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First record of cacyreus marshalli butler, 1898 (lycaenidae) from Turkey


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Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lycaenidae) is recorded for the forst time from Turkey.
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Nota lepid. 36 (2): 189 – 190
First record of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lycaenidae)
from Turkey
Tarkan Soyhan
1, Süha Başer 2 & Vazrick nazari
1 Goksu evleri Oyacicegi sk. B 160 A (34815), Anadoluhisari, Istanbul, Turkey;
2 Valide cesme Aktarlar sk. Akdogan apt. 13/3 (34357) Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey;
3 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 3058-C KW Neatby bldg., 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa,
ON K1A 0C6 Canada;
Received 22 November 2012; reviews returned 8 January 2013; accepted 16 January 2013.
Subject Editor: Zdeněk F. Fric.
Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898, originally described from South Africa, was acciden-
tally introduced into the Balearic archipelago through importation of its ornamental
host plant (Pelargonium; Geraniaceae), and has been expanding its range in Europe and
northern Africa since 1988 (Marko & Verovnik 2009; Tshikolovets 2011). The rst re-
cords came from Mallorca (1988), Belgium (1991), mainland Spain (1992), Italy (1996)
and Morocco (1997). The current range of the species in the Palaearctic region is given
as Canary Islands, Madeira, Morocco, Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, southern
France, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta, Greece, as well
as single records of introduced individuals from southern England, the Netherlands,
Belgium and Germany (Tshikolovets 2011). In Greece, the species was rst found
on Corfu in 2008 (Parker 2010), and a year later also in Attica (Athens & Spétses
Island; Anastassiu et al. 2010; Coutsis et al. 2011; Martinou et al. 2011). Recorded
host plants include Geranium and Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) (South Africa) as well as
imported and cultivated Pelargonium in Europe (Eitschberger & Stamer 1990; Marko
& Verovnik 2009).
Cacyreus marshalli had never before been recorded in Turkey. Our rst observation
of a specimen was in Gündoğan (Bordum district) in August 2011. Because no speci-
mens were collected and photographed at that time, the region was surveyed again
in 2012. On the 23rd of October 2012, we collected the rst male specimen (Figs 1,
2) in Bodrum, Gündoğan (N 37° 8′ 56.48″, E 27° 20′ 9.55″; Fig. 3), nectaring on Pe-
lar gonium. The specimen is currently deposited in the research collection of the rst
author. A systematic investigation of the scale of larval damage to Pelargonium plants
in the area remains to be done. This area is a touristic region in the southwest of Turkey
near the Aegean Sea. The approximate location of our observation in Turkey is given
in the distribution map (Fig. 3). Bodrum Peninsula is only about 15 km linear distance
from the Greek Dodecanese island of Kalymnos, where C. marshalli was observed at
several locations near Panormos in October 2011 (Kissling 2012). It is to be expected
that this invasive species will spread further in the Eastern Mediterranean Region along
the Turkish coast.
Nota lepidopterologica, 20.12.2013, ISSN 0342-7536
190 Soyhan et al.: First record of Cacyreus marshalli from Turkey
We would like to thank two anonymous Nota reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier draft
of this paper.
Anastassiu, H. T., N. Ghavalas & J. G. Coutsis 2010. First record of Cacyreus marshalli in Greece, and
comments on the potential occurrence of Zizeeria karsandra on the Greek island of Crete (Lepidoptera:
Lycaenidae). – Phegea 38 (3): 85 – 92.
Coutsis, J. G., H. T. Anastassíu & N. Ghavalas 2011. An explanatory note on a previous article of ours,
po pulation uctuations of the imported Cacyreus marshalli in Greece, and an assessment of its being
a potential threat through larval competition to native butteries with Geranium feeding larvae (Le pi
do ptera: Lycaenidae). – Phegea 39 (2): 43 – 44.
Eitschberger, U. & P. Stamer 1990. Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898, eine neue Tagfalterart für die euro-
päische Fauna? (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). – Atalanta 21 (1/2): 101 – 108.
Kissling, T. 2012. Cacyreus marshalli. –;id=84671.
Accessed December 2012.
Marko, K. & R. Verovnik 2009. First record of Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Penin-
su la. – Nota lepidopterologica 32 (1): 81 – 82.
Martinou, A. F., D. Papachristos & P. G. Milonas 2011. Report of the Geranium Bronze Buttery, Cacyreus
marshalli for mainland Greece. – Hellenic Plant Protection Journal 4: 31 – 34.
Parker, R. 2010. Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) newly recorded for Corfu,
with notes on other butteries on the island in September 2008. – Entomologist’s Gazette 61: 40 – 42.
Tshikolovets, V. V. 2011. Butteries of Europe and the Mediterranean Area. – Vadim Tshikolovets publica-
tions, 544 pp.
Figs 1, 2. Cacyreus marshalli specimen from Turkey 1. Upper side. 2. Underside.
Fig. 3. Known distribution of Cacyreus marshalli in Europe and North Africa (shaded area; modied from
Tshikolovets 2011), and the approximate position of the observation in Turkey (red circle, arrow).
1 2
... Οι πρώτες καταγραφές έγιναν στη Μαγιόρκα (1988), Βέλγιο (1991), ηπειρωτική Ισπανία (1992), Ιταλία (1996) και Μαρόκο (1997). Η γνωστή, μέχρι σήμερα, εξάπλωση του είδους είναι η εξής: Ν. Αφρική, Μαρόκο, Κανάριοι Νήσοι, Ιβηρική χερσόνησος, Βαλεαρίδες Νήσοι, Ν. Γαλλία, Κορσική, Σαρδηνία, Ιταλία, Ελβετία, Σλοβενία, Κροατία, Μάλτα, Ελλάδα και Τουρκία (Souhan et al. 2013), επίσης Βοσνία-Ερζεγοβίνη (πρώτη καταγραφή εκεί το 2016) (Koren & Kulijer 2016). Στις παραπάνω περιοχές (εκτός φυσικά της Ν. Αφρικής όπου είναι ιθαγενές) το είδος δείχνει να έχει εγκατασταθεί, αλλά υπάρχουν και μεμονωμένες καταγραφές ατόμων από τη Ν. ...
... Αγγλία, την Ολλανδία, το Βέλγιο και τη Γερμανία (Tshikolovets 2011, Souhan et al. 2013). ...
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During the period 2005-2017, the lepidopteran species of the sub-order Rhopalocera were collected and studied in the Ossa mountain for the first time. A total of 73 species, belonging to 6 families, were identified. Specifically, 3 species of the family Papilionidae, 15 of the family Pieridae, 20 of the family Lycaenidae, 12 of the family Nymphalidae, 11 of the family Satyridae and 12 of the family Hesperiidae, were collected. The species biodiversity on various habitat types of Ossa mountain, was also examined. The richest diversity was recorded on mountain meadows and on glades of beech forests (Fagus sp.) (61 and 59 species, respectively). It was lower on semi-alpine zone and on oak forests (Quercus sp.) (45 and 44 species, respectively). Minimum biodiversity was found on semi-mountainous mixed forests of conifer and deciduous trees (29 species). The distribution of some species such as Spialia phlomidis (Herrich-Schäffer), Muschampia tessellum (Hübner), Pyrgus sidae (Esper) (Lepidoptera : Hesperiidae), Satyrium w-album (Knoch), Scolitantides orion (Pallas), Agrodiaetus admetus (Esper) (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae), Anthocharis gruneri Herrich-Schäffer, Pieris krueperi Staudinger (Lepidoptera : Pieridae) and Pseudochazara anthelea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera : Satyridae) was very local and limited. Of special interest are the records in the Ossa mountain of the very local and rare species S. phlomidis, M. tessellum, S. orion, S. w-album, which are known to have very limited distribution in Greece.
... This species was also established in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom but was unable to survive the winter season (Gross, 2010). Also, it was recorded in Turky (Tarkan et al., 2013). It was naturally distributed in many countries from South Africa such as Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Heaths et al., 2002). ...
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The geranium bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli photographs for egg were taken. Larvae are elongate Butler, 1898,(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae: (Geraniaceae)in many districts in Alexandria and adults [male & female]) of this butterfly was described (onisciform) slightly flattened and yellowish to light green the stem of Pelargonium zonaleandP. inquinans in detail. As well as, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Governorate. Morphology of each stage (egg, larva, pupa bands on edges in both sexes. The diagnostic slightly shorter than female. Forewingand hindwingwith than the ventral one, with abdominal parts pale yellowish characteirstics of adult male and female were described in plants. It infests flowers, neck of flowers and borrows in in colour. The obtect pupae are with dorsal aspect darker dorsal side brown in colour and with white and brown fine detail. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla were described Polyommatini) is an important pest of some ornamental in colour and with dense long hairs dorsally. Male is and photographed by SEM photographe.
... També ha estat trobada a l'illa de Malta (Sammut 2007), que en representava la seva troballa més oriental d'Europa. I el 2009 va ser trobada a Croàcia (Marko i Verovnik, 2009), anant cap al sud per la costa dàlmata, fins a Grècia (Anastassiu et al., 2010) i Turquia (Soyhan et al., 2013) (Pons et al., 2003). A Menorca ha estat recol·lectada a la zona de jardins amb fonts de les pedreres de s'Hostal (Ciutadella), el juliol de 2018, essent aquesta la primera cita per a Menorca. ...
... In Turkey, the first published sightings of C. marshalli were reported from Gündoğan, Bodrum (Muğla Province) in the south-west of the country, close to the Dhodhekánisa (Dodecanese) (Soyhan et al., 2013), the result of an observation there in August 2011. However, C. marshalli had been photographed (Fig. 4) elsewhere, it is believed that its presence resulted from the introduction of infested ornamental geraniums to the district, a well-known tourist destination in the south-west of the country. ...
... It was accidentally introduced into the Balearic archipelago (EITSCHBERGER & STAMER, 1990) through the importation of its ornamental host plant (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) and since then it has continued to spread its areal throughout Europe. Currently, its known range in Europe includes Spain (RAYNOR, 1990;SARTO I MONTEYS & MASO, 1991;SARTO I MONTEYS, 1992), Belgium (TROUKENS, 1991), Italy (TREMATERRA et al., 1997), France, Portugal and Morocco (TARRIER, 1998), Malta (SAMMUT, 2007), Sweden (RYRHOLM, 2007), Slovenia (POLAK, 2009), Croatia (KOSMAČ & VEROVNIK, 2009KUČINIĆ et al., 2013), Greece (PAMPERIS, 2009;PARKER, 2010;ANASTASSIU et al., 2010;COUTSIS et al., 2011;MARTINOU et al., 2011;GALANOS, 2014GALANOS, , 2016, Turkey (SOYHAN et al., 2013), Bulgaria (LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2014), Bosnia and Herzegovina (KOREN & KULIJER, 2016) and Albania (SACHANOWICZ et al., 2016). A recent publication (LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017) expands the list with Macedonia and Montenegro. ...
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This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland. Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
... During the past 25 years, the butterfly has colonised much of North Africa and southern Europe, where it has become established. Till now its known range in the Mediterranean comprises: Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, Croatia, Greece, Morocco, and Turkey (Eitschberger & Stamer 1990, Raynor 1990, Sarto i Monteys & Masó 1991, Tarrier 1998, Trematerra et al. 1997, Sammut 2007, Polak 2009, Kosmač & Verovnik 2009, Anastassiu et al. 2010, Soyhan et al. 2013, and there are isolated reports of the species from the UK, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Sweden (Luy 1996, Luy 2002, Gros 2010). ...
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The present paper reports some new records of the species Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus marshalli) from certain localities in the Mediterranean part of the South-East Balkan Peninsula, along with data regarding its biology. The collection of the data was done as a part of field work across Bulgaria, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, as well as from other different sources (literature data, personal communications and the Internet). The first finding of the Geranium Bronze in the R. of Macedonia is also reported here.
... Since its accidental introduction to Mallorca in 1988, it has been spreading rapidly through the Western Mediterranean, later also heading east through Southern Europe. At the moment it has reached Turkey and it shows no sign of stopping, unless it gets to areas where no Pelargoniums are planted in urban areas (Soyhan et al. 2013). ...
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Aim The Mediterranean Red List assessment is a review of the conservation status at regional level of approximately 6,000 species (amphibians, mammals, reptiles, fishes, butterflies, dragonflies, beetles, molluscs, corals and plants) according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level to guide appropriate conservation actions for improving their status. This report summarises the results for Mediterranean butterflies. Scope The geographical scope is the Mediterranean region according to the Mediterranean Basin Biodiversity Hotspot (Mittermeier et al. 2004), with exception of the Macaronesian islands which have not been included in this study. Conservation status assessment The species conservation status was assessed using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012a). The assessments followed the guidelines for application of IUCN Red List Criteria at regional levels (IUCN 2012b). They were compiled from a network of 35 experts from 20 countries in the region, and reviewed during a workshop in Málaga (Spain) in 2013 and through correspondence with relevant experts. All individual taxon assessments are available on the IUCN Red List website: Mediterranean butterflies In the Mediterranean region 463 species of butterflies are recorded, 98 of them endemic (which means that they are unique to the Mediterranean and found nowhere else in the world). Thirty-four species occur only marginally in the region, while one species (Cacyreus marshalli) was introduced in the 1980s; and therefore these 35 were considered as Not Applicable in this assessment. The highest diversity of butterflies is found in mountainous areas in southern Turkey, northern Greece and southern France. Results Overall, about 5% (19 species) of butterflies are threatened in the Mediterranean region. Two per cent are considered Near Threatened and more than 6% are Data Deficient. This percentage is similar to those of Mediterranean birds and it is lower than for other groups assessed in the region such as amphibians (31%), reptiles (13%), mammals (14%) and dragonflies (19%). In the Mediterranean butterflies are slightly less threatened than in Europe (8%), probably because of the higher area of remaining natural and semi-natural habitats throughout the region. With 21% of species endemic to the region, more than 15% of them are threatened with extinction. Most of the threatened species are confined to high elevations in southern Spain, the High and MiddleAtlas in Morocco and the Anti-Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey. The main current threat to Mediterranean butterflies is habitat loss due to the changes in the management of semi-natural grasslands either through intensification, overgrazing or abandonment. Other important threats are the intensity of tourism development in high mountains, specimen collection, domestic and agricultural pollution, climate change, transportation and service corridors, and mining. In many Mediterranean countries there is a significant lack of information regarding distribution, population size and trends, especially in the southern and eastern part of the region. Conclusions and recommendations Although the percentage of threatened butterflies is lower than in other groups assessed in the region, there is an important lack of information regarding distribution, population size and trends for several species, which could result in an increased number of threatened species. Changes in agricultural uses due to agricultural intensification, overgrazing and abandonment are a threat to Mediterranean butterfly diversity. Further conservation actions are necessary to improve its status: – National and international legislation should be fully implemented and revised to include the threatened species identified in this assessment. – Prioritize field work and data collection for Data Deficient species to determine whether they need conservation actions. – Species/habitat action plans should be drawn for the most threatened species. – Butterfly monitoring should be started up in many more parts of the Mediterranean. Only regular counts provide data to follow populations of butterflies in detail. – Ensure that the strong regional cooperation between experts continues, and start new cooperation efforts with experts from countries where information is scarce, so that the work carried out to produce the first evaluation of the conservation status of native Mediterranean butterflies can be updated as new information becomes available.
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Lesvos is the third biggest island of Greece, part of the East Aegean Islands and located near the coastline of Anatolia peninsula. In contrast to other islands, such as Crete, Corfu, Samos and Rhodes, the island’s arthropod fauna was understudied and with many literature gaps and for this reason, extensive research was required. Samplings took place from April 2019 to January 2022 by using pitfall traps, collecting specimens by hand and collecting and isolating galls. At first, samplings with pitfall traps took place between 2nd March 2021 and 5th May 2021 from 28 sampling stations in the area of Pirgoi Thermis. In addition, arthropods were collected by hand throughout the island of Lesvos between April 2019 and January 2022. At the same time, from March 2021 to January 2022, gall samplings from various host plants took place and they were isolated in order to collect emerged adults, parasitoids and inquilines. Consequently, all collected arthropods were photographed with a camera and, then, the photos were uploaded on the online platform iNaturalist in order to fully record the place and the date of each observation. In total, 339 different arthropod species were recorded from 29 orders, from which 12 species are probably new for science and 20 species are new for Greece. Moreover, 33 alien and invasive arthropod species were collected as well as 16 endemic species. Finally, whether Lesvos is an area of endemism is under discussionas well as the value of studying the local fauna to the benefit of agriculturists, doctors and citizens.
This study investigated for the first time species richness, abundance of butterflies and disturbed habitats in Souk Ahras Forest. The assessment of butterflies' diversity and relative abundance was conducted from July 2019 to July 2021. We recorded 60,696 individuals of 49 butterfly species belonging to six families (Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae and Sphingidae). Nymphalidae was dominant by 19 species, followed by Lycaenidae 13 species, Pieridae 10 species, Hesperiidae 4 species, Papilionidae 2 species and diurnal moths ‘Sphingidae’ with only one species. The highest number of species was recorded in oaks groves (medium high altitude) with 35 species; in terms of abundance, grassland (low altitude) dominates in number (n = 20,094). The lowest species diversity (S = 7) and number of individuals (n = 1227) were recorded in the Dense tree stratum scrub station which records significant water pollution. We notice that the abundance of butterflies was important during the spring and summer periods but less important during the winter. Landscape composition and habitat influence butterfly diversity and their dynamics. Many species used more than one distinct habitat type, or just one special habitat; we suggest that vegetation cover is an important mechanism for butterfly diversity persistence in forest ecosystems mosaics. Cette étude est la première à se pencher sur la diversité des espèces, l'abondance des papillons et les habitats perturbés dans la forêt de Souk Ahras. L'évaluation de la diversité et de l'abondance relative des papillons a été réalisée entre juillet 2019 et juillet 2021. Nous avons recensé 60 696 individus parmi 49 espèces de papillons appartenant à six familles (Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae et Sphingidae). Avec 19 espèces, les Nymphalidae étaient dominantes. Elles étaient suivies par les Lycaenidae (13 espèces), les Pieridae (10 espèces), les Hesperiidae (4 espèces), les Papilionidae (2 espèces) et des papillons diurnes « Sphingidae »’ (une seule espèce). Le plus grand nombre d'espèces a été enregistré dans les chênaies (moyenne ou haute altitude) avec 35 espèces; en termes d'abondance, la prairie (basse altitude) domine en nombres (n = 20 094). La plus faible diversité d'espèces (S = 7) et le nombre d'individus le plus bas (n = 1227) ont été enregistrés dans la station de broussailles de la strate arborée dense qui présente une importante pollution de l'eau. On remarque que l'abondance des papillons était importante durant les périodes printanières et estivales mais moindre durant l'hiver. La composition du paysage et l'habitat influencent la diversité des papillons et leur dynamique. De nombreuses espèces utilisaient plusieurs types d'habitats distincts ou un seul habitat spécial; nous suggérons que la couverture végétale constitue un mécanisme important pour la persistance de la diversité des papillons dans les mosaïques d'écosystèmes forestiers.
October 2014 and May 2015, samples of infested geranium plants (Pelargonium spp.) and strawberry fruits, which were collected from a local professional farmer from Erineos and Sageika area, Achaia, Peloponnese, Greece, were received at the Institute of Plant Protection in Achaia, Greece. Larvae were taken from infested plants and kept under laboratory conditions at 25±1°C, 70±5% RH and under a photoperiod of 16L: 8D until adults emerged. Adults were identified as the Geranium Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli Butler (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and European pepper moth, Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). These two Lepidoptera species are recorded for the first time in Achaia, Peloponnese, Greece.
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In July and September 2010, two samples of infested geranium plants (Pelargonium spp.), which were originally collected from Kifi ssia, Attica-Greece, were received at the Laboratory of Biological Control at Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Greece. Larvae were taken from infested plants and kept under laboratory conditions at 25±1°C, 70±5% RH and under a photoperiod of 16L:8D h until adults emerged. Adults were identifi ed as the Geranium Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli Butler (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). This species is recorded for the fi rst time for mainland Greece. Cacyreus marshalli is on the EPPO A2 List of pests recommended for the regulation as quarantine pests. Geranium Bronze Butterfly has the potential to establish in Greece and the rest of the Mediterranean basin as climatic conditions can allow this pest to overwinter outdoors and its host plants are commonly propagated.
Cacyreus marshalli is newly recorded for the Greek island of Corfu, examples having been observed during the autumn of 2008. Observations on other species of butterflies noted on the island during the same period are also recorded.
Butterflies of Europe and the Mediterranean Area. -Vadim Tshikolovets publications
  • V V Tshikolovets
Tshikolovets, V. V. 2011. Butterflies of Europe and the Mediterranean Area. -Vadim Tshikolovets publications, 544 pp.