using the OxCal
calibration program (Krajcar-Bronić, Minichreiter, Obelić,
Horvatinčić, 2004, 8). Charcoal samples from  ve features
were dated (the well, pit 6, pit 9, pit 10, pit 12). The dating re-
sults show that feature 11 was the earliest (Z-2924, 7620±140
BP, 6610-6340 cal BC, 57,2%;), and that it was considerably
older than the other dated samples (Krajcar-Bronić, Mini-
chreiter, Obelić, Horvatinčić, 2004). In view of the fact that
the obtained result predates the earliest Neolithic in the
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
8
su u rasponu 5930-5530 cal BC (Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić
2004), što predstavlja “srednje vrijednosti” u dosta velikom
vremenskom rasponu, dobivenom apsolutnim datiranjem
uzoraka iz Zadubravlja.
Iako K. Minichreiter (Minichreiter 1992) svrstava lokalitet
u ranu pretklasičnu fazu starčevačke kulture, prema rezul-
tatima apsolutnog datiranja obuhvaćeno je gotovo čitavo
vrijeme trajanja starčevačke kulture (vidjeti Krajcar-Bronić,
Minichreiter, Obelić, Horvatinčić, 2004). Slična se situacija
ponavlja i na obližnjem lokalitetu Galovo. Spomenuti re-
zultati svakako ukazuju na problem relativne kronologije.
Rezultati novijih istraživanja također pokazuju određeni
stupanj diskrepancije između relativne kronologije prema
ukrasima na keramici te rezultata apsolutnog datiranja (Ba-
len i sur., u tisku), pa u ovom trenutku nije moguća sigurna
korelacija relativne i apsolutne kronologije.
U brodskom Posavlju još je nekoliko naselja atribuiranih
ovom stupnju, odnosno pretklasičnoj fazi starčevačke kul-
ture. To su: Igrač u Bukovlju, Marukićeva ulica u Slavonskom
Brodu te Glože u Starim Perkovcima (Minichreiter 1992, 35),
ali ona nisu apsolutno datirana.
3. LITIČKA ANALIZA
3. 1. Metode
Cjelokupni litički materijal je de niran prema 22
proizvodna tipa te nultom tipu (gomolj ili oblutak) koji nije
zastupljen, kao što je to učinjeno za cijepani litički materijal
Danubian Basin by several centuries, and that it comes from
a well, one should not neglect the possibility of an error as
well as the possible great antiquity of the wood that yield-
ed the sample for dating (Boucquet-Appel, Naji, Vander
Linden, Kozłowski 2009, 808). The well may have belonged
to another settlement, considering its position in the in-
vestigated area (Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić 2006). All the
other results show the time frame between 5930 and 5040
cal BC: pit 6; Z-2921, 6710±115, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%);
pit 9; Z-2922 6705±95 BP, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); pit 10;
Z-2923, 6995±115 BP, cal BC 5930-5740 (55,5%); and pit 12;
Z-2925, 6260±130 BP, cal BC 5370-5040 (68,2%). Pits 6, 9 and
10 were analysed separately in this paper due to the large
concentration of lithic artefacts, and the dating results for
these pits show a time frame between 5930 and 5530 cal BC
(Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić 2004), representing the ‘’mid-
dle values’’ in a fairly long time frame, obtained by absolute
dating of the samples from Zadubravlje.
Even though K. Minichreiter (Minichreiter 1992) attrib-
uted the site to the early pre-classical phase of the Starčevo
culture, the absolute dating results span the entire duration
of the Starčevo culture (see Krajcar-Bronić, Minichreiter,
Obelić, Horvatinčić, 2004). The neighbouring Galovo site
exhibits a similar situation. The mentioned results certainly
point to the problems with relative chronology. The results
of recent investigations likewise exhibit certain discrepan-
cies between the relative chronology based on decorative
patterns on ceramic vessels and the results of absolute dat-
0,00%
5,00%
10,00%
15,00%
20,00%
25,00%
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
ZADUBRAVLJE -PROIZVODNI T IPOVI
4276 KOM.
Sl. 2 Gra čki prikaz zastupljenosti proizvodnih tipova. 1 prvotni odbojak, 2 drugotni odbojak, 3 prvotno sječivo, 4 drugotno sječivo, 5
prvotna pločica, 6 drugotna pločica, 7 odbojak, 8 odbojčić, 9 sječivo, 10 pločica, 11 jezgra za odbojke, 12 jezgra za sječiva, 13 jez gra
za pločice, 14 miješana jezgra, 15 ulomci jezgara, 16 krijestasti odbojci, sječiva ili pločice, 17 dotjerujući obojci jezgre, 18 odbojci od
retuša, 19 krhotina s okorinom, 20 krhotina, 21 okrhak, 22 neodredivi ulomci
Fig. 2 Frequency chart of production types. 1 primary  ake, 2 secondary  ake, 3 primary blade, 4 secondary blade, 5 primary bladelet, 6 secon-
dary bladelet, 7  ake, 8 small  ake, 9 blade, 10 bladelet, 11  ake core, 12 blade core, 13 bladelet core, 14 mixed core, 15 core fragments,
16 crested  akes, blades or bladelets, 17 platform rejuvenation  akes, 18 retouching  akes, 19 chunk with cortex, 20 chunk, 21 chip, 22
indeterminate pieces
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
9
s nalazišta Slavča kod Nove Gradiške, uz modi kaciju izvor-
ne liste tehnoloških tipova dodavanjem kategorije krhotina
s okorinom (T. 1), za detaljno objašnjenje pojedinih tipova
vidjeti Šošić, Karavanić (2004, 23-25). Tipovi su navedeni re-
dom koji obuhvaća četiri faze: nulta faza (tip 0) – sabiranje
i testiranje sirovine; prva faza (tipovi od 1 do 6) – prethod-
na obrada, odnosno skidanje okorine i oblikovanje sirovine
u jezgre za izradu različitih proizvoda (odbojaka, sječiva,
pločica); druga faza (tipovi od 7 do 17) – središnja proizvod-
na faza, odbijanje odbojaka i/ili sječiva, pločica; treća faza
(tip 18) – završno oblikovanje alatki, postizanje dodatne
obradbe i oblika. Međutim, ukoliko je jezgra bila pripravlje-
na za odbijanje na takav način da je određena količina oko-
rine ostala na njoj, dio drugotnih odbojaka može pripadati
drugoj, a ne prvoj fazi proizvodnog procesa. Tipovi 19, 20,
21 i 22 mogu biti dio bilo koje faze. Oni označavaju slučajno
i neplanski odbijene, tj. otkrhnute komade, zatim komade
raspucale prirodnim putem kao i ulomke koji se ne mogu
svrstati u određeni tip zbog fragmentiranosti. Za pojedi-
ni tip uzimani su u obzir cjeloviti komadi i svi fragmenti, a
budući da mnoštvo nalaza čine ulomci, a ne cjelovite ruko-
tvorine, nekadašnji stvarni broj rukotvorina zasigurno do-
nekle odudara od ukupno izraženog broja litičkih nalaza.
Treba napomenuti da prilikom iskopavanja nije provođeno
pro sijavanje pa zbo g toga brojn ost nekih kateg orija , kao što
su odbojci od obrade i alatke malih dimenzija (geometrijski
oblici), valja uzeti s rezervom.
Na osnovi učestalosti alatki određena je osnovna ti-
ing (Balen et al., in press), which renders the correlation of
relative and absolute chronologies insecure at present.
Several other settlements within the Brodsko Posav-
lje region have been attributed to this, pre-classical phase
of the Starčevo culture: Igrač in Bukovlje, the Marukićeva
Street in Slavonski Brod, and Glože in Stari Perkovci (Mini-
chreiter 1992, 35). However, none of these sites have been
dated by absolute methods.
3. LITHIC ANALYSIS
3. 1. Methods
The entire lithic material has been de ned according to
22 production types and the zero type (nodule or pebble),
which is not present here, on the model of the analysis of
the chipped lithic material from the Slavča site near Nova
Gradiška. The only modi cation to the original list of tech-
nological types consists in the addition of a new category
– chunks with cortex (Pl. 1), for a detailed description of spe-
ci c types see Šošić, Karavanić (2004, 23-25). The types were
listed in a sequence encompassing four phases: the zero
phase (type 0) – collection and testing of the raw material;
the  rst phase (types 1 to 6) – preliminary processing, that
is, removal of the cortex and the shaping of the raw mate-
rial into cores for making various products ( akes, blades,
bladelets); the second phase (types 7 to 17) – central pro-
duction phase, removal of  akes and/or blades, bladelets;
third phase (type 18) –  nal shaping of tools and retouching.
However, in cases when a core prepared for  aking still pre-
served some cortex on the surface, a part of the secondary
ZADUBRAVLJE - PROIZVODNI TIPOVI / TECHNOLOGICAL TYPES
KOM/QUANTITY % TIP/CATEGORY
0 0 0,00% gomolj ili oblutak
1 309 7,23% prvotni odbojak/primary decortication  ake
2 693 16,21% drugotni odbojak/secondary decortication  ake
3 32 0,75% prvotno sječivo/primary decortication blade
4 102 2,39% drugotno sječivo/secondary decortication blade
5 17 0,40% prvotna pločica/primary decortication bladelet
6 54 1,26% drugotna pločica/secondary decortication bladelet
7 995 23,27% odbojak/ ake
8 465 10,87% odbojčić/small  ake
9 474 11,09% sječivo/blade
10 265 6,20% pločica/bladelet
11 47 1,10% jezgra za odbojke/ ake core
12 14 0,33% jezgra za sječiva/blade core
13 8 0,19% jezgra za pločice/bladelet core
14 23 0,54% kombinirana jezgra/mixed core
15 26 0,61% ulomci jezgara/core fragments
16 16 0,37% krijestasti odbojci, sječiva ili pločice/crested  akes, blades and bladelets
17 28 0,65% dotjerujući obojci jezgre/core rejuvenation  akes
18 71 1,66% odbojci od retuša/retouch  akes
19 195 4,56% krhotina s okorinom/corticated chunk
20 215 5,03% krhotina/chunk
21 70 1,64% okrhak/shatter
22 157 3,67% neodredivi ulomci/unidenti able fragments
4276 100% ukupno/total
Tab. 1 Zastupljenost proizvodnih tipova
Tab. 1 Frequency of production types
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
10
pologija (T. 2). Pritom komadić s djelomičnom obradom
znači alatku čija obrada ne prelazi 50% njezina ruba. Kod
komadića s obrađenim jednim ili dva ruba, obrada se mora
protezati na više od 50% ruba ili rubova. Nazivi ostalih tipo-
va su standardni.
Provedene su dvije mikroskopske analize uzoraka ar-
tefakata sa Zadubravlja, prva u Geološkom institutu u
Zagrebu, a druga u Minerološko-petrografskom zavodu
akes might belong to the second instead of the  rst phase
of the operational sequence. Types 19, 20, 21 and 22 can
belong to any phase. They mark pieces that were  aked or
chipped by accident and without a plan, pieces that broke
o due to natural causes as well as pieces too fragmented
to be attributed to a speci c type. All completely preserved
pieces and fragments were considered and attributed to a
corresponding type. However, due to the fact that the ma-
ZADUBRAVLJE - TIPOVI ALATKI / TYPOLOGY
TIP / TYPE KOMADA / QUANTITY %
1 komadić s djelomičnom obradom / partially retouched pieces 128 37,76%
2 komadić s obrađenim jednim rubom / piece with one retouched edge 98 28,91%
3 komadić s obrađena dva ruba / piece with two retouched edges 39 11,50%
4 grebalo / endscraper 5 1,47%
5 svrdlo / drill 3 0,88%
6 dubilo / burin 2 0,59%
7 geometrijski oblici / geometric microliths 7 2,06%
8 zarubak / truncation 21 6,19%
9 udubak / notch 14 4,13%
10 nazubak / denticulate 3 0,88%
11 razno / divers 19 5,60%
ukupno / total 339 100,00%
Tab. 2 Zastupljenost tipova alatki
Tab. 2 Frequency of tool types
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
ZADUBRAVLJE - postotak tipoloških kategorija
Sl. 3 Gra čki prikaz zastupljenosti tipoloških kategorija. 1. komadić s djelomičnom obradom, 2. komadić s obrađenim jednim rubom,
3. komadić s obradom na dva ruba, 4. grebalo, 5. svrdlo, 6. dubilo, 7. geometrijski oblici, 8. zarubak, 9. udubak, 10. nazubak, 11.
razno
Fig. 3 Frequ ency chart of tool types. 1 piece with partial retouch, 2 pi ece with one retouched edge, 3 piece with two retouched edges, 4 endscra-
per, 5 drill, 6 burin, 7 geometric forms, 8 truncated blade, 9 notch, 10 denticulate, 11 various
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
11
Prirodoslovno-matematičkog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagre-
bu, a na cjelokupnom materijalu je izvršena osnovna po-
djela sirovine na osnovi makroskopskih značajki, odnosno
boje i izgleda površine. Prema tim značajkama određeno
je 10 osnovnih kategorija, i “goreno”, “okorina” te “razno”.
Za određivanje boje kategorija korišten je Rock Color Chart,
Geological Society of America.
Kategorija 1 su rožnjaci crvene boje, s nijansama
mliječnobijele i žućkaste, koja se pojavljuje na nekim ko-
madima u tragovima, a na nekima zauzima i 50% površine
(boje po Rock-Color Chart 10 R 5/4 pale reddish brown i 10YR
6/2 pale yellowish brown). Kategoriju 2 čine rožnjaci pretežno
zelene boje (od svijetlo do tamnozelene), no pojavljuju se i
sive te smeđe varijacije, također od svjetlijih do tamnijih ni-
jansi (boje po Rock-Color Chart 5GY 2/1 greenish black, 5YR
4/1 brownish gray i 5GY 4/1 dark greenish grey). Površina je
uglavnom glatka i sjajna, no ima i mat površine. Kategorija 3
su rožnjaci također crvene boje, ali znatno tamnije nijanse,
bez primjesa drugih boja (boja po Rock-Color Chart 5YR 4/4
moderate brown). Kategorija 4 su rožnjaci žuto-smeđe boje,
glatke i sjajne strukture (boja po Rock-Color Chart 10YR6/6
dark yellowish orange). Kategorija 5 su raznobojni rožnjaci
zrnate strukture i sjajne površine (boja po Rock-Color Chart
5YR 7/2 grayish orange pink). Kategorija 6 je bijeli kvarc (boja
po Rock-Color Chart 5Y8/1 yellowish gray). Kategorija 7 su
rožnjaci tamnosive boje i mat strukture (boja po Rock-Color
jority of  nds were in a fragmented condition and not com-
plete, the original number of artefacts is surely di erent to
some extent from the total expressed number of lithic  nds.
It has to be mentioned that the sediment was not sieved
during the excavations, and therefore the numbers in cer-
tain categories, such as production  akes and small tools
(geometric forms), ought to be considered with caution.
The basic typology was determined based on the fre-
quency of tools (Pl. 2). The term ‘’partially retouched piece’’
refers to a tool retouched on less than 50% of its edge. Piec-
es with retouch on one or two edges must have more than
50% of its edge(s) retouched. For all other types we used
the standard designations.
Two macroscopic analyses of artefact samples from Za-
dubravlje were carried out, the  rst one at the Institute of
Geology in Zagreb, and the other at the Institute of Mineral-
ogy and Petrology of the Faculty of Science of the Universi-
ty in Zagreb. The raw material within the entire assemblage
was sorted based on macroscopic features, that is, colour
and surface appearance into 10 basic categories, and three
additional ones – ‘’burned’’, ‘’cortex’’ and ‘’various’’. The de-
termination of colours was carried out based on the Rock
Color Chart issued by the Geological Society of America.
Category 1 are red cherts, with milky white and yellow-
ish shades, which appear on several pieces in traces, while
on other they occupy up to 50% of the surface (colours by
the Rock-Color Chart 10 R 5/4 pale reddish brown and 10YR
6/2 pale yellowish brown). Category 2 comprises cherts that
are predominantly green (ranging from light to dark green),
but also those of grey and brown hues, likewise ranging
from lighter to darker shades (colours by Rock-Color Chart
5GY 2/1 greenish black, 5YR 4/1 brownish gray and 5GY 4/1
dark greenish grey). The surface is mostly smooth and shiny,
but occasionally also matt. Category 3 consists of cherts
that are also red, but of a far darker shade, without a tinge
of any other colour (Rock-Color Chart 5YR 4/4 moderate
brown). Category 4 are yellow-brown cherts of smooth and
shiny texture (Rock-Color Chart 10YR6/6 dark yellowish or-
ange). Category 5 comprises grainy cherts of a shiny surface
in various colours (Rock-Color Chart 5YR 7/2 grayish orange
pink). Category 6 is white quartz (Rock-Color Chart 5Y 8/1
yellowish gray). Category 7 are dark grey cherts of matt
texture (Rock-Color Chart N4 medium dark gray). Category
8 are matt-surface cherts in brown-orange shades (Rock-
Color Chart 5YR 5/6 light brown). Category 9 are yellowish
cherts of grainy texture and a matt surface (Rock-Color
Chart 10YR 5/4 moderate yellowish brown). Category 10 are
light grey cherts of a matt surface and shiny texture (Rock-
Color Chart N7 light gray). ‘’Burned’’ pieces are those that
due to burning lost the distinctive features that would have
allowed a precise attribution, ‘’cortex’’ refers to the pieces
that also cannot be sorted with any greater accuracy, while
‘’various’’ groups material di erent from all the mentioned
categories.
Data on the spatial distribution of lithic artefacts were
presented with regard to the amount of artefacts in the
main stratigraphic units (pits, houses).
3. 2. The results of the lithic analysis
3.2.1. Debitage
Because we are dealing with a single-layer site of the
Starčevo culture (Minichreiter 1992), the entire lithic mate-
rial of all the stratigraphic units was primarily treated as an
assemblage, and subsequently a part of the stratigraphic
units were analyzed separately. The site yielded a total of
4276 chipped lithic artefacts. Of those, 339 pieces or 7,92%
were tools. The most common  nds were  akes (23,27%),
A
B
Sl. 4 Mikrofotogra je uzoraka rožnjaka. A uzorak kategorije 2, B
uzorak kategorije 9
Fig. 4 Microphotographs of chert samples. A sample of categor y 2, B
sample of category 9
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
12
Sl. 5 Izdvojeni primjerci litičkog materijala: 1 miješana jezgra, 2 jezgra za odbojke, 3 miješana jezgra, 4 jezgra za sječiva, 5
jezgra za sječiva, 6 jezgra za sječiva, 7 miješana jezgra, 8 jezgra za pločice, 9 jezgra za sječiva. Mjerilo je u cm (Crtež:
Marta Perkić)
Fig. 5 Selected lithic artefacts: 1 mixed core, 2  ake core, 3 mixed core, 4 blade core, 5 blade core, 6 blade core, 7 mixed core, 8
bladelet core, 9 blade core. Scale in cm (Drawing: Marta Perkić)
1
6
7
8
5
4
3
2
9
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
13
Sl. 6 Izdvojeni primjerci litičkog materijala: 1 strelica, 2-8 trapezi, 9 grebalo, 10 svrdlo, 11 komadić s obradom, 12 i 16 zaru-
bak, 13 – 15 komadić s obradom, 17-23 komadić s obradom, 24 udubak. Mjerilo je u cm (Crtež: Marta Perkić)
Fig. 6 Selected lithic specimens: 1 arrowhead, 2-8 trapezes, 9 endscraper, 10 drill, 11 retouched piece, 12 and 16 truncated blade,
13-15 retouched piece 17-23 retouched piece, 24 notch. Scale in cm (Drawing: Marta Perkić)
1
678
5432
9
13
18 1917
161514
1210 11
21 23
2220 24
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
14
Sl. 7 Izdvojeni primjerci litičkog materijala: 1-4, 6 sječiva proizvedena tehnikom indirektnog odbijanja, 5, 7, 8 – komadić s
obradom, 9 krijestasto sječivo, 10 prebačeno sječivo, 11 jezgra za sječiva. Mjerilo je u cm (Crtež: Marta Perkić)
Fig. 7 Selected lithic artefact s: 1- 4, 6 blades made by indirect percussion, 5, 7, 8 re touched piece, 9 crested blade, 10 overshot blade,
11 blade core. Scale in cm (Drawing: Marta Perkić)
1
678
5
4
3
2
910
11
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
15
Chart N4 medium dark gray). Kategorija 8 su rožnjaci mat
površine, smeđe-narančastih nijansi (boja po Rock-Color
Chart 5YR 5/6 light brown). Kategorija 9 su žućkasti rožnjaci
zrnate strukture i mat površine (boja po Rock-Color Chart
10YR 5/4 moderate yellowish brown). Kategorija 10 su svijet-
losivi rožnjaci mat površine i sjajne strukture (boja po Rock-
Color Chart N7 light gray). “Goreno se odnosi na komade
koji su u procesu gorenja izgubili značajke prema kojima
se mogu preciznije razvrstati, “okorina” su primjerci koji se
također ne mogu točnije razvrstati, a “razno” je za materijal
različit od svih navedenih kategorija.
Podaci o prostornoj distribuciji litičkih rukotvorina izne-
seni su s obzirom na količinu rukotvorina u glavnim strati-
grafskim jedinicama (jame, kuće).
3. 2. Rezultati litičke analize
3.2.1. Lomljevina
Budući da se radi o jednoslojnom nalazištu starčevačke
kulture (Minichreiter 1992), cjelokupan je litički materijal
svih stratigrafskih jedinica ponajprije tretiran kao cjelina, a
kasnije je dio stratigrafskih jedinica analiziran zasebno. Na
lokalitetu je pronađeno ukupno 4276 cijepanih litičkih arte-
fakata. Od te količine, 339 komada odnosno 7,92% su alatke.
Najviše je odbojaka (23,27%), potom drugotnih odbojaka
(16,21%) te sječiva (11,09%) i odbojčića (10,87%), tj. odbojaka
koji su manji od 2 cm (T. 1; sl. 2). Ni jedna druga kategorija nije
zastupljena s više od 10%, ali ukupna zastupljenost krhotina
sa i bez okorine i okrhaka iznosi 11,23%. Zastupljene su sve
kategorije, osim nulte. To znači da je sva sirovina, prije ne-
go je donesen na nalazište, bila obrađivana ili su svi krupniji
komadi bili potpuno razbijeni na lokalitetu pa nisu prisutni
ostaci blokova, oblutaka ili nodula. Zastupljenost svih osta-
lih kategorija svjedoči o prisutnosti svih faza proizvodnje
na samom nalazištu. Okorinski materijal potvrđuje početnu
fazu proizvodnje a, premda rijetka, zastupljenost svih vrsta
jezgara te odbojaka, sječiva i pločica, upućuje na to da su
osim odbojaka na samom nalazištu proizvođena sječiva
i pločice (T. 1). Proizvodnja odbojaka vidno prevladava, a
sječiva je gotovo duplo više od svih kategorija pločica. Na
osnovi značajki sječiva (široki plohak), naglašen bulbus,
karakteristična zakrivljenost – (sl. 7, 1-8), dokazano je da je
barem dio njih proizveden postupkom neizravnog odbijan-
ja (usmeno priopćenje J. Pelegrina). Jezgara je ukupno 92
komada, odnosno 2,76%. Najviše ih je za odbojke (47 koma-
da, sl. 5, 2), a potom miješanih jezgara (23 komada, sl. 5, 1, 3,
7). Jezgara za sječiva (sl. 5, 6, 9, sl. 7, 11) ima 14, a za pločice
8 komada (sl. 5, 8). Dio jezgara za sječiva je stožastog oblika
(sl. 5, 9, sl. 7, 11), što je karakteristično za razdoblje ranog ne-
olitika. Mali broj jezgara u skupu nalaza nikako ne umanjuje
ostale dokaze o odvijanju svih faza proizvodnje na lokali-
tetu. Možda je postojao prostor u kojem su se pohranjivale
jezgre koje su još bile za upotrebu u dijelu nalazišta koji nije
istražen. Prisutnost krijestastih odbojaka i sječiva (sl. 7, 9) te
prebačenog sječiva koje je produkt pogreške u proizvodnji
(sl. 7, 10), pruža dodatni dokaz da se na samom lokalitetu
odvijala proizvodnja sječiva (T. 1, sl. 2). Zastupljenost ulo-
maka od obrade, koji svjedoče o završnoj fazi proizvodnje
– završnom oblikovanju alatke, niska je. Međutim, tu treba
uzeti u obzir da sediment nije prosijavan te se može pretpo-
staviti gubitak većeg broja tih vrlo sitnih proizvoda.
3.2.2. Tipologija
Od alatki (T. 2; sl. 3) najviše ima komadića s djelomičnom
obradom (128 komada, 37,76%), a potom slijede komadići s
obrađenim jednim rubom (98 komada, 28,91%) te komadići
s obrađena dva ruba (39 komada, 11,50%) (sl. 6, 11, 13-15,
followed by secondary  akes (16,21%), blades (11,09%) and
small  akes (10,87%), i.e. those smaller than 2 cm (Pl. 1; Fig.
2). None of the other categories were represented by more
than 10%, although the total percentage of chunks with and
without cortex, combined with chips, amounts to 11,23%. All
the categories with the exception of the zero category are
present. This means that all the raw material was processed
before it was taken to the site, or that all the more sizeable
pieces were completely broken on the site and therefore
no remains of blocks, pebbles or nodules were found. The
presence of all the other categories bears testimony to the
presence of all the production phases at the site itself. The
material with cortex con rms the initial production phase,
while the presence, albeit rare, of all core types as well as
akes, blades and bladelets, indicates that not only  akes
but also blades and bladelets were produced at the site it-
self (Pl. 1). The production of  akes evidently predominates,
while blades are almost twice as common as bladelets of all
categories. Based on the characteristics of the blades (wide
platform), prominent bulb, characteristic curvature – (Fig. 7,
1-8), it was ascertained that at least part of the blades were
produced by indirect percussion (personal communication
by J. Pelegrin). There is a total of 92 cores or 2,76%. The most
common are  ake cores (47 pieces), followed by mixed cores
(23 pieces, Fig. 5: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8). There are 14 blade cores (Fig.
5: 4, 5, 9; Fig. 7: 11), while 8 cores were used for bladelets
production (Fig. 5: 8). Part of the cores for blades were coni-
cal (Fig. 5: 9; Fig. 7: 11), a characteristic of the Early Neolithic.
The fact that there were few cores within the assemblage
lessens in no way whatsoever the other evidence suggest-
ing that all phases of production were carried out at the site.
Perhaps there was an area in the yet uninvestigated part of
the site where cores that were still usable were stored. The
presence of crested  akes and blades (Fig. 7: 9) and an over-
shot blade resulting from an error in the production (Fig. 7:
10) is more p roof that blades we re pro duced at the site i tself
(Pl. 1, Fig. 2). The presence of retouching  akes, bearing tes-
timony to the  nal production phase – the  nal shaping of a
tool, is low. However, here one has to bear in mind that the
sediment had not been sieved, and that many of those tiny
pieces were presumably lost.
3.2.2. Typology
The mo st common typ e of tools (Pl. 2; Fig. 3) are par tially
retouched pieces (128 pieces, 37,76%), followed by pieces
with one retouched edge (98 pieces, 28,91%) and pieces
with two retouched edges (39 pieces, 11,50%) (Fig. 6: 11, 13-
15, 17-24). There were 21 truncated blades (6,19%), (Fig. 6:
12, 16), 14 notches (4,13%) (Fig. 6: 25), as well as 14 pieces in
the category various. Other tools (end scrapers (Fig. 6: 9),
drills (Fig. 6: 10), burins, denticulates) are very rare (a total of
8 pieces, 2,95%). There are also very few geometric forms,
invariably trapezes, a total of 7 pieces, that is 2,06% (Fig. 6:
2-8). Their presence is traditionally connected with the Me-
solithic in uence, but it must be mentioned that trapezes
at this site were not produced by the microburin technique,
and the lack of knowledge on the Mesolithic substrate in
eastern Croatia renders any comparison impossible. An ar-
rowhead was also found, which is a rarity among early Neo-
lit hic as semblages (F ig. 6: 1). Most to ols were made on  akes
(28,02% on  akes, 16,22% on secondary  akes), and a con-
siderable number were made on blades (27,43% on blades
and 5,90% on secondary blades). The signi cant number
of tools on blades makes it evident that the production of
blades played an important role within the entire produc-
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
16
17-24). Zarubak je zastupljen s 21 komadom (6,19%), (sl. 6,
12, 16), zatim slijedi udubak (14 komada 4,13%) (sl. 6, 24), ko-
liko broji i kategorija razno. Ostale alatke (grebala (sl. 6, 9)
svrdla (sl. 6, 10), dubila, nazupci) vrlo su rijetke (ukupno 8
komada, 2,95%). Malobrojni su i geometrijski oblici, ukupno
7 komada, odnosno 2,06%, (sl. 6, 2-8), a svi su trapezi. Njiho-
va prisutnost se tradicionalno ve uz utjecaje mezolitika,
no treba napomenuti kako za proizvodnju trapeza na ovom
lokalitetu nije korištena tehnika mikrodubila, a zbog nepoz-
navanja mezolitičke podloge na prostoru istočne Hrvatske
nije moguća usporedba. Pronađena je i jedna strelica, što je
u ranoneolitičkim skupovima nalaza rijetkost (sl. 6, 1). Najviše
je alatki načinjeno na odbojcima (28,02% na odbojcima,
16,22% na drugotnim odbojcima), a značajan je i broj alatki
na sječivima (27,43 % na sječivima i 5,90 % na drugotnim
sječivima). Brojnost alatki načinjenih na sječivima svjedoči
kako je postupak izrade sječiva u cjelokupnoj proizvodnji
bio vrlo važan. Na pločicama je načinjeno 8,85% alatki. Na
alatkama je, osim dodatne obrade nastale uobičajenim po-
stupcima udaranja po rubu rukotvorine, česta samo sitna tj.
marginalna obrada koja je mogla nastati uporabom samog
predmeta.
3.2.3. Sirovine
Sav je materijal prema makroskopskim značajkama kao
što su boja, struktura, sjajna ili mat površina, raspoređen u
10 osnovnih kategorija (vidjeti poglavlje o metodi), i katego-
rije okorina, goreno i razno. Najbrojnija je kategorija “1”, koju
čini 2793 artefakata, odnosno 65,32%. U kategoriji 3 ima 439
rukotvorina, odnosno 10,27%, dok su sve ostale kategorije
zastupljene s manje od 10% (T. 3). Postotak težine pojedi-
nih kategorija ne odstupa značajnije od postotka količine
te kategorije. Iz deset uzoraka načinjeni su preparati i mi-
kroskopski analizirani u Hrvatskom geološkom institutu u
Zagrebu 2001. godine. Ustanovljeno je da svi uzorci pripa-
daju različitim varijetetima iste stijene, koja je određena kao
rožnjak (usmeno priopćenje M. Šparice).
Nedavno je za petrografsku analizu u Minerološko-
petrografskom zavodu Prirodoslovno-matematičkog fa-
kulteta u Zagrebu iz postojećih 10 osnovnih kategorija
izdvojeno 29 uzoraka, koji su makroskopski pregledani.
Od toga je izrađeno 16 preparata za potrebe mineralko-
petrografske analize pomoću polarizacijskog mikroskopa.
Makroskopskim pregledom ustanovljena je prevladavajuća
prisutnost rožnjaka (od 29 uzoraka, 28 su rožnjaci). Samo je-
dan uzorak predstavlja kvarc bjelutak (kvarc hidrotermalnih
žila, bijele boje - uzorak kategorije 9. Na temelju boje i iz-
gleda površine rožnjaci su podijeljeni u tri skupine. Rožnjaci
sjajne, glatke površine, bez makroskopski uočljivih čestica,
oštrobridnoga i školjkastog loma, tamnije obojeni (tamno-
sivi, smeđi, smećkasto-crvenkasti, crni) su najzastupljeniji (2
komada uzoraka kategorije 1, 5 komada uzoraka kategorije
2, 2 komada uzoraka kategorije 3, 2 komada uzoraka kate-
gorije 4, po jedan komad uzoraka kategorije 6 i 8 te po 2
komada uzoraka kategorije 7 i 10). Zatim slijede svjetlije
obojeni rožnjaci (svijetlosivi), koje još karakterizira i točkasta
površina bez izraženog sjaja, tj. mat površina (1 komad uzor-
ka kategorije 7, 2 komada uzoraka kategorije 1, 2 komada
uzoraka kategorije 9 i po jedan komad uzoraka kategorija 5
i 10) te tamnije obojeni rožnjaci zrnatog izgleda, bez sjaja (2
komada uzoraka kategorije 8 i 2 komada uzoraka kategorije
5).
Mikroskopski pregled omogućuje diferencijaciju s obzi-
rom na vrstu čestica, strukturne značajke te na prisutnost
strati kacije. Mikroskopskim pregledom izdvojeni su ra-
diolarijski rožnjaci (vidljivi ostaci radiolarija) i rekristalizirani
rožnjaci (nema vidljivih ostataka primarnih čestica). Radio-
tion. 8,85% of tools were made on bladelets. In addition
to the usual method of retouch by striking the edge of an
artefact, the tools frequently exhibit only tiny, i.e. marginal
retouching that may have been result of the use of the ar-
tefact itself.
3.2.3. Raw materials
The entire assemblage was classi ed into 10 basic cat-
egories (we refer the reader to the chapter on the method)
according to macroscopic features such as colour, fabric,
shiny or matt surface, with the addition of three more cat-
egories – cortex, burned and various. The most common is
category 1, consisting of 2793 artefacts or 65,32%. Category
3 comprises 439 artefacts or 10,27%, while each of the other
categoriy contain less than 10% (Pl. 3). The weight percent-
age of individual categories shows no signi cant discrep-
ancy from the quantity percentage of that category. Ten
samples were used for preparations, which were analyzed
under a microscope in the Croatian Institute of Geology in
Zagreb in 2001. It was established that all the samples be-
long to various variants of the same rock, determined as
chert (personal communication by M. Šparica).
Recently 29 samples from 10 basic categories were
submitted to the Institute for Mineralogy and Petrology of
the Faculty of Science in Zagreb for a petrographic analy-
sis. These samples were analyzed microscopically, and 16
preparations were made for a mineralogical-petrographic
analysis with a polarizing microscope. Macroscopic analysis
ascertained that chert predominated (28 out of 29 samples
were cherts). Only one sample belongs to white quartz (hy-
drothermal vein quartz, of white colour) – a sample of cat-
egory 9. Based on colour and surface appearance the cherts
were divided into three groups. Cherts of a shiny, smooth
surface, without macroscopically discernible particles, of
hackly and conchoidal fracture, with darker shades (dark
grey, brown, brownish-reddish, black) are the most com-
mon (2 pieces of samples of category 1, 5 pieces of samples
of category 2, 2 pieces of samples of category 3, 2 pieces
of samples of category 4, one each in categories 6 and 8
and two each in categories 7 and 10). These are followed
by cherts of lighter colours (light grey), additionally char-
acterized by the dotted surface without evident luster, i.e.
matt surface (1 piece of sample of category 7, 2 pieces in
category 1, 2 pieces of samples of category 8 and one piece
each of samples of categories 5 and 10) as well as darker
cherts of grainy appearance, lusterless (2 pieces of samples
of category 8 and two pieces of samples of category 5).
Microscopic examination allowed di erentiation with
regard to the particle type, structural features and pres-
ence of stratigraphy, and led to the separation of radiolarite
cherts (visible remains of radiolaria) and recrystallized chert
(lacking visible remains of primary particles). Radiolarite
cherts (Figure 4.A) predominate (samples of categories 1,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). They can be massive or with a pronounced
strati cation. Strati cation results from the alternation of
densely packed (grainy) laminae and those with several
matrices. It can be made more evident by the presence of
lenses and pockets of small-grained, brownish material
(silici ed carbonate sediment) and various concentrations
of dotted dispersed opaque matter (most likely of organic
origin). The matrix consists of small-crystalline to crypto-
crystalline quartz. Radiolaria are recrystallized into small-
crystalline quartz or chalcedony. Chalcedony appears also
as a  ll in some voids. Silici ed limestone fossils (plankton
foraminifera) occasionally appear in addition to radiolaria.
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
17
larijski rožnjaci (slika 4.A) prevladavaju (uzorci kategori-
ja 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Oni mogu biti masivni ili s izraženom
strati kacijom. Strati kacija je rezultat izmjene gušće pa-
kiranih (zrnatih) lamina i lamina s više matriksa. Ona može
biti naglašena i pojavom leća i proslojaka sitnozrnatog,
smeđasto obojenog materijala (silici cirani karbonatni se-
diment) te različitom koncentracijom točkasto raspršene
opake tvari (najvjerojatnije organska materija). Matriks je
izgrađen od sitnokristaliničnoga do kriptokristaliničnoga
kvarca. Radiolarije su rekristalizirane u sitnokristalinični
kvarc ili kalcedon. Kalcedon se pojavljuje i kao ispuna poje-
dinih pukotina. Uz radiolarije, mjestimično se pojavljuju i
silici cirani vapnenački fosili (planktonske foraminifere). U
pojedinim uzorcima zamijećena je plastična deformacija
laminacije u obliku povijanja lamina te tragovi bioturbacije
(rovanja) organizama. Rekristalizirani rožnjaci (uzorci 2, 8, 9)
imaju homogenu, jednoličnu sitnokristaliničnu građu, bez
vidljivih ostataka primarne strukture i sastojaka (rekristali-
zacija je uništila primarnu građu) (slika 4B).
Razlike u b oji uočene makroskopski rezultat su različitog
udjela i očuvanosti organske materije i eventualne prisut-
nosti nekih drugih raspršenih obojenih minerala (npr. he-
matita).
Prema M. Šparici (usmeno priopćenje), rožnjaci udruženi
s drugim stijenama nalaze se na površini u slavonskim pla-
ninama Papuku i Psunju, a u većim ih količinama susrećemo
u srednjobosanskim planinama. Mišljenja smo kako je dio
materijala iz Zadubravlja prikupljen u okolici, a dio donesen
iz drugih područja. Najbrojnija kategorija sirovinskog mate-
rijala (crveni rožnjaci nazvani kategorija 1), nije prisutna u
neposrednoj okolici lokaliteta. Pretpostavke o sirovinskom
materijalu, dakako, valja provjeriti prikupljanjem uzoraka na
terenu, njihovom petrografskom i kemijskom analizom te
usporedbom s arheološkim materijalom.
3.2.4. Prostorna distribucija
U 4 objekta (jama 6, 9, 10 i 19) pronađeno je ukupno 3435
litičkih rukotvorina, što je 80,33% od ukupnog broja (T. 4). U
jami 19 pronađeno je 1220 cijepanih litičkih rukotvorina, u
jami 10 bilo ih je 901, u jami 9 otkriveno ih je 761, a jama 6
sadržavala je 553 litičke rukotvorine. U jami s najviše litičkih
rukotvorina (jama 19) najbrojniji proizvodni tip su odbojci
(21,80%). Svi odbojci (sa i bez okorine te odbojčići) zastu-
pljeni su s 56,15%. Sječiva sa i bez okorine je 8,69%, pločica
8,36%, dok su krhotine zastupljene s 14,84%. Jezgara za
sječiva nema, dok su jezgre za odbojke i pločice minimal-
no zastupljene. Alatki je svega 42 komada, što čini 3,44%.
Više od 500 rukotvorina pronađeno je i u jamama 6, 9 i 10.
U jami 6 najviše je odbojaka (54,06%). U to su ubrojeni od-
bojci sa i bez okorine te odbojčići. Sječiva je ukupno 11,75%.
Pronađene su jezgre za odbojke (5 komada), sječiva (2 ko-
mada) i pločice (1 komad). Krhotina je ukupno 10,13%. Ala-
tki ima 38 komada, odnosno 6,87%. U jami 9, (761 komad),
najbrojnija kategorija su također odbojci. Svi tipovi odboja-
ka zajedno su zastupljeni sa 61,5%. Najviše je drugotnih od-
bojaka i odbojaka bez okorine (svaka kategorija po 20,5%).
Sječiva ima 13, 76%, a pločica 12, 08%. Prisutne su i jezgre,
u malom broju. Sedam je jezgara za odbojke te po jedna za
pločice i sječiva. Krhotina je ukupno 6,7%. Broj od 77 koma-
da (10, 16%) u jami 9 čak je viši od udjela alatki u cjelokup-
nom skupu nalaza. U jami 10 pronađen je 901 komad litičkih
rukotvorina. Alatki je 92 komada, što je 10% od broja rukot-
vorina u jami. U jami 10 također su prevladavajući proizvodi
odbojci. Ukupno ih je 55,06%. Sječiva je u postotku nešto
Some samples exhibited plastic deformation of the lamina-
tion in the form of bent laminae as well as traces of biotur-
bation (boring) of organisms. Recrystallized cherts (samples
2, 8, 9) have a homogeneous, uniform small-crystalline
structure, without visible remains of the primary structure
and constituents (primary structure was destroyed by re-
crystallization) (Figure 4B).
Macroscopically detected di erences in colour are the
result of the di erent proportion and preservation of or-
ganic matter and the possible presence of certain other dis-
persed coloured minerals (e.g. hematite).
In M. Šparica’s opinion (personal communication),
cherts combined with other rocks appear on the surface in
the Slavonian Mountains of Papuk and Psunj, and are also
encountered in large quantities in mountains in central Bos-
nia. We believe that part of the material from Zadubravlje
was collected in the neighbourhood, while another part
was brought from other areas. The most common category
of raw material (red cherts termed category 1) does not ap-
pear in the immediate vicinity of the site. Assumptions on
the raw materials should, of course, be veri ed by collecting
samples in the  eld, analyzing them petrographically and
chemically and  nally comparing them with the archaeo-
logical material.
3.2.4. Spatial distribution
Four structures (pits 6, 9, 10 and 19) yielded a total of
3435 lithic artefacts, making up 80,33% of the total number
(Pl. 4). Pit 19 yielded 1220 chipped lithic artefacts, pit 10 con-
tained 901, pit 9 contained 761, while pit 6 yielded 553 lithic
artefacts. In the pit with the most lithic artefacts (pit 19)
akes were the most common production type (21,80%). All
the  akes (with and without cortex as well as small  akes)
made up 56,15%. There were 8,69% blades with and with-
out cortex, 8,36% bladelets, while chunks made up 14,84%.
There were no cores for blades, and there were only very
few cores for  akes and bladelets. There were only 42 tools,
or 3,44%. More than 500 artefacts were found in pits 6, 9
and 10. Pit 6 contained mostly  akes (54,06%), including
those with and without cortex as well as small  akes. The
percentage of blades was 11,75%. Cores for  akes (5 piec-
es), blades (2 pieces) and bladelets (1 piece) were found.
There was a total of 10,13% chunks. There were 38 tools, or
6,87%. In pit 9 (761 piece)  akes also predominate. All types
kategorija kom. % težina/g %
1 2793 65,32% 5793,9 69,56%
2 222 5,19% 448,8 5,39%
3 439 10,27% 921,6 11,06%
4 35 0,82% 56,7 0,68%
5 93 2,17% 314,6 3,78%
6 6 0,14% 5,8 0,07%
7 68 1,59% 179,8 2,16%
8 59 1,38% 76,2 0,91%
9 8 0,19% 10,2 0,12%
10 25 0,58% 35,6 0,43%
goreno 174 4,07% 269,1 3,23%
okorina 6 0,14% 5,4 0,06%
razno 348 8,14% 803,6 9,65%
ukupno 4276 100,00% 8329,5 100,00%
Tab. 3 Zastupljenost i težina kategorija sirovinskog materijala
Tab. 3 Frequency and weight of categories of raw materials
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
18
više nego u ostalim objektima, ukupno ih je 20, 87%. Sječiva
bez okorine ima 17,76%. Pločica ima ukupno 8,98%. Jezgre
su zastupljene s ukupno 3,22%, od čega je najviše jezgara za
odbojke (2,22%), dok nedostaju jezgre za sječiva.
4. Interpretacija
Na lokalitetu Zadubravlje pronađen je značajan broj ci-
jepanih kamenih artefakata. Sa sigurnošću se može ustvrdi-
ti d a su se na lokalitetu odvijal e prva i druga faza proiz vodn -
je odbojaka, sječiva i pločica, što je potvrđeno prisutnošću
jezgara te artefakata s okorinom. Nulta kategorija, odnosno
gomolji i obluci, nije zabilježena, što znači da se sirovina te-
stirala, a možda i pripravljala u pre-jezgre prije nego je do-
nesena u naselje, ili da su svi donekle veći komadi prerađeni
u jezgre. Relativno mali broj krhotina u ukupnom skupu na-
laza govori o vještini izrađivača alatki te o kvaliteti sirovine.
Zasigurno je barem dio sječiva proizveden neizravnim od-
bijanjem (preko dlijeta), što je za sada najranije ustanovljena
primjena tog postupka na području Hrvatske. Primjena tog
postupka je dokazana na podrju Hrvatske, ali za razdo-
blje sopotske kulture (Šošić, Karavanić 2004). Najmanje je
bila zastupljena proizvodnja pločica i najmanje je i alatki
načinjeno na tim proizvodima. U Srbiji i Mađarskoj su u ra-
nom neolitiku zabilježeni lokaliteti s većim udjelom pločica
i alatki na pločicama, što se zajedno s trapezima smatra
utjecajem mezolitika, odnosno balkansko-dunavskog epi-
gravetijena (Šarić 1999, 254). Na do sada obrađenim loka-
litetima starčevačke kulture na području istočne Hrvatske
nije zabilježen znatniji udio pločica u skupu nalaza (Šošić
2007, Bunčić 2009).
Sk upov i na laz a iz o bje kata 6 , 9, 10 i 19 mo gu s e okar akt e-
rizirati kao “radionički skup nalaza”. Radionički skup nalaza
je termin koji se koristi za skupove nalaza koji broje više od
500 rukotvorina u jednom objektu (Balcer 1995, 75), a može
označavati materijal koji je izravno vezan uz radni prostor,
kao i materijal koji potječe iz radnog prostora. Često se ma-
terijal iz radnog prostora koji se nalazio na površini pomete
u jamu, pri čemu o postojanju radnog prostora na površini
ne ostaju nikakvi tragovi (Balcer 1995, 78). Za pretpostaviti
je da je mnogo praktičnije bilo smjestiti radni prostor izvan,
a ne unutar ukopanih jama. Lomljevina nastala tijekom
proizvodnje u radionici, zbog oštrih bridova opasna je i za
ljude i za stoku te se vjerojatno uklanjala s hodne površine
i pohranjivala u napuštene, djelomično zapunjene ili za tu
svrhu iskopane objekte. Radionički otpad vjerojatno je bio
prenošen na tkaninama ili životinjskim kožama koje su bile
rasprostrte tijekom rada (Balcer 1995, 78). Zbog toga što su
gotovo sve jame imale svoju pretpostavljenu drugu funkci-
ju te zbog dosta visokog postotka alatki u jamama, izgled-
nije je da jame nisu bile lokacije na kojima se odvijala litička
proizvodnja, već je otpad iz obližnjega radnog prostora, koji
je vjerojatno bio na površini, pometen u te objekte. To se ne
of  akes combined make up 61,5%. Secondary akes and
akes without cortex predominate with 20,5% in each cat-
egory. There were 13,76% blades, 12,08% bladelets. Cores
were also present, but few. There were seven cores for
akes and one each for bladelets and blades. Chunks made
up 6,7%. A total of 77 pieces (10,16%) in pit 9 in fact surpass-
es the proportion of tools in the entire assemblage. Pit 10
yielded 901 lithic artefacts, of which 92 were tools, or 10%
of the total number of artefacts in the pit. Like in other pits,
here also  akes predominate, with 55,06%. The proportion
of blades at 20,87% is slightly higher in comparison with
other structures. Blades without cortex make up 17,76%.
Bladelets represent 8,98%, while cores make up 3,22%. Of
those, cores for  akes are the most common (2,22%), while
cores for blades are missing altogether.
4. Interpretation
The Zadubravlje site yielded a considerable number of
chipped stone artefacts. It can be asserted that the  rst and
second phases of production of  akes, blades and bladelets
took place at the site, as corroborated by the presence of
cores and artefacts with cortex. The zero category, that is
nodules and pebbles, was not documented, which means
that the raw material was tested and perhaps also prepared
into pre-cores before it was brought to the settlement, or
that all the more sizeable pieces were processed into cores.
The relatively small number of chunks within the assem-
blage speaks of the skill of the tool makers and of the qual-
ity of the raw material. At least part of the blades were cer-
tainly produced by indirect percussion (involving the use of
a chisel), so far the earliest documented application of that
method in the territory of Croatia. This method had already
been documented in Croatia, but for the Sopot culture pe-
riod (Šošić, Karavanić 2004). The production of bladelets
was the least common and tools on those products are the
fewest. Certain Early Neolithic sites in Serbia and Hungary
yielded assemblages where the proportion of bladelets and
tools on bladelets is higher, which together with trapezes
is considered as re ecting the in uence of the Mesolithic,
and the Epigravettian of the Balkans and the Danube Basin.
(Šarić 1999, 254). The proportions of bladelets within the
so far analyzed assemblages from the sites of the Starčevo
culture in eastern Croatia are in general not strikingly high
(Šošić 2007, Bunčić 2009).
The assemblages from structures 6, 9, 10 and 19 can be
characterized as ‘’workshop assemblages’’, the term used
for assemblages numbering more than 500 artefacts within
a single structure (Balcer 1995, 75). It can denote the mate-
rial directly connected with the working area, as well as that
originating from the working area. It is often the case that
the material from the working area that was on the surface
is swept down into a pit, erasing all traces of the existence
of a working area on the surface (Balcer 1995, 78). It can be
assumed that it was considerably more practical to locate a
working area outside, instead of within the pits dug into the
soil. Due to its sharp edges, which rendered it dangerous for
people and cattle, the debitage resulting from the produc-
tion in the workshop was probably removed from the walk-
ing surface and stored into abandoned, partially  lled up
features that may have been dug speci cally for that pur-
pose. Workshop refuse was probably transported on cloth
or animal hides spread over the  oor while working (Balcer
1995, 78). As it is assumed that almost all the pits had an-
other function and in view of the relatively high percentage
of tools within the pits, it is more likely that the pits were
not the places where lithic production took place, but that
jama komada alatki
6 553 38
9 761 77
10 901 92
19 1220 42
Tab. 4 Broj komada i alatki u jamama s više od 500 litičkih koma-
da
Tab. 4 Number of all lithic  nds and tools in pits with more than 500
lithic pieces
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CHIPPED STO NE ASSEMBLAGE FROM T HE EARLY NEOLITHIC SI TE OF ZADUBRAVL JE, PRIL. INST. ARHEO L. ZAGREBU, 26/2009,P. 520
19
the refuse from the neighbouring working area, probably
located on the surface, was swept down into these features.
This does not apply to pit 19, which may have been a work-
ing area (Minichreiter 1992, 31; 1993b, 97, 104).
According to J. K. Kozłowski and S. K. Kozłowski (1983,
275), the chipped lithic industry in the Starčevo complex
is manifested in two ways with regard to the presence of
tools:
1) many retouched b lades and end scrapers (for instance,
early phases of Anzabegovo, Divostin, Golokut);
2) material with predominating microliths and geomet-
ric forms (for instance, Cuina Turcului and Ostrovul Golu in
Romania and Mehtelek in Hungary)
Another group has to be added to this division – assem-
blages where blades predominate (as semi-products as well
as tools), but without wide and long standardized blades,
characteristic for the Early Neolithic of the central Balkans
(Kozłowski, Kozłowski 1983, 275). The lithic assemblage
from Zadubravlje would belong to this group, and the
same probably holds true for the Galovo site. The results of
the lithic analysis on the material from two structures from
that site – pit-house 15 (Šošić 2007) and pit-house SU 291
(Bunčić 2009) have been published until now. Blades are
the predominant semi-products for tool production at that
site. Together with  akes, blades are the main semi-product
for tool production at Zadubravlje, while geometric forms
are very rare, same as the tools on bladelets. The prevail-
ing category among tools are simple tools with partial or
full retouch on one or two edges. The high proportion of
‘’non-standardized’’ tools, lacking any speci c form, is char-
acteristic for communities practicing the sedentary way of
life (Andrefsky 1994, 22). The dominant tools at the Zadu-
bravlje site belong precisely to that type. These tools were
produced, used and discarded within a relatively short time
span. The Starčevo sites in Serbia likewise exhibit a certain
standardization, manifest in the smaller number of tool
types in comparison to the previous periods. Blades be-
come the most important tools, mostly as parts of compos-
ite tools, and often acquire the character of a multi-func-
tional tool (Šarić 1999, 255-256).
Geometric forms are rare, and consist mostly of trapezes
(Fig. 7, 2-8). Their proportion was presumably higher, only
due to their small size they were probably missed in the
excavation as the sediment was not dry- and wet-sieved.
Whether their presence speaks of a connection with the
Mesolithic remains to be seen, as the utter lack of informa-
tion on the Mesolithic in eastern Slavonia makes it impos-
sible to ascertain this at present.
5. Conclusion
The results of the preliminary analysis of chipped lithic
artefacts from the site provide an understanding of certain
activities pertaining to the production of chipped lithic ar-
tefacts in the Starčevo settlement in Zadubravlje. The pro-
duction of semi-products for making tools ( akes, blades
and bladelets) took place at the site itself, mostly on the
surface, while refuse material was then swept into the pits.
Blades were (at least partly) made by indirect percussion,
which is so far the earliest documented use of that method
in Croatia. The most common tools are those with partial
retouch or with one retouched edge. Often minute, that is,
marginal retouch was occasionally probably result the ac-
tual use of the tool. There are not many  nds that would
point to a tradition from the Mesolithic. Part of the raw ma-
terials were probably collected in the neighbourhood of
odnosi na jamu 19 koja je mogla biti radni prostor (Minich-
reiter 1992, 31; 1993b, 97, 104).
Prema J. K. Kozłowski and S. K. Kozłowski (1983, 275),
industrija cijepanoga litičkog materijala u starčevačkom se
kompleksu manifestira na dva načina prema zastupljenosti
alatki:
1) puno sječiva s obradom i grebala (primjerice, rane fa-
ze Anzabegova, Divostin, Golokut);
2) materijal u kojem prevladavaju mikroliti i geometrijski
oblici (primjerice Cuina Turcului i Ostrovul Golu u Rumunj-
skoj te Mehtelek u Mađarskoj).
Toj podjeli treba dodati još jednu skupinu, a to su sku-
povi nalaza s prevladavajućim sječivima (kako poluproizvo-
dima, tako i alatkama), pri čemu nedostaju široka i dugačka
standardizirana sječiva, koja su karakteristična za rani ne-
olitik središnjeg Balkana (Kozłowski, Kozłowski 1983, 275).
Litički skup nalaza iz Zadubravlja pripadao bi toj skupini, a
istoj skupini vjerojatno pripada i lokalitet Galovo. Za sada su
objavljeni rezultati litičke analize materijala iz dva objekta
s tog nalazišta, zemunice 15 (Šošić 2007) i zemunice SJ 291
(Bunčić 2009). Na tom je lokalitetu dominantni poluproizvod
za izradu alatki sječivo.
Uz odbojke su sječiva u Zadubravlju glavni poluproizvod
za proizvodnju alatki, a geometrijskih oblika ima vrlo malo,
kao i alatki na pločicama. Među alatkama prevladavajuća su
kategorija jednostavne alatke s djelomičnom ili cjelovitom
obradom na jednom ili dva ruba. Velik udio “nestandardizi-
ranih” alatki, koje nemaju određenu formu, karakterističan
je za zajednice koje prakticiraju sjedilački način života (An-
drefsky 1994, 22). Dominantne alatke na nalazištu Zadu-
bravlje pripadaju upravo toj vrsti. Te su alatke proizvede-
ne, korištene i odbačene u relativno kratkom vremenskom
razmaku. Na starčevačkim lokalitetima u Srbiji također se
primjećuje određena standardizacija koja se očituje u sman-
jenom broju tipova oruđa u odnosu na prethodna razdoblja.
Najvažnije alatke postaju sječiva, najčešće kao dijelovi kom-
pozitnih alatki, a često poprimaju i karakter višenamjenskog
oruđa (Šarić 1999, 255-256).
Rijetki su geometrijski oblici, a riječ je uglavnom o tra-
pezima (sl. 7, 2-8). Za pretpostaviti je da je njihova zastuplje-
nost bila veća, a zbog svojih vrlo malih dimenzija nisu mogli
biti uočeni i prikupljeni jer sediment nije prosijavan i ispiran.
Predstavlja li njihova zastupljenost vezu s mezolitikom, nije
za sada moguće utvrditi zbog potpunog nedostatka poda-
taka o razdoblju mezolitika u istočnoj Slavoniji.
5. Zaključak
Rezultati preliminarne analize cijepanih litičkih rukot-
vorina s lokaliteta donose spoznaje o određenim aktivno-
stima, vezanim uz proizvodnju cijepanih kamenih rukot-
vorina u starčevačkom naselju Zadubravlje. Proizvodnja
poluproizvoda za izradu alatki (odbojaka, sječiva i pločica)
odvijala se na samom lokalitetu, uglavnom na površini, a
otpadni je materijal potom pometen u jame. Sječiva su se
(barem djelomično) proizvodila postupkom indirektnog
odbijanja, što je do sada najranije potvrđena upotreba tog
postupka na prostoru Hrvatske. Od alatki naešće su one
s djelomičnom obradbom ili obrađenim jednim rubom, a
obrada često sitna tj. marginalna, ponekad je vjerojatno na-
stala samom uporabom alatki. Nema većeg broja nalaza koji
bi upućivali na mezolitičku tradiciju. Dio sirovina vjerojatno
je prikupljen u okolici nalazišta, dok je veći dio materijala
donesen iz drugih područja, što je jedno od važnih pitanja
koja trebaju riješiti buduća istraživanja.
IVOR KAR AVANIĆ ET AL., CIJEPANI LI TIČKI MATERIJAL S RA NONEOLITIČKO G NALAZIŠTA ZADUBR AVLJE, PRIL. I NST. ARHEOL. ZAGRE BU, 26/2009, STR. 520
20
Daljnje analize starčevačkih cijepanih litičkih rukot-
vorina i traganje za izvorima sirovina omogućit će nam
donošenje konkretnijih i utemeljenih zaključaka o pro-
cesima proizvodnje i mehanizmima pribavljanja sirovina
tijekom ranog neolitika na području Hrvatske i susjednim
prostorima.
Zahvale
Najljepše zahvaljujemo dr. sc. Korneliji Minichreiter na
ustupljenom materijalu, dr. sc. Marku Šparici na petrograf-
skim analizama i stručnim savjetima, dr. sc. Krešimiru Pavlini
na izradi baze za obradu podataka te osoblju Muzeja brod-
skog Posavlja na susretljivosti. Zahvaljujemo i trima anoni-
mnim recenzentima na korisnim primjedbama i savjetima.
Kolege Marko Dizdar, Hrvoje Vulić i Maja Šešelj sudjelovali
su u razvrstavanju i početnoj fazi analize materijala.
the site, while the majority was brought from other areas,
location of which is one of the major issues to be solved by
future investigations.
Further analyses of the Starčevo chipped lithic artefacts
and the search for the raw material sources will enable us
to reach more speci c and well-founded conclusions on
the production process and the mechanisms of acquiring
raw materials during the Early Neolithic in Croatia and the
neighbouring areas.
Acknowledgements
We kindly thank Dr. Kornelija Minichreiter for the mate-
rial for the analysis, Dr. Marko Šparica for the preliminary
petrographic analyses and professional advice, Dr. Krešimir
Pavlina for the creation of a database and the sta of the
Brodsko Posavlje Museum for their helpfulness. We also
thank the three anonymous reviewers for their useful re-
marks and advice. Our colleagues Marko Dizdar, Hrvoje
Vulić and Maja Šešelj participated in the sorting and the in-
cipient phase of the material analysis.
LITERATURA / BIBLIOGRAPHY
Andrefsky, W., 1994, Raw-Material Availability and the Organization of
Tec hno lo gy, AmAntiq 59, 21-34.
Balcer, B., 1995, The Relationship b etween a settlem ent and  int mines. A
preliminary study of the Eneolithic workshop assemblages from
Ćmielów (Southern Poland). APol 33. Special Theme: Flint Mining
dedicate to the Seventh International Flint Symposium. Poland
1995, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology. Polish Academy of
Sciences, Warsaw, 209-221.
Balen, J., Gerometta, K., Burić, M., The Issue of Chronology and the Set-
tling of the Starčevo Culture in Northern Croatia, u tisku
Boucquet-Appe l, J.P., N aji, S. Vander Linden, M., Kozł owski, J. K., 2009, De -
tection of di usion and contact zones of early farming in Europe
from the space-time distribution of 14C dates. JAS 36, 807-820.
Bunčić, M., 2009, Kameni nalazi starčevačke kulture s nalazišta Galovo
u Slavonskom Brodu. Rezultati litičke analize iz zemunice SJ 291,
PrilInstArheolZagrebu 26, Zagreb, 291-308.
Kozłowski J.K. & Kozłowski S.K., 1983, Chipped Stone Industries form Le-
penski Vir Yugoslavia. Preistoria Alpina 19, Trento, 259-294.
Krajcar-Bronić, K., Minichreiter, K., Obelić, B., Horvatinčić, N., 2004, The
oldest early Neolithic (Starčevo culture) settlements in Croatia:
Zadubravlje-Dužine and Slavonski Brod – Galovo, Radiocarbon
and Archaeology, Fourth International Symposium, Oxbow books,
Oxford, 229 -245.
Marković, M., 1994, Brod. Kulturno-povijesna monogra ja, Slavonski Brod
Minichreiter, K., 1990, Starčevačko naselje kod Zadubravlja, Sl. Brod,
Obavijesti HAD, 22 (2)/1990, Zagreb, 23-25.
Minichreiter, K., 1992, Starčevačka kultura u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj, Diser-
tacije i monogra je 1, Arheološki zavod Filozofskog fakulteta u
Zagrebu, Zagreb
Minichreiter, K., 1993a, Arhitek tura starčevačkog nase lja kod Zadubravlja.
U: Arheološka istraživanja u Slavonskom B rodu i brodskom Posavlju,
IzdanjaHAD 16. Hrvatsko arheološko društ vo, Zagreb, 97-111.
Minichreiter, K., 1993b, Starčevačka kultura na području brodskog Po-
savlja. U: Arheološka istraživanja u Slavonskom Brodu i brodskom
Posavlju, IzdanjaHAD 16, Hrvatsko arheološko društvo, Zagreb,
39-51.
Minichreiter, K., 2001, The architecture of Early and Middle Neolithic
settlements of Starčevo culture in Nor thern Croatia. DocPraeh 28,
Ljubljana, 199-214.
Minichreiter, K., Krajcar Bronić, I ., 2006, Novi radiokarbonski datumi rane
starčevačke kulture u Hrvatskoj, PrilInstArheolZagrebu, 23/2006,
Zagreb, 5-16.
Rubić, I., 1953, Karakteristika brodskog Posavlja kao jedne geografske
jedinice, Slavonski B rod i Bosanski Brod. Studija o ekon omsko-ge-
ografskoj str ukturi grada i okoline, ZborNarJAZU, 36/1953, Zagreb,
5-14.
Šarić, J., 1999, Kremena ind ustrija najstarijih zemljoradničkih ku ltura na tlu
Srbije, Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
Šošić, R., 2007, Značajke cijepanog litičkog materijala iz male grobne ja-
me 15 s lokaliteta Galovo u Slavonskom Brodu. Minichreiter, K.,
Slavonski Brod Galovo. Deset godina arheoloških istraživanja. MIA,
Zagreb, 176-189.
Šošić, R., Karavanić, I., 2004, Cijepani litički materijal s prapovijesnog na-
lazišta Slavča, Nova Gradiška. VA MZ 37, Zagreb, 17-41.
Book
Full-text available
«5000 ans avant J.-C., La grande migration ? Le Néolithique ancien dans la Collection Louis Éloy», état des connaissances en 2011. - Le livre « papier » peut être commandé par mail à la FWB : https://www.webopac.cfwb.be/cpub/Details/books/33 - Notamment : - Collin F., Hauzeur A. & Jadin I., 2011. [Une question, des méthodes d'investigation.] 5000 ans avant J.-C., la grande migration ? In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 11-12. - Jadin I. & Collin F., 2011. [Une question, des méthodes d'investigation.] Louis Éloy, un Homme omalien. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 13-14. - Hauzeur A. & Jadin I., 2011. [Une question, des méthodes d'investigation.] Rubané, Omalien, Céramique linéaire... Que de noms pour les premières communautés paysannes de nos régions. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 15-17. - Jadin I. & Hauzeur A., 2011. [Une question, des méthodes d'investigation.] Des inventaires multiples du Néolithique ancien de nos régions. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 18-20. - Jadin I., Hauzeur A., Bosquet D. & Fock H., 2011. [Des faits. Des villages, des maisons, des fossés, des puits…] Des maisons bipartites, tripartites, et même une maison double ! In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 33-34. - Jadin I. & Hauzeur A., 2011. [Des faits. Des villages, des maisons, des fossés, des puits…] Citernes et puits de la Belgique limoneuse. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 55-56. - Toussaint M. & Jadin I., 2011. [Des faits. Des villages, des maisons, des fossés, des puits… …Des tombes] Sites sépulcraux du Néolithique ancien de Hesbaye. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 68-69. - Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Collin F., 2011. [Épilogue.] Et si le néolithique n’avait pas eu lieu ? In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 193-194. - Hauzeur A. & Jadin I., 2011. [La collection Louis Éloy.] L’Omalien à travers la Collection Louis Éloy. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 195-205. - Jadin I., 2011. [La collection Louis Éloy.] Une figurine omalienne se révélant être une “Jolité” asiatique. In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 206-207. - Jadin I., Hauzeur A. & Raynaud R., 2011. [La collection Louis Éloy.] Au détour des Archives de Louis Éloy In : Hauzeur A., Jadin I. & Jungels C., dir., «Ibidem» : 208-214.
Article
Full-text available
In southeastern Europe, in the region of northern Croatia (between the Drava, Sava, and Danube Rivers), which geographically belongs to southern Pannonia, the first Neolithic settlements developed during the early and middle Neolithic, ca. 6000–4800 BC. Numerous archaeological excavations in the last 25 years have enabled an overview of the development of Starčevo Culture settlements (the earliest Neolithic culture in this region), from the first phases to the end of its development.
Article
Full-text available
New radiocarbon dates for the Early Starčevo Culture confi rm that the process of Neolithization in continental Croatia began already around the year 6000 BC. Evidence of this includes discovery of settlements in Zadubravlje and Slavonski Brod that belong to the initial phases of Starčevo Culture development - Linear A phase. The long duration of the Starčevo Culture is demonstrated by over one hundred recorded settlements from all phases of its development, from Linear A to the closing Spiraloid B phase. This confirms that the territory of continental Croatia was an integral component of the central Starčevo Culture zone and one of the key such zones in its emergence and existence. Typological and stylistic analyses of archaeological material from the settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod established that it belongs to the Linear A phase, which lasted for a considerable period of time. The first radiocarbon dating of a Starčevo Culture settlement in Croatia have determined a more precise chronological status of Slavonski Brod and Zadubravlje within the chronological scale of Early Neolithic settlements of the Starčevo Culture complex. Archaeological methods applied resulted in the discovery of two construction phases (vertical stratigraphy), while the third phase (horizontal stratigraphy) could only be determined using the 14C dating method. The dating of residential pit-house 37 and burial pit 15 in the most recent structures in this part of the settlement allowed, for the first time, a scientifically-founded portrayal of the horizontal stratigraphy of one of the oldest Early Neolithic settlements in continental Croatia.
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY TECHNOLOGICAL AND TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHIPPED STONE ARTIFACTS FROM THE PREHISTORIC SITE OF SLAV^A, NOVA GRADI[KA The site of Slav~a is situated on the south flanks of Psunj Mountain, in the town of Nova Gradi{ ka, Western Slavonia. The site has been continuosly excavated since 1997 by the City Museum of Nova Gradi{ka. A total number of 1655 chipped stone artifacts have been analyised, classified to the Sopot, Kostolac and Lasinja cultures, in effect a period of time since the middle Neolithic to the closing stages of the Copper Age. These artifacts were observed in the transition from the to Neolitihic to the Copper Age period. Some of the artifacts have not yet been assigned to either of these cultures, because they come from mixed stratigraphic units, and were analysed separately. Technological analysis was based on a list of technological types by their position in châine opératoire, modified by the lists created for the Upper Paleolithic by Straus (1995), and Straus and Clark (1986). Technology in the Neolithic and Copper Ages demonstrate similar characteristics in the production of flakes. In both cases flakes were produces in the settlement. On the other hand, there is quite a distinction in the production of blades. In the Neolithic they were produced in the the settlement, while in the Copper Age there are quite strong indications that blades were produced outside the settlement. In the Copper Age period proofs for the production of the blades (blade cores, primary decortication blades, edge renewal blades) are completely absent. Blades were produces elsewhere by the local population, or obtained by trade. In this collection of Neolitihic and Copper Age blades they were produced by the technique of inidirect percussion. It is the first time that this technique has been confirmed in Croatia. 40 R. [O[I] – I. KARAVANI]: Cijepani liti~ki materijal, VAMZ, 3.s., XXXVII pp–PP (2004) In the Neolithic artifacts there are 4.4%, tools, while in Copper age tools represent 12.8%. One of the possible explanations is the fact that large amount of the Neolitihic material came from a single pit, which was probably a workshop where the tools were made, and taken to other locations. There is no particular variety in the type of tools. In both periods there is a high rate of occurrence of marginal retouched pieces (blades and flakes). Endscrapers are more numerous in the Neolithic than in the Copper Age. The rate of occurrence of other types of tools, like side-scrapers, burins, drills and geometric microlits is very low. Raw material is one of the mayor distinctions between the Neolithic and Copper Age. The most frequent type of raw material is chert. In the Neolitihic raw material is uniform, while in the Copper Age there is a greater variety of use. The assemblage from the site of Slav~a in its technological and typological characteristics, and the use of raw material resemble the contemporary sites in central and Eastern Europe.
Article
Ethnographic examples of stone-tool makers in Australia and archaeological examples from three different areas in the western United States indicate that the availability of lithic raw materials is an important variable conditioning stone-tool production technology. Attributes of availability such as abundance and quality of lithic raw materials condition the production of formal- vs. informal-tool types. Poor-quality raw materials tend to be manufactured into informal-tool designs. High-quality lithic raw materials tend to be manufactured into formaltool designs when such materials occur in low abundance. When high-quality materials occur in great abundance both formal- and informal-tool designs are manufactured. Other factors, such as residential mobility or sedentism, are found to be less-important determinates of lithic-production technology.
Article
The spread of early farming in Europe is revisited using a sample of 3072 audited 14C calBC dates from 940 georeferenced early Neolithic sites. The surface expansion of early Neolithic has been reconstituted using the kriging technique of spatial interpolation. Centres of renewed expansion, of contact zones, and the main routes of expansion have been highlighted by means of a vector map, representing the gradient. The expansion of the agricultural system on the map, was not uniform and regular across Europe as a whole, but proceeded in leaps. With the scale of detection of the 500-year isochrones, several leaps are identifiable: at 8000 calBC crossing the Taurus barrier, 6700–6100 calBC crossing the southern Adriatic barrier, 6100–5600 calBC crossing the Central European agro-ecological barrier and 5000–4000 calBC expanding on the other, marginal zones. Using a vector map, 10 points of renewed expansion and nine contact zones, were detected. The whole does not correspond to a process of homogeneous diffusion, approximately steady, but a process marked by phases of geographical expansion and stasis.
Article
Ten-year-long investigations of the Starčevo culture settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod yielded a large quantity of stone finds, which, in addition to ceramic finds make up the bulk of the movable inventory. This paper presents the stone finds discovered in the 2007 investigations in pit house SU 291. Taking into consideration the quantity of chipped stone artifacts, particularly the many cores as well as flakes and blades with cortex, it can be assumed that the structure served as a working pit house. The focus is placed on the chipped stone industry, with the presentation of the technological and typological analysis of the artifacts. The pit house yielded four fragments of polished stone tools, a whetstone for bone awls and numerous amorphous fragments of grindstone.
The Relationship between a settlement and fl int mines. A preliminary study of the Eneolithic workshop assemblages from Ćmielów (Southern Poland)
  • B Balcer
Balcer, B., 1995, The Relationship between a settlement and fl int mines. A preliminary study of the Eneolithic workshop assemblages from Ćmielów (Southern Poland). APol 33. Special Theme: Flint Mining dedicate to the Seventh International Flint Symposium. Poland 1995, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology. Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 209-221.
Chipped Stone Industries form Lepenski Vir Yugoslavia
  • J K Kozłowski
  • S K Kozłowski
Kozłowski J.K. & Kozłowski S.K., 1983, Chipped Stone Industries form Lepenski Vir Yugoslavia. Preistoria Alpina 19, Trento, 259-294.