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Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) is a perennial herb with several medicinal properties. Development of modern drugs from Z. officinale can be emphasized for the control of various diseases. The feasibility of using Z. officinale to treat parasite infections has received considerable interest nowadays. Therefore, this review focused on the anti-parasitic activity of Z. officinale. Method of this literature search was conducted on PubMed, Elsevier Scopus database and Google Scholar with no limitation on language or year of publication databases. Z. officinale was found to have a significant antihelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni, Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Aniskis simplex, Hymenolepis nana and hydatid cysts either in vitro or in vivo. Also, it has an anti-protozoal effect against Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia lamblia, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Blastocystis species. Additionally, it was found to have insecticidal, molluscicidal and anti-leech effects.
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Aperito Journal of Bacteriology,
Received: Oct 14, 2015
Accepted: Nov 05, 2015
Virology and
Parasitology
Published: Nov 08, 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-112
Mini Review
Anti-Parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger): A Brief Review
Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed1٭ and Magda Mostafa El-Saka2
1Medical Parasitology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza - Egypt
2 Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza- Egypt
Abstract
Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) is a perennial herb with
several medicinal properties. Development of modern drugs
from Z. officinale can be emphasized for the control of various
diseases. The feasibility of using Z. officinale to treat parasite
infections has received considerable interest nowadays.
Therefore, this review focused on the anti-parasitic activity of Z.
officinale. Method of this literature search was conducted on
PubMed, Elsevier Scopus database and Google Scholar with no
limitation on language or year of publication databases. Z.
officinale was found to have a significant antihelmintic activity
against Schistosoma mansoni, Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria
immitis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Aniskis simplex,
Hymenolepis nana and hydatid cysts either in vitro or in vivo.
Also, it has an anti-protozoal effect against Toxoplasma gondii,
Giardia lamblia, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Blastocystis
species. Additionally, it was found to have insecticidal,
molluscicidal and anti-leech effects.
Keywords: Zingiber officinale; Active constituents; Anti-
parasites
٭Corresponding Author : Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed, Medical
Parasitology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology,
Giza- Egypt; E-mail: nagelsaka@hotmail.com;
nag.elsaka@yahoo.com
Introduction
Human infections that caused by endoparasites, including
protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, affect more than
12 billion of people, particularly in tropical developing
countries and lead to several million deaths every year [1]. Due
to the lack of a licensed vaccine for any human parasitic disease
together with a lack of affordable, safe and effective drugs for
some diseases or the parasites resistant to the available synthetic
therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of
anti-parasitic drugs [2]. Despite recent advances that are helping
to fuel drug discovery efforts, such as the sequencing of several
parasites genomes and the establishment of publicprivate
partnerships to specifically focus on tropical disease drug
discovery and development, there are numerous challenges
facing research in this area particularly, the large cost associated
with progressing compounds, together with the poor financial
incentives to big pharma [3, 4].
The search for bioactive plants which can be used as
unconventional anti-parasitic drugs has received considerable
attention in recent times and it is estimated that 20,000 species of
higher plants are used medicinally throughout the world. Natural
product screening provides the chance to discover new
molecules of unique structure with high activity and selectivity
which can be further optimized by semi- or fully synthetic
procedures [5]. Success in natural products research is
conditioned by careful plant selection, based on various criteria
such as chemotaxonomic data, information from traditional
medicine, field observation, or even random collection [6].
A number of medicinal plant extracts have been screened
for their anti-parasitic activities and have proven to be more
effective than the currently used therapies [7-11]. These extracts
often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA
(intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and
neuronal signal transduction [2, 8, 9].
Zingiber officinale as natural herbal medication
Z. officinale (ginger) (Figure 1) is a perennial herb belonging
to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a pungent, aromatic spice
which adds a special flavor and zest to the food. Z. officinale is
widely distributed in tropical Asia and it is the most common
spice, used all over the world. More than 60 active constituents
are known to be present in ginger, which have been broadly
Copyright: © 2015 AJBVP. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, Version 3.0, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Volume 2 • Issue 1 112 www.aperito.org
Citation: El-Sayed NM, El-Saka MM (2015). Anti-parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger): A Brief Review. Aperito J Bacteriol Virol
Parasitol 2:112
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-112
Page 2 of 7
divided into volatile and nonvolatile compounds. Volatile
components include hydrocarbons mostly monoterpenoid
hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene that impart distinct aroma and
taste to ginger. While, nonvolatile compounds include gingerols,
shogaols, paradols, and zingerone [12].
Figure 1: Zingiber officinale A) Plant, B) rhizome [10]
Numerous experimental and clinical trials have proven
ginger for its range of therapeutic activities such as antiemetic,
stomachic, expectorant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic,
hypolipidaemic nephroprotive, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic,
antioxidant, immunostimulant, anticarcinogenic and anti-
inflammatory activities. Besides, it possesses biological actions
like increasing respiratory burst, phagocytic activity, and disease
resistance against pathogens [13]. Moreover, it behaves as an
appetite stimulant, anxiolytic, antithrombotic, radiation protection,
and inhibits the reactive nitrogen species which are important in
causing Alzheimer's disease and many other disorders. All these
biological activities are attributed to phytochemical constituents
of this medicinal plant [12].
Anti-parasitic activity of Zingiber officinale
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have proven that Z.
officinale and its constituents exert significant nematocidal,
cestocidal, trematocidal, anti-protozoal, insecticidal, molluscicidal
and anti-leech effects (Figure 2). There is speculation that the
mechanism of action of ginger may be both central and peripheral,
i.e., anticholinergic and antihistaminic [14]. Neal [15] suggested
that nematode muscles contain excitatory neuromuscular junctions
with acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter. Gilani and Ghayur [16]
reported that ginger exhibits gastrointestinal pro-kinetic activity
via activation of cholinergic receptors. Iqbal et al. [17] suggested
that the cholinergic component of ginger is responsible for its
anthelmintic activity.
Figure 2: Anti-parasitic activity of Zingiber officinale
1- Nematocidal effect of Zingiber officinale
Nematocidal activity of Z. officinale was reported against
Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Anisakis simplex larvae.
Angiostrongylus cantonens is a parasitic nematode which causes
angiostrongyliasis, the most common cause of eosinophilic
meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. Anisakis
simplex is a parasitic nematode, which present in fish and other
marine mammals. Human get infected by consuming infected raw
seafood and diseases is called anisakiasis. From the roots of Z.
officinale, [6]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, [10]- shogaol, [6]-shogaol
and hexahydrocurcumin were isolated. These compounds
exhibited larvicidal activity against the larvae of the above
mentioned nematodes by direct killing or reducing spontaneous
movement. It was revealed that [10]-gingerol showed higher
larvicidal than mebendazole and albendazole and resulted in
to100% lethality against the larvae of Anisakis simplex [18, 19].
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 112 www.aperito.org
Citation: El-Sayed NM, El-Saka MM (2015). Anti-parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger): A Brief Review. Aperito J Bacteriol
Virol Parasitol 2:112
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-11
2
Page 3 of 7
Human toxocariasis is an accidental parasitic disease due
to infection by larval stages of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati,
the common roundworms of dogs and cats, respectively. Two
well-defined clinical syndromes are classically recognized:
visceral larva migrans (a systemic disease caused by larval
migration through major organs) and ocular larva migrans (a
disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves) [20]. Z. officinale
seemed to be effective as albendazole against T. canis infection. It
had a significant inhibitory effect on the larval recovery rates in
the liver, lungs, and brains after 28th days post-infection compared
to the infected controls. Z. officinale improved the induced
pathological changes by Toxocara in the studied organs that
regressed to near normal picture after its combination with
albendazole. In addition, treatment with Z. officinale separately or
in combination with albendazole revealed a significant
improvement in the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT),
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
as an indication of its hepatoprotective effect [11].
Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode that is common
in domestic and wild animals. Human dirofilariasis is transmitted
by the bite of an infected mosquito and represents as pulmonary
and subcutaneous nodules [21]. Isolated extracts from the rhizome
of ginger have anthelmintic activity against Dirofilaria immitis in
vivo and in vitro [22, 23].
Additionally, crude powder and aqueous extract of dried
ginger were used in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of
gastrointestinal nematodes, including Trichostrongylus
colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum
columbianum, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichuris ovis and
Strongyloides papillosus to investigate its anthelmintic activity
[17]. Also, the nematocidal activity of ginger was studied on the
poultry nematode, Ascaridia galli. It was concluded that ginger in
all used concentrations exhibited a higher wormicidal effect [24].
2- Trematocidal effect of Zingiber officinale
Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical helminthic disease
characterized by parasite egg-induced granulomatous
inflammation. Liver and intestinal fibrosis is a major sequel to
granulomatous schistosomiasis mansoni mostly responsible for
portal hypertension, formation of esophageal varices, and
intestinal bleeding of infected humans. Several investigations
have been undertaken regarding the trematocidal activity of Z.
officinale against Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni).
It was found that Z. officinale displayed some degree of
anti-schistosomal activity by reducing of S. mansoni eggs output
(53.8 %), worm burden (16.5 %) and the size of liver granuloma
(66.35%) in the infected animals [25]. Also, Mostafa et al. [26]
assessed the effect of Z. officinale aqueous extract, on the
oxidative status, antioxidant defense system and liver pathology
of S. mansoni infected mice. Infection by S. mansoni exhibited a
suppression of liver antioxidant capacity, and depleted reduced
glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities.
Also, the hepatic lipid peroxidation was elevated in S. mansoni
infected mice. Z. officinale treatment at a dose of 500 mg/kg,
orally administered daily for five weeks from the 5th week post-
infection showed improvement in the liver functions; the hepatic
total protein, ALT and AST.
3- Cestocidal effect of Zingiber officinale
Hymenolepis nana is the most common tapeworm in
humans. It is also known as the dwarf tapeworm. The infection is
transmitted by fecal-oral rout resulting in non-specific symptoms
such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, diarrhea, flatulence,
weight loss, irritable behavior, anal pruritus and delayed growth.
Some constituents from the roots of ginger were found to exert a
cestocidal effect against Hymenolepis nana in vitro and in vivo. It
was demonstrated that [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol exhibited
dose- and time-dependent cestocidal effect with respect to
spontaneous parasite oscillation and peristalsis movement.
Additionally, in morphological examination, Hymenolepis
nana adult worms destroyed by these constituents, especially in
scolox or arc or triangle proglottid segment [27].
Moazeni and Nazer [28] investigated the effectiveness of
methanolic extract of Z. officinale on the protoscolices of hydatid
cyst, a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Echinococcosis
(hydatid disease), a zoonosis, is characterized by frequent hepatic
involvement. Scolicidal activity of Z. officinale extract at a
concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL was after 60, 40 and 30
min of its application respectively. Also, Baqer et al. [29]
determined in vivo efficacy of ethanolic extract of Z. officinale as
antiprotoscolices.
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 112 www.aperito.org
Citation: El-Sayed NM, El-Saka MM (2015). Anti-parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger): A Brief Review. Aperito J Bacteriol
Virol Parasitol 2:112
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-112
Page 4 of 7
4- Anti-protozoal effect of Zingiber officinale
Protozoal infections are of great importance in public
health because of their high prevalences, distribution and their
effects on the population. The drugs currently used to treat these
diseases have serious side effects, so it is relevant to look for new
pharmacological alternatives. From this point of view, anti-
protozoal activity of Z. officinale was evaluated by several
investigators.
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is
the most frequent protozoan causing opportunistic infections in
immunocompromised individuals resulting in the infection
dissemination that causing serious complications in the form of
encephalitis, myocarditis and pneumonitis with higher mortality
rates. Choi et al. [30] evaluated the anti-protozoal effect of Ginger
root Extract (GE) and GE/F1 (fraction 1 obtained from GE)
against Toxoplasma gondii both in vitro and in vivo. They
demonstrated that GE/F1 not only induces anti-Toxoplasma
gondii effects causing the inactivation of apoptotic proteins in
infected host cells through the direct inhibition of Toxoplasma
gondii but also has anti-parasitic properties which inhibit
inflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo.
The potential therapeutic effect of dichloromethane ginger
extract on Giardia lamblia infection in albino rats was studied.
This protozoon is responsible for intestinal infection and diarrhea
that may lead to nutritional deficiencies, especially in children.
Ginger treatment caused reduction of Giardia lamblia fecal cyst
and trophozoites counts. Also, exposure to this extract revealed
evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damage produced by
Giardia lamblia infection and direct structural injury to the
trophozoites [31].
In addition, in vivo anti-protozoan effect of Z. officinale
extract on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp. was
evaluated by Abdel-Hafeez et al. [32]. Anti-protozoal activity of
this herb was determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in
stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected
mice. Additionally, its antioxidant effect (via measuring the level
of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) and Nitric Oxide (NO)
production were assessed. Treatment of infected mice with ginger
reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the
infected untreated group. As well, histopathological examination
revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the
lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an
enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to
that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, treatment of
infected mice with ginger reduced the elevated levels of NO and
MDA
Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping
sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by
infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the
genus Trypanosoma. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic
extract of Z. officinale on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected
Wistar mice was investigated by Kobo et al. [33]. Administration
of methanolic extract of Z. officinale increased body weight and
survival time of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. It
also reduced the level of parasitemia in infected mice.
5- Insecticidal effect of Zingiber officinale
Various species of mosquitoes are important insect vectors
of human diseases including Anopheles (a vector of malaria),
Culex (a vector of lymphatic filariasis) and Aedes aegypti (a
vector of dengue) [34]. Vector borne diseases not only cause high
levels of morbidity and mortality but also inflict great economic
loss and social disruption on developing countries. Z. officinale
showed insecticidal, ovicidal and repellent activities against
Anopheles stephensi, Adese aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus
[35]. This mosquito larvicidal activity was attributed to Z.
officinale compounds; (4)-gingerol, (6)-dehydro -gingerdione and
(6)-dihydrogingerdione that were isolated from its rhizome [36].
6- Molluscicidal effect of Zingiber officinale
Many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the
trematodes. Biomphalaria alexandrina is the snail vector of S.
mansoni. Control of this intermediate host disrupts the life cycle
of the parasite, stopping the transmission of infection. However,
the high costs and toxicity of synthetic molluscicides have
stimulated renewal interest in plant molluscicides [37]. Z.
officinale was reported to have molluscicidal and antischistosomal
effect against S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae [38]. Bakry et al.
[39] studied the effect of Z. officinale on the survival rate, egg
production, electrophoresis analysis, biochemical aspects of
Biomphalaria alexandina snails infected with S. mansoni. Their
results showed that a rapid decline in survival rate and egg
production of infected snails with S. mansoni exposed to ginger
and also, showed that the glucose concentrations in infected snails
exposed to ginger were increased in the hemolymph, while soft
tissue glycogen decreased. In addition, the activities of glycogen
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 112 www.aperito.org
Citation: El-Sayed NM, El-Saka MM (2015). Anti-parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger): A Brief Review. Aperito J Bacteriol
Virol Parasitol 2:112
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-112
Page 5 of 7
phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-
phosphatase in homogenate tissues of infected snails were reduced
in response to exposure to ginger.
7- Anti-leech effect of Zingiber officinale
Limnatis nilotica (L. nilotica), an internal leech is
commonly found in Southern Europe, North Africa, and the
Middle East. It attaches itself to the mucous membranes of the
pharynx, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and oesophagus. Patients
infested with L. nilotica often present with epistaxis, hemoptysis,
or hematemesis [40]. The anti-leech effects of the methanolic
extract of Z. officinale with levamisole were evaluated. It was
found that methanolic extract of Z. officinale (600 mg/ml) killed
leeches at an average time of 33.3±11.4 min while, the average
time for death with levamisole (100 mg/ml) was 10.7±1.9 min
[41].
In another experimental study, anti-parasitic effect of Z.
officinale on L. nilotica leech was evaluated. After treating the
leeches with Zingiber officinale (32 × 104 ppm) and the positive
controls with chlorine (4 × 106 ppm), formalin 37% (4 × 103 ppm)
and savlon (4 × 103 ppm) for 30 min, the mean death time of L.
nilotica was measured. The mean death time for Z. officinale was
24 ± 4.07 min and for chlorine, savlon and formalin were 1.62 ±
0.51, 3.37 ± 1.9, 5.12 ± 1.9 min, respectively. These results offer
an opportunity for using ginger medicinal plant as anti-parasitic
and disinfectant [42].
Conclusion
Z. officinale has an effective anti-parasitic activity against
several parasites and can be used for prevention of drug resistant
parasitic diseases. However, further evaluation is necessary to
isolate the active constituents, and determines their toxicity, side
effects and pharmaco-kinetic properties.
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Phytother Res 22:1035-1039
Citation: El-Sayed NM, El-Saka MM (2015). Anti-parasitic Activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger): A Brief Review. Aperito J Bacteriol
Virol Parasitol 2:112
http://dx.doi.org/10.14437/2378-7864-2-112
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41. Bahmani M, Golshahi H, Mohsenzadegan A, Ahangarani MG,
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extract with levamisole. Comp Clin Pathol 22:667670
42. Forouzan S, Bahmani M, Parsaei P, Mohsenzadegan A,
Gholami-Ahangaran M, et al. (2012). Anti-parasitic activities
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Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 112 www.aperito.org
... This perennial herb shows various therapeutic effects as an antiemetic, antithrombotic, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic [5]. In addition, Z. officinale exerts significant anti-helminthic, anti-protozoal, and anti-leech activity, as well as molluscicidal and insecticidal properties [6][7]. Significantly, as an antischistosomal drug, ginger improves the granulomatous inflammation, the main pathological sequalae associated with Schistosoma infection [8]. ...
... Deterioration of the tegument a lengthwise the whole worm would impair its normal function and damage its defense mechanism as well, hence it could be readily overcome by the host's immune response [43]. Similar to the mentioned application of ginger extract in previous literature [6], GNPs can be successfully employed for treatment of variable neglected tropical parasitic diseases, including toxocariasis, aniskiasis, hydatidosis, african trypanosomiasis, giardiasis, blastocystiasis, and toxoplasmasmosis. ...
Article
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Background Nanotechnology has been manufactured from medicinal plants to develop safe, and effective antischistosmal alternatives to replace today’s therapies. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger-derived nanoparticles (GNPs), and the therapeutic effect of ginger aqueous extract, and GNPs on Schistosoma mansoni ( S . mansoni ) infected mice compared to praziquantel (PZQ), and mefloquine (MFQ). Methodology/principal findings Eighty four mice, divided into nine different groups, were sacrificed at 6 th , 8 th , and 10 th week post-infection (PI), with assessment of parasitological, histopathological, and oxidative stress parameters, and scanning the worms by electron microscope. As a prophylactic drug, GNPs showed slight reduction in worm burden, egg density, and granuloma size and number. As a therapeutic drug, GNPs significantly reduced worm burden (59.9%), tissue egg load (64.9%), granuloma size, and number at 10 th week PI, and altered adult worm tegumental architecture, added to antioxidant effect. Interestingly, combination of GNPs with PZQ or MFQ gave almost similar or sometimes better curative effects as obtained with each drug separately. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained when ½ dose GNPs combined with ½ dose MFQ which achieved 100% reduction in both the total worm burden, and ova tissue density as early as the 6 th week PI, with absence of detected eggs or tissue granuloma, and preservation of liver architecture. Conclusions/significance GNPs have a schistosomicidal, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective role. GNPs have a strong synergistic effect when combined with etiological treatments (PZQ or MFQ), and significantly reduced therapeutic doses by 50%, which may mitigate side effects and resistance to etiological drugs, a hypothesis requiring further research. We recommend extending this study to humans.
... Therefore, the investigation of plants employed by traditional medicine could be a strategy for finding the alternative treatments. In vitro and in vivo studies have proven that several medicinal plants extracts and their constituents exert significant antiparasitic activities (El-Sayed et al. 2012;El-Sayed and Safar 2014;El-Sayed and El-Saka 2015). These extracts act by interfering with parasites membrane integrity, DNA intercalation /alkylation, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction (El-Sayed 2009;El-Sayed et al. 2012;Wink 2012). ...
... Many experimental and clinical trials have established ginger for its therapeutic activities such as antiemetic, stomachic, expectorant, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective activities (Imtiyaz et al. 2013). El-Sayed and El-Saka (2015) reviewed the antiparasitic activity of Z. officinale; it has a significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Aniskis simplex, Dirofilaria immitis, Hymenolepis nana and hydatid cysts either in vivo or in vitro. Also, it has a significant effect against protozoa like Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Blastocystis species. ...
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This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinale on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinale showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinale on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice with treated eggs by the lower concentrations. In conclusion; Z. officinale extract possessed dose-dependent anti-T. canis activity on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of T. canis eggs.
... [23] There is the theory that the mechanism of activity of Z. officinale could be peripheral and central, i.e., antihistaminic as well as an anticholinergic. [24] Z. officinale can therefore play an important role in preventing and treating various diseases, on the other hand, it can be used as an alternative to chemical drugs. ...
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OriginaAims: The control of fascioliasis has depended on the utilization of a predetermined number of anthelmintic drugs. Nonetheless, the resistance of antifasciolid is presently boundless, and there is a need for potential drug properties of medicinal plants as new medications against Fasciola spp. to interrupt the parasite transmission. Materials and Methods: This investigation is meant to assess the potential anti‑fasciolicide impacts of Zingiber officinale roscoe hydroalcoholic extract against the Fasciola miracidia. The eggs of Fasciola hepatica were gathered from the livers contaminated goats and sheep and washed 20 times with chlorine‑free water, and afterward incubated at different pH, temperature, and light density for embryonic development. Concentrated miracidia of Fasciola spp. were incubated at different concentrations (2, 5, and 10 μg/mL) of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. officinale at different time intervals. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA statistical test. Results: The extract at different concentrations showed antifasciolid effects in comparison to triclabendazole. This braking action was dose‑proportional and further related firmly to the disclosure time (P < 0.001). In concentration of 10ug/ml extract killed the parasites at 105 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In vitro antimiracidia activities of the hydro alcoholic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory and potent fasciolicide effective, however, in vivo impact of this extract, remains for extra assessment. In this manner, these therapeutic plant extracts might be seen as confident origins of bioactive composites that could be matured against miracidia. This is the main work to evaluate the potential enemy of fasciolicide impact of certain plants against Fasciola miracidia.l Article
... Production of new medications from this herb can be utilized for fighting the infectious diseases. Many experimental and clinical studies have proven the antiparasitic effects of Zingiber officinale [103]. Choi et al. [104] studied antitoxoplasmic activity of fifteen medicinal plants extracts. ...
Preprint
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) which infects about thirty percent of the world human population. Infection occurs by the consumption of Toxoplasma tissue cysts in raw or undercooked infected meat, intake of the contaminated food or water with Toxoplasma oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, blood transfusion, placental transmission or organ transplantation. Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection in the pregnant women and the immunocompromised individuals resulting in severe complications as encephalitis, pneumonitis and myocarditis with high mortalities. Unfortunately, few effective drug therapies for this disease are available, their aim being the decrease of the parasite replication rate to prevent more pathological changes in organs involved as well as to avoid the serious complications. The recommended therapy for treatment or prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, in spite of this combination is so effective against acute toxoplasmosis but being unsuccessful in the treatment of toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, encephalitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Anti-Toxoplasmic drugs need to be effective against the all stages and strains of Toxoplasma parasite with a higher penetration into the cerebral, ocular and placental tissues and have no side effects as fetal toxicity and teratogenic effects. Up till now, there is no available drug has all these advantages. The occurrence of side effects, the development of resistant strains and the lack of effectiveness against Toxoplasma tissue cyst are the main disadvantages of the current drug therapies. The discovery of drug therapies with a lower toxicity and able to prevent and treat toxoplasmosis would represent a novel era in the treatment of this infectious disease, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, the researches technology with regard to the parasite's proteomics and functional genomics are needed for the development of new and safer drug agents. Currently, an increase orientation of the pharmacological action of natural agents and medicinal plants are usually considered to be safer than synthetic drugs. The value of these plants as sources of natural product bioactive molecules to medicine related to their chemotherapeutic effect and considered as template molecules for the manufacture of new drug agents. Recently, most of the researches in the drug development for toxoplasmosis focus on the use of nanotechnology for improving
... Ginger belongs to the Family Zingiberaceae and has about 85 species of aromatic herbs [8]. The tuberous rhizome of ginger is a specialized segmented stem structure that grows horizontally just under the soil surface. ...
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The Monogenean parasite, Dactylogyrus sp., is being considered as one of the most dangerous pathogens in freshwater fish with a high infestation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The treatment of parasites including Monogeneans is an important part of fish health maintenance in the overall cycle of aquaculture. Novel applications of natural plant products to eradicate the parasites have taken high attention in aquaculture since they are reported to have less adverse impacts on the environment and fish in comparison to other chemical treatments. In the present study, in vitro antiparasitic effects of the ginger (Zingiber officinale) bulb and pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel against Dactylogyrus sp. were investigated by using in vitro tests. Individuals of the parasite were exposed to different concentrations of ginger (10, 50, 100, and 250 mg/ml) and pomegranate peel (50, 100, 250, and 500 mg/ml) for a specified period. In vitro cumulative mortality values reached 100% in 5 minutes after exposure to ginger at the concentration of 250 mg/ml in 9 minutes after exposure to 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml. Cumulative mortality was 58% in 9 minutes after exposure to ginger at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. In in vitro pomegranate tests, cumulative mortality values were assessed 100% in 3 minutes after exposure to pomegranate peel at the concentration of 500 mg/ml and in 6 minutes after exposure to 250 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. Cumulative mortality was 66% in 6 minutes after exposure to pomegranate peel at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. In vitro results revealed that ginger and pomegranate peel solutions had antiparasitic effects on Dactylogyrus sp. to some degree, depending on solution concentration and exposure time. The efficacy of the ginger and pomegranate peel solutions against Monogeneans should be confirmed in fish through in vivo tests.
Chapter
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) which infects about thirty percent of the world human population. Infection occurs by the consumption of Toxoplasma tissue cysts in raw or undercooked infected meat, intake of the contaminated food or water with Toxoplasma oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, blood transfusion, placental transmission or organ transplantation. Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection in the pregnant women and the immunocompromised individuals resulting in severe complications as encephalitis, pneumonitis and myocarditis with high mortalities. Unfortunately, few effective drug therapies for this disease are available, their aim being the decrease of the parasite replication rate to prevent more pathological changes in organs involved as well as to avoid the serious complications. The recommended therapy for treatment or prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, in spite of this combination is so effective against acute toxoplasmosis but being unsuccessful in the treatment of toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, encephalitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Anti-Toxoplasmic drugs need to be effective against the all stages and strains of Toxoplasma parasite with a higher penetration into the cerebral, ocular and placental tissues and have no side effects as fetal toxicity and teratogenic effects. Up till now, there is no available drug has all these advantages. The occurrence of side effects, the development of resistant strains and the lack of effectiveness against Toxoplasma tissue cyst are the main disadvantages of the current drug therapies. The discovery of drug therapies with a lower toxicity and able to prevent and treat toxoplasmosis would represent a novel era in the treatment of this infectious disease, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, the researches technology with regard to the parasite’s proteomics and functional genomics are needed for the development of new and safer drug agents. Currently, an increase orientation of the pharmacological action of natural agents and medicinal plants are usually considered to be safer than synthetic drugs. The value of these plants as sources of natural product bioactive molecules to medicine related to their chemotherapeutic effect and considered as template molecules for the manufacture of new drug agents. Recently, most of the researches in the drug development for toxoplasmosis focus on the use of nanotechnology for improving the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs. The combination of nanoparticles and plant extracts to give rise broad spectrum of drugs may be a greater chance for defeating Toxoplasma infection. This chapter aimed at giving an update on the current progress in the development of new drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.
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Nowadays, there is an increasing awareness of the anti-parasitic potential of the natural products and medicinal plants. The importance of these plants as sources of natural product bioactive molecules to medicine lies not only in their pharmacological or chemotherapeutic effect, but also in their role as template molecules for the production of new drug substances.
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Ginger (Zingeber officinale) is one of the world's best known spices, and it has also been universally used throughout history for its health benefits. The purpose of this study to evaluates the effect of ethanolic extract of Z. officinale (EZO) as antiprotoscolices in vitro and in vivo. Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus were collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to three different concentrations of EZO extract (150,100,50)mg /ml for 0, 30,60,90, 120 min. The rate of alive of protoscolices was 97% in control group. Protoscolices were exposed to ethanolic extract of Z. officinale at concentration of 50 mg /ml was 60%, 46.2% ,15.37% ,7.7% and 0% after 0, 30, 60 ,90 and 120 min respectively. Viability rate of this extract at concentration 100 mg/ml was 51.33%, 37.53%,20% and 0% after 0,30,60 and 90 min respectively. Zero percent viability rate was observed at concentration of 150 mg/mL after 60 min of exposure. To determine the in vivo efficacy, mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with viable protoscolices and then treated with EZO in the next day. The result showed in treated group significant reduction in weight of liver and spleen. Histological sections of the liver from mice treated with EZO at concentration 50 mg /ml showed proliferation of kupffer cells as a defensive cell with few mononuclear cells in sinusoids and absence of hydatid cyst comparing with control group revealed Hydatid cyst wall and necrosis of hepatocytes. These results showed that EZO have protoscolicidal effects in vitro and in vivo.. Copy Right, IJAR, 2014,. All rights reserved
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Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease that infects humans. Schistosoma mansoni is one of the main species of schistosomes infecting humans. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, act as an intermediate hosts and play a major role in the transmission of schistosomes. The effect of Zingiber officinal (ginger) on the survival rate, egg production, electrophoresis analysis , biochemical aspects of B. alexandina snails infected with S. mansoni were studied. The obtained result showed that a rapid decline in survival rate and egg production of infected snails with S. haematobium exposed to ginger. The present results also, showed that the glucose concentrations in uninfected and infected snails exposed to ginger were increased in hemolymph, while soft tissue glycogen decreased. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and glucose-6-phosphatase in homogenate of snail's tissues of uninfected and infected snails exposed to ginger were reduced (P< 0.001) in response to infection and exposure to ginger. Qualitative and quantitative effects on the protein patterns have been revealed for uninfected and infected snails exposed to ginger. The electrophoresis pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands.
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Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoal infections in human especially children. Metronidazol (MTZ) is the drug of choice for treatment of giardiasis; its chemical composition possesses major threats and is becoming less sensitive. This study aimed to search for natural extracts alternative to MTZ. In-vivo effects of dichloromethane extracts of ginger and cinnamon in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day separately were studied on 30 experimentally infected albino rats divided into 6 groups (5 rats each). Plant extracts were started on the 6th day post infection for 7 successive days. The study was evaluated by fecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts, histopathology, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examinations of the small intestinal mucosa. Ginger and cinnamon caused reduction of fecal cyst and trophozoites counts. Histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to each extract revealed evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damage produced by G. lamblia infection and direct structural injury to the trophozoites. However, these results were more obvious after exposure to cinnamon extracts. We confirmed the potential therapeutic effects of ginger and cinnamon extracts on G. lamblia infection in albino rats as a promising alternative therapy to the commonly used antigiardial drugs.