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Why leadership-development programs fail

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... Yet, the current state of the MLD literature does not include much theoretical or empirical evidence that strategically oriented MLD programs have the desired organizational effect (Clarke, 2012;McGurk, 2010). On the contrary, both HR managers and executives have lamented the lack of connection between MLDPs and strategic or organizational level outcomes (Ardichvili et al, 2016;Bolden, 2016;Fernandez-Aráoz et al., 2017;Gurdjian et al., 2014). MLD literature has repeatedly demonstrated positive effects on an individual participant level, including gains in personal skill acquisition such as transformational leadership behaviors (Chaimongkonrojna & Steane, 2015;Dvir, Eden, Avolio, & Shamir, 2002), self-efficacy (Holmberg, Larsson, Bäckström, 2016;Packard & Jones, 2015), political skill, and similar psychological variables (see Collins & Holton, 2004;Day & Dragoni, 2015 for a review). ...
... Conversely, if the MLDP fails to promote identification and commitment, and managers do not engage in strategic action, it may explain why MLDPs have been criticized for not producing the desired organization level effects (Bolden, 2015;Ardichivili et al, 2016;Gurdjian et al, 2014). ...
... Previous research suggests MLDPs that promote middle management strategic orientation are not only more common, but essential for strategic success (McGurk, 2010). Yet, there is a general lack of theory or empirical evidence for the notion that MLDPs affect strategic and organizational outcomes (Bolden, 2016;Ardichvili et al, 2016;Fernandez-Aráoz et al., 2017;Gurdjian et al., 2014), as much of the MLD literature investigates individual level gains in skills and competencies. Thus, our study examines the effects of a MLDP attempting to redefine middle managers' roles from operational actors to strategic creators, motivating them to act in the organizations best interests. ...
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Purpose Complex organizations increasingly rely on middle managers as strategic linking-pins between the top and bottom levels of the organization. Using social identity theory and commitment theory as the foundation, this study evaluates a management and leadership development program (MLDP) intended to engage middle managers as strategy creators and implementers. We also evaluate the cascading effects of leadership development by assessing changes in subordinates' identification with the leader, and commitment to the work unit and organization. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 107 manager participants and 913 of their subordinates, this study measures differences in both manager and subordinate identification and commitment prior to and after the completion of a 6 months strategically oriented MLDP. Findings Despite the organizations' best intentions, manager identification with and commitment to the organization decreased after completion of the MLDP. Similarly, subordinates identification with the leader and commitment to the organization also decreased at Time 2. Research limitations/implications The results paint a complex picture of the nuances of social identification as an outcome of MLDPs, and problematize the notion of cascading effects on subordinates within the organization. Researchers are encouraged to further examine organizational attitudes and perceptions as outcomes of MLDPs. Practical implications Suggestions are offered regarding how practitioners can manage strategically oriented MLDPs in order to avoid identity confusion and promote strategic action. Originality/value Strategically oriented MLDPs are increasingly popular in organizations. This study is one of the first to evaluate the theoretical mechanisms through which these programs may affect managers and problematize these effects for complex organizations.
... Despite the importance of leadership, leadership development programs often end up as failures. One of the reasons behind this phenomenon is the inability of corporations to measure the impact of training programs (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2018). ...
... As outlined by Gurdjian et al. (2018), the four critical success factors of a leadership development program are: ...
... Evaluating leadership program presents some challenges as leadership itself is a complex construct. Therefore, in measuring leadership, understanding the context is essential (Gurdjian et al., 2018). In this study, in measuring the leadership, we design the evaluation based on a set of key behaviors that The Company aims for. ...
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Investing in human capital, especially in leadership development programs, has become the focus of many corporations. However, due to a lack of proper training evaluation, many companies fail to measure the impact of the training. Through evaluation, companies can also identify part of the training which still lacks and subsequently improve it. This study sought to evaluate a leadership development program held by one of Indonesia’s state-owned enterprise corporate universities, conducted on the behavior level of Kirkpatrick’s training evaluation model. With 360-degree feedback complemented by in-depth interviews of selected participants, the study found that the participants improved their leadership competencies after the training. This study gives rise to a simple and straightforward method for evaluating a leadership program.
... Leadership and its development appear to be a recurrent, pressing issue for firms in relation to their capabilities to set strategic direction and ensure sustainability (Dongrie et al., 2015;Volini et al., 2019). Global surveys by multinational consultancies have stated that leadership development will remain a future priority for firms given the speed and scope of technological, economic, political, social and demographic changes and the impact thereof on the business landscape (Bersin, 2014;Dongrie et al., 2015;Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014;Loew, 2015;Volini et al., 2019). This means the pattern of increasing investment in leadership development interventions over time by firms will be sustained, and thus, the concomitant 'proliferation of leadership development methods' (italics added, Hernez-Broome & Hughes, 2004, p. 25) will continue. ...
... Therefore, there is a need to understand how leadership development is configured and managed within firms as a bounded function, as programmes and as learning and development processes. of these developmental interventions and of the crisis of leadership and firms in the literature (Gurdjian et al., 2014;Mabey & Morrell, 2011). For example, failure is a prominent theme in the above cited global consultancy surveys and other reviews with C-Suite executives, human resource (HR) executives and staff and other stakeholders (Ready & Conger, 2003). ...
... However, these changing preferences for certain methods and forms of delivery do not address the failure of leadership. This follows from observations that a significant proportion of leaders in firms are either not ready to lead, not leading effectively or failing to lead (Loew, 2015;Gurdjian et al., 2014). This is attributed to the lack of effective contextualisation of leadership development. ...
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Orientation: Leadership and its development continue to be an urgent and critical priority for firms. As a field of practice and research, one observes that leadership development continues to be characterised by the failure to achieve its outcomes in spite of the scale of firms’ investment in it and the availability of a rich repertoire of developmental methods. Therefore, there is a need to understand how leadership development is configured and managed within firms as a bounded function, as programmes and as learning and development processes. Research purpose: The study explored how leadership development is articulated, configured and managed within the retail banking sector in South Africa; in particular, the retail banks and the Banking Sector Education and Training Authority (BANKSETA). Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of research on how the purpose of leadership development is defined by and within firms and, relatedly, how the management of leadership development has evolved within these organisations. Research approach/design and method: The research comprised a multi-site, qualitative case study that utilised semi-structured interviews at five retail banks, the BANKSETA and the local business school that hosted the BANKSETA International Executive Development Programme (IEDP). Thematic analysis was used for the within and cross-case analysis of the data. Main findings: The study illustrated how the institutional dynamics, contingencies and compromises inform the evolving management of leadership development within organisations. It traced the evolving purposes and the internal and external differentiation of the Leadership Development Centres (LDCs) of the retail banks and the BANKSETA IEDP. These illustrate how leadership development as a function, centre, programme and process is shaped over time. This includes the sampled stakeholders’ developing capabilities, their internal and external partnerships, their different positions, and the contestations and integration challenges they contend with. Practical/managerial implications: The study provides insights on the evolving management of leadership development, in particular the capabilities, roles, partnerships and identity work that needs to be grappled with. Contribution/value-add: The research can help practitioners diagnose and manage their firm’s evolving capabilities and detail a road map for managing and innovating leadership development.
... However, a sizeable group of men and women revealed a nuanced understanding of gender inequality, although only a very small minority had actually tackled it (O'Connor 2018). This may not be unrelated to the fact that although a focus on gender bias is seen as essential in successful women's leadership programmes (Ely, Ibarra, and Kolb 2012) mainstream leadership development programmes typically ignore gender inequality (for example, Gurdjian, Halbeisen, and Lane 2014;Taylor 2016). ...
... Unfortunately, there appears to be little appetite to move this forward within mainstream universities, although exemplars exist (Wroblewski 2017). Paradoxically, although a focus on gender bias is seen as essential in successful women's leadership programmes (Ely, Ibarra, and Kolb 2012) mainstream leadership development programmes typically ignore gender inequality (for example, Gurdjian, Halbeisen, and Lane 2014;Taylor 2016). Thus, for many of those in formal leadership positions in HEIs (predominantly white, male, middle class, middle-aged) gender inequality is not a really important issue. ...
Article
Global scholarship has documented gender discrepancies in power in higher education institutions (HEIs) for several decades. That research is now supported by wider gender equality movements such as those concerned with unequal pay and sexual harassment. Underlying these is the under-representation of women in senior management and full professorial positions. Thus, for example, in the US and the EU men make up the overwhelming majority of those in senior management (Rectors/Presidents/Vice Chancellors) and in full professorial positions. Variation within and across countries and types of institutions suggests that it is necessary to go beyond explanations for this at the individual level. Drawing on research in the sociology of education; higher education studies; management and leadership studies; gender studies; science and policy studies, and using quantitative data, experimental studies, individual case studies and comparative qualitative studies of HEIs, this article focuses on three discourses which legitimate the under-representation women in senior positions namely excellence, fit and national relevance. It evaluates interventions to deal with this including unconscious bias training, mentoring, gender mainstreaming interventions such as Athena SWAN and ADVANCE and ‘nudging’ leaders to end gender inequality. It concludes that a fundamental transformation of HEIs is required and suggests ways forward.
... Although LD was introduced in traditional schooling sometime around the turn of the 20 th century, substantial interest in studying LD did not rise until the 1950s (Worthy, 1955). Particularly, the last two decades have witnessed how investments in developing organizational leaders have skyrocketed as companies strive to survive in today's rapidly changing and competitive environment (Day et al., 2014;Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014;Kim, 2007). These investments stem from employer beliefs that leadership is a key source to competitive advantage (Development Dimensions International, 2014). ...
... In fact, while general training and development budgets were slashed in 2009 during the economic downturn, LD-related activities avoided any substantial decreases or cuts. This resulted in a national LD expenditure of about $14 billion annually by the American companies (Gurdjian et al., 2014). ...
Article
Regardless of industry, organization leaders recognize the need for a strong leadership pipeline and a culture of sustained leader development, and the U.S. Army is no exception. Beginning in basic training, Army leaders offer soldiers leader development training through various methods, including defining leadership expectations, providing experience-based developmental exercises, and offering self-development opportunities. The early introduction is part of a continuous leader development regimen engrained in military service, and—as a result—military veterans are often credited by employers for their leadership skills. This paper, through exploring Army leader development, proposes a framework for introducing leadership development during new employee orientations based on U.S. Army strategies. Though the proposed framework offers three leader development strategies for inclusion in new employee orientation, barriers exist which may impede successful application, and are discussed. Additionally, the authors identify three propositions and propose future research opportunities for integrating Army leader development in new employee orientations.
... The premise that the world is experiencing a leadership crisis is shared by both academics and practitioners (French, 2016;Walsh, Meyer, & Schoonhoven, 2006). Leadership development (LD), in particular, remains problematic as the existing multibillion-dollar leadership industry fails to deliver results (Conger & Ready, 2003;Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014;Kaiser & Curphy, 2013;Kellerman, 2004;Pfeffer, 2015;Pfeffer & Fong, 2002;Probert & Turnbull James, 2011). In 2014, 86% of the world's 1,500 foremost global experts agreed that we are experiencing a leadership crisis ("Outlook on the Global Agenda 2015," 2015); while in 2018 in the United States only 13% of employees believed that their leaders display moral leadership (Seidman, 2018). ...
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Leveraging leadership capability is a critical challenge for contemporary organizations. Yet leadership development (LD) remains problematic because the existing multibillion-dollar leadership industry fails to deliver results. This paper contends that the underlying reason for this precarious state of affairs is that current approaches to LD are out of sync with our changing world. To address this problem, this paper offers a new model of “leadership-as-practice development” for consulting psychologists and organizational development (OD) practitioners. The paper provides a rationale for the need for the model based on extant literature, and consulting anecdotal evidence. The paper’s position statement is presented by outlining definitions, assumptions, and perspective. An overview of the evolution of leadership models is discussed with an emphasis on, and critique of, the competency movement and the use of competency-based models as the main approach to LD. Moreover, and taking a practice orientation, the theoretical foundations of the model, which identifies and integrates three components and 42 elements, is described and discussed. Various case examples are presented. Finally, the paper recognizes the limitations of the model and offers recommendations on how to address these.
... Selon différentes études internationales de praticiens, comme celles de Mc Kinsey (Gurdjian et al., 2014) et du Boston Consulting Group 1 , le développement du leadership est devenu la principale urgence des Directions des Ressources Humaines des grandes entreprises. Cet investissement massif dans le développement des leaders traduit une attente envers eux : on attend d'eux qu'ils s'engagent, influencent ou motivent leurs collaborateurs, pour que ceux-ci s'engagent à leur tour. ...
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professeur à l'Ircom, chercheur associé à l'IFGE EM Lyon Business School, au LEMNA et au Turningpoint Lab-b.pavageau@ircom.fr) Résumé Comment la logique du don participe-t-elle au développement des leaders ? C'est sur cette question que porte notre recherche ; celle-ci s'appuie sur l'observation participante de programmes de développement du leadership offerts aux cadres, dirigeants et managers de grandes entreprises, sur des entretiens exploratoires et sur l'analyse de vingt-quatre entretiens biographiques. L'analyse qualitative par catégories montre que les leaders se développent et entraînent avec eux les membres de leur communauté par un engagement personnel pour un projet à visée commune, engagement qui se manifeste par des actes de don. Alors que le passage d'une approche individualiste à une approche collective du développement du leadership est problématique d'un point de vue aussi bien pratique que théorique, il s'explique justement par la logique du don, qui permet de tisser des relations de reconnaissance mutuelle et d'engagements réciproques pour ce projet.
... Leadership development is a multi-billion-dollar industry and one of the most expensive activities in corporate training budgets. On a global scale it is estimated that companies spend annually more than USD 60 billion for leadership development initiatives, USD 14 billion alone in the US market (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014). Spending on leadership development has been increased significantly in recent years and is predicted to increase further. ...
Conference Paper
Leadership development has become a multi-billion dollar industry, but unfortunately, way too often leadership development initiatives fail, not delivering the intended outcome. Although organizational interventions are clearly needed, research indicates that stimulating participants to take development activities on their own is far more promising for successful leadership development. The purpose of this study was to investigate how feedback following a leadership development initiative, utilizing 360-degree feedback, influences participants. Starting with analyzing the divergence between self and other ratings in 360-degree feedback, a new model is developed to investigate the influence of participants perceived accuracy and usefulness of feedback on the likelihood for to engage in self-development activities.
... Yet these programs may only be partially successful in achieving their intended learning outcomes such as successfully developing self and others [19,20]. The developers of leadership programs may assume that leadership is context free, ignore the human elements and focus too much on competencies [20,21]. More than four decades ago, Fiedler [22] questioned why most studies are unable to demonstrate the outcomes of leadership development programs. ...
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Background: There is emerging evidence that most nursing leadership learning occurs in practice and through social interactions. However, how this social process of learning takes place is not clear and there is limited information about how to support nursing leadership learning as it occurs in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the nature of leadership learning in nursing practice. It further aimed to discover the ways in which this type of learning is important to leadership development , and to determine how and why this is the case.
... Broadly, it is recommended that updated understanding of the external environment (broad and industry) and clear understanding of the organisational context is made to identify skills which require development. Such findings should inform the development of leadership programs (Gurdjian et al. 2014). ...
Thesis
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a tourism-based leadership initiative that supports leadership development within Victoria’s visitor economy, and to inform current and future leadership development, and leadership programs. Hence, this study first explores leadership within the tourism context to identify an effective leadership, followed by assessing whether an existing tourism-based leadership development training fits with the tourism context. In doing so, the program content, such as leadership skills, knowledge and behaviours, the program training approach and the outcomes derived from the training at individual, workplace, tourism destination and community levels are assessed, to support conclusions about whether such an initiative is effective and whether it should be continued. Taking the epistemological pragmatic stance of John Dewey, this study uses mixed methods inquiry to help advance the knowledge and practice of leadership development and evaluation in the tourism field. To close the current leadership development and evaluation gap, the study expands David Stufflebeam’s traditional CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) program evaluation model with specific leadership components and measures, supported by the relevant leadership theories. The study consists of three explorative phases, qualitative, quantitative, and major qualitative, where each phase informed the development of the next. At the end, the findings from each quantitative and qualitative part contributed to the conclusion of whether the tourism-based leadership development program is effective.
... Leadership development is a multi-billion-dollar industry and one of the most expensive activities in corporate training budgets. On a global scale, it is estimated that companies spend annually more than USD 60 billion for leadership development initiatives, USD 14 billion alone in the US market (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014). Spending on leadership development has been increased significantly in recent years and is predicted to rise further. ...
... The only exceptions were during the leadership module's theory and application sections, which were conducted by specialist tutors in an interactive learning style. Gurdjian et al. (2014, p. 3) suggested explicitly tailoring "from-to paths" for participants using contextual awareness and individual, group, and organisational expectations. Analysis of this case study data and the ELP outcomes clearly show the advantages that could be gained by taking context into account alongside the traditionally accepted three core elements. ...
Article
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Leadership development is an important issue for Qatar as it strives to achieve the ambitious goals set out in its 2030 National Vision (Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics, 2015). Various resources are being invested, but often with minimal results, forcing Qatar to continue to rely on expatriate expertise. Transformative learning experiences that change the deeply held beliefs, worldviews, and frames of reference of what it means to be a 21st century leader in Qatar are needed. This paper presents the case study of an executive leadership development programme to identify key success factors or inhibitors that fostered or hindered transformative learning experiences. It includes in-depth interviews conducted over a 10-month period during 2015. Additional rich data of the participants' experiences were obtained from their blogs, written assignments, and organisational documentation. A thematic analysis identified 11 themes, the inclusion of which fostered transformative learning or, the absence of which, hindered transformative learning: (1) identifying stakeholder expectations, (2) conducting a respected selection process, (3) appropriate English levels, (4) alignment between content and the participant's educational and cognitive skills, (5) time and commitment allocated to a well-structured pre-programme and a (6) post-programme stage, (7) in-depth awareness of the participants' professional and cultural contexts, (8) inclusion of autonomous components, (9) inclusion of personal and cultural interactions, (10) an acceptable balance of travel, stress, uncertainty, and course intensity, and (11) a group dynamic. There were indications the intensity of the programme pushed the participants beyond the required state of disorientation necessary for transformative learning and into one of being overwhelmed and stressed.
... Given that schools and reform trends change at a rapid rate, professional development for faculty seems critical, yet it tends to be overlooked. Another feature that seems common among what are deemed exemplary principal preparation programs is that school leadership candidates are recruited to participate, they do not self-select to enter a leadership program Gurdjian et al. (2014), is that they focus on trying to change behaviour without addressing mindsets. Leaders should feel 'stretched' and uncomfortable when learning, as learning requires accessing and examining one's assumptions and beliefs, and understanding how assumptions drive practice. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the literature on optimal learning and the implications for instructions in K-12 and Post-Secondary.
... c Leadership development interventions, by design and the way they are facilitated, does not offer participants space and context to reflect, which make these interventions highly conceptual with an overdose of theoretical insights. Gurdjian et al. (2014) have, in fact, attributed the cause of ineffectiveness of leadership development programs (LDPs) to the fact that these programs tend to: a overlook the context b fail to encourage participants to reflect and learn c underestimate the debilitating influence of participants' mindsets (thoughts, feelings, assumptions and beliefs) underlying their visible behavioural patterns. ...
Article
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Despite the access to significant insights and understanding on leadership and leadership development in the world of scholarships and availability of resources for grooming leaders, organisations in India still experience the brunt of leadership deficit (Panda, 2017; Hou, 2010; Shyamsunder et al., 2011). Why do leadership development efforts of organisations fail in grooming leaders? The author in this paper argues that Indian employees, due to the primary socialisation process in most Indian families lack psychological readiness for taking advantage of developmental opportunities. Business organisations, both domestic and multinationals, either do not pay attention to it or take it for granted. Hence, the time and money spent on leadership development interventions, programs and activities has little impact. The author delves into: a) the need for psychological readiness to become a leader; b) how and why employees in India lack psychological readiness; c) what business organisations in India should do about it. While doing so, the author covers the process of becoming a leader, and challenges of leadership development in business organisations in India. The author in this paper has proposed PEAR framework of leadership development.
... Every year, corporations all around the world spend billions of dollars on leadership development programs. Fortune 500 executives rank leadership development as one of their top three human capital priorities and one of their first concerns (Gurdjian et al., 2014). Despite this, many organizations are not entirely satisfied with the effectiveness of their leadership development programs. ...
Article
Purpose: The present study examines leader development as one of the potential outcomes for mentors and investigates whether the provision of mentoring contributes to developing mentors’ leader identity and leader self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach: Relying on a quasi-experimental design, data were collected at four points in time over eight months from a mentor (n=46) and an equivalent non-mentor group (n=25). Participants in the mentor group were volunteer mentors from a doctoral mentoring program that was implemented at a large Canadian university. Findings: Participants in the mentor group experienced a more positive change in leader identity and leader self-efficacy, compared to the participants in the non-mentor group. Further analysis of the participants in the mentor group suggests that the extent to which mentors provide career and psychosocial support explains the growth rate in the development outcomes. Practical implications: By documenting benefits of mentoring for mentors, program administrators may be able to recruit mentors who are more engaged in the process. In addition, they can encourage their members to volunteer as mentors to gain leader development outcomes. Originality/value: This longitudinal study connects the areas of mentoring and leadership development. While the majority of mentoring studies focus exclusively on mentoring outcomes for protégés, the present study shows that mentoring can benefit mentors as well.
... When it comes to developing leaders, much of it is about learning new ways of behaving, literally rewiring the brain (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2013;Rock & Schwartz, 2007), and we know from neuroscience research that it takes on average 66 days of sustained practice to create self-sustaining new neural pathways (Lally, Van Jaarsveld, Potts, & Wardle, 2010). We also know that adults typically retain just 10 percent of what they hear in classroom lectures, versus nearly two-thirds when they learn by doing (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014), and the little empirical research on the effectiveness of LDPs would tend to support this (Kirchner & Akdere, 2014). This paper reports on a case study in which a coach (the author) redesigned and supported the delivery of the coaching component of an LDP in a 58 large Australian corporation. ...
... We believe that designing a leadership development program in a real-time work environment with a real business challenge (cf. [69]) answers to the need for more contextually embedded leadership initiatives [70] and measurable outcomes [71]. We suggest that future leadership development practice can benefit from the incorporation of leadership development programs-like the one in the current study-in the day-to-day processes of departments and organizations [3]. ...
Article
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Abstract: The present quasi-experimental study tested the business impact of a leadership development program focusing on psychological well-being through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Based on the concept of engaging leadership and self-determination theory, the 8-month program targeted midlevel team leaders of the customer fulfilment center of a health systems multinational organization. The program was designed in co-creation between senior leadership and the team leaders that participated in the program. Outcomes showed positive business results through significant increases in a preselected key performance indicator and decreased employee absenteeism. Through changes in autonomy satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, the team leaders (N = 14) benefitted in a moderate to very large extent relative to a similar control group (N = 52). In contrast, team members (N = 148) displayed no such benefits. Specifically, higher levels of autonomy satisfaction are said to lead to higher levels of psychological well-being and motivation. Still, the link with business performance is absent in most organizational studies within self-determination theory, making the present study one of the first to fill this gap. The study discloses the program design, compares the effects to a relevant control group, evaluates the lessons learned, and provides practical suggestions. Keywords: co-creation; leadership development; self-determination theory; engaging leadership; intrinsic motivation; absenteeism; well-being
... According to Collins and Holton (2004) there is wide variation in the effectiveness of MLD programs in general. Furthermore, various writers claim that many MLD training programs are ineffective, or that skills and knowledge learned are insufficiently transferred back to the manager's job (Alimo Metcalfe & Alban Metcalfe, 2003;Brown et al., 2013;Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014). To address these problematic shortcomings, the behavioral criteria (BCs) constituting our deduced lay model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness could be used as "best evidence" by HRD practitioners to inform the development of "evidence-based" MLD programs, which, we suggest, are likely to be more effective than conventional programs. ...
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This study responds primarily to numerous calls for specific public management and public administration‐related research to better understand public leadership currently performed in an increasingly complex and ambiguous world. It also responds to calls in the human resource development (HRD) literature for more qualitative managerial behavior research. The inquiry explores perceptions of what behaviorally distinguishes effective managers from ineffective managers, as expressed by managers and nonmanagerial employees within a Canadian public utility company. It reaches for generalization by comparing the results against findings from equivalent qualitative managerial behavior studies carried out in three subareas of the British public sector. Using the critical incident technique (CIT), concrete examples (critical incidents [CIs]) of observed managerial behavior were collected from managers and nonmanagerial staff. The CIs (n = 530) were subjected to open and axial coding to identify a smaller number of discrete behavioral categories (BSs). Selective coding of the identified BSs (n = 99) resulted in 16 positive (effective) and 12 negative (ineffective) behavioral criteria (BCs) being deduced. Over 92% of the Canadian BSs are convergent in meaning with over 81% of the compared British BSs. Consequently, they are likely to be generalizable to other subareas of the Canadian public sector. The 8% of nonconvergent Canadian BSs and their respective underpinning CIs contain no content that could be construed as being context‐specific to the Canadian public utility sector. Implications of these study findings for HRD research and practice are discussed.
... However, due to the significance of leadership in the MNC setup, it is observed that MNCs not only focus on developing their current leaders into global leaders but also have gone one step further, to focus on developing the next generation of leaders. According to Gurdjian et al. (2014), most organizations today, have failed to cultivate leadership talent within their junior managers and consequently, face a leadership succession crisis. However, the desired expectation of MNCs is to have a sufficient supply of leaders with expected global leadership competencies to take over leadership once the current leaders either move up or outside. ...
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Developing the global leadership bench strength by advancing the global leadership competencies of high potential employees is a critical concern for Multinational Corporations (MNCs), to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Accordingly, the main purpose of this paper is to emphasize the role of line managers transformational leadership in developing the global leadership competencies of their respective subordinates, with the theoretical support of the transformational leadership theory. For the above purpose, data were collected from line manager-high potential dyads, using a structured questionnaire developed using well accepted, standard measures. Upon completion of preliminary analyses, the hypothesis was tested. From the regression analyses, it was found that there is a major impact of line manager's transformational leadership in the development of global leadership competencies of high potential subordinates. This finding is consistent with the transformational leadership theory and other empirical studies in the area and suggests the development of line manager's transformational leadership competencies for the purpose of developing the global leadership bench strength in MNCs.
... • How might your consideration of this issue/theme influence your practice as a leader? As Gurdjian et al. (2014) allude to in their article 'Why leadership development programmes fail', the design of leadership development programmes should recognise all potential barriers to success. These barriers include: ...
... Leadership development is indeed an important question for organisations. In a survey of around 500 executives, leadership development was listed as both a current and future priority (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014). In that survey, almost two-thirds of the executives listed leadership development as their number one concern. ...
Thesis
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Leadership development is an area which is a top priority for organisations. While communication has historically been viewed as one of many leadership activities, it has recently been suggested to be more central to, even constitutive of, leadership. It has also been put forth that communication researchers may provide a means to develop new theoretical frameworks from which to develop leadership. The purpose of this thesis is to further the theoretical understanding of communicative leadership development, specifically in the form of training efforts. Furthermore, the goal is to provide a new understanding to practitioners who are working with the development of communicative leadership. This is a compilation thesis that consists of three papers. An initial literature review shows that the development of leadership communication receives interest from fields related to health, for instance, from nursing teams, businesses, the military and construction. On the other hand, the subject doesn’t receive as much attention from the field of communication studies. The results of the thesis are based on interviews with managers and communication professionals in two organisations. The findings show several benefits from having communication professionals take on a role as communication trainers, such as increased visibility of the communication department within the organisation and the opportunity to continue to support the leaders after the trainings. Additionally, a framework of adult learning is used to analyse the interviews, which highlights several points of adult learning that are relevant to the development of leadership communication. Based on the empirical data and the literature review, a model of communicative leadership development is suggested. This model is an amalgamation of what was learned from the three papers and summarises the understanding that was gained. Moreover, the model should provide practitioners with a basis for developing communicative leadership trainings as well as for developing the theory of communicative leadership.
... In order to effectively implement leadership programs that have unconscious bias as a foundational component, we broaden the discussion to critical components of women-only leadership training and the need for these programs to have a distinct, inclusive focus that recognizes the various identities of women through an unconscious bias lens. As we established earlier, underrepresentation of women leaders in all sectors of society continues to be an issue in spite of significant investments in leadership development programs (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014;Kassotakis & Rizk, 2015). This points to the need for more effective approaches. ...
... Too often, leadership programs fail to make lasting change in program participants. This happens when programs focus on changing behaviors that show up on the surface, but neglect to address the underlying mindset that explains the behavioral choices being made [34]. Addressing mindsets requires a new conversation about the root cause of current behavior. ...
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The plethora of persistent and pervasive health inequities in the United States is a Wicked Problem which threatens the health and wellbeing of all people. To dismantle them is no easy task, and requires a health care workforce practiced in leadership skill sets embracing a deep focus on areas of equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI). This chapter describes how the core competencies and curriculum of the Clinical Scholars Program have been designed to offer this set of skills. To start, the program’s foundational set of 25 competencies cover four domains (Personal, Interpersonal, Organizational, and Community & Systems) and include both more traditional leadership competencies as well as contemporary competencies focused on equity, diversity, and inclusion. The curriculum takes the set of 25 leadership and EDI competencies and breaks them down into learning sessions where participants listen, practice, and apply the ideas, behaviors, and mindsets. The leadership core and the EDI core of the curriculum exist both in tandem and in unison to provide the full Clinical Scholars experience. At times, sessions focus on one core or the other, and at times, both leadership and EDI are present in the learning of a session. Example learning sessions for each core and the weaving of the cores together are provided. Four challenges to creating an equity-centered leadership program are identified: 1. The personalized nature of the journey of self-development; 2. Shifting Mindsets and Skill Sets; 3. Piloting an evidence-based curriculum on EDI; and 4. Maintaining engagement with participants over time and across distance. A set of top recommendations for weaving EDI and Leadership learning are also offered. The chapter details the importance of meaningfully focusing on EDI when tackling modern, wicked problems.
... However, with little room for emotion, leadership development programs predominantly opt for cognition-based trajectories, and again, mostly in workplace/classroom settings (Day and Dragoni, 2015;Gurjian et al., 2014;Kaiser and Curphy, 2013). A meta-analytical review of 200 empirical studies regarding the impact of leadership interventions suggested a 66% probability of achieving a positive result without providing any clues as to whether emotional experiences have an educational role in leadership interventions (Avolio et al., 2009a); neither did other meta-analyses (Collins and Holton, 2004;Powell and Yalcin, 2010;Taylor et al., 2009). ...
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Purpose This research evaluates (1) work situations prompting participants to recall memories of a wilderness-based leadership training program, (2) the content of such memories, and (3) the leadership attitudes and behaviors inspired by those memories. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews was performed with 36 leaders who had participated in a wilderness leadership transformation program in the past (on average six years before). Findings The findings suggest that, at moments with emotional pressure and psychological stress, episodic memories of wilderness experiences have a positive influence on actual leadership style. Memories involved moments of solitude, a deep connection with nature, and peer-to-peer counseling. The interviewees regularly relived their emotion-laden wilderness experiences, acquiring direction and guidance. Simultaneously, episodic memories of nature immersion promoted an enduring transformation of their leadership styles. Research limitations/implications The findings cannot be blindly generalized as referring to all leaders. The leaders in this study are a subset of leaders who are inclined towards personal growth and leadership development. It is challenging to motivate leaders unkeen on changing to achieve better leadership. Practical implications This study indicates that the inclusion of emotional concepts to address the root causes of learning among leaders might be the most promising way to innovate leadership development. Originality/value The present study makes a novel contribution to relevant literature by examining leadership transformation through episodic remembrance of leaders' experiences in nature.
... Selon différentes études internationales de praticiens, comme celles de Mc Kinsey (Gurdjian et al., 2014) et du Boston Consulting Group 1 , le développement du leadership est devenu la principale urgence des Directions des Ressources Humaines des grandes entreprises. Cet investissement massif dans le développement des leaders traduit une attente envers eux : on attend d'eux qu'ils s'engagent, influencent ou motivent leurs collaborateurs, pour que ceux-ci s'engagent à leur tour. ...
Conference Paper
Comment la logique du don participe-t-elle au développement des leaders ? C’est sur cette question que porte notre recherche ; celle-ci s’appuie sur l’observation participante de programmes de développement du leadership offerts aux cadres, dirigeants et managers de grandes entreprises, sur des entretiens exploratoires et sur l’analyse de vingt-quatre entretiens biographiques. L’analyse qualitative par catégories montre que les leaders se développent et entraînent avec eux les membres de leur communauté par un engagement personnel pour un projet à visée commune, engagement qui se manifeste par des actes de don. Alors que le passage d’une approche individualiste à une approche collective du développement du leadership est problématique d’un point de vue aussi bien pratique que théorique, il s’explique justement par la logique du don, qui permet de tisser des relations de reconnaissance mutuelle et d’engagements réciproques pour ce projet.
... In fact, previous research has shown that EI is not only a key characteristic of leadership effectiveness, but that leaders who possess high levels of EI can effectively control their own emotions and accurately assess and predict emotional 1 Authors' Note: The research reported in this article does not reflect the views of the United States Air Force nor the Department of Defense. The article was cleared for release by the United States Air Force Public Affairs (Case #: AETC-2018-0214). 2 U.S. companies spend almost $14 billion annually in leadership development (Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014). The United States Air Force (USAF) alone spends millions of dollars in leadership development by sending over 4,200 officers per year to Squadron Officer School, the purpose of which is "to develop solution-minded, bold and courageous Airmen ready to overcome today's and tomorrow's challenges" (Welcome to Squadron Officer School, 2018). ...
... Leadership training is estimated to cost about $50 billion annually (Prokopeak 2018). Despite the prodigious resources spent on leadership training, few organizations have found such training to be effective (Gurdjian et al. 2014, Nelson 2016. In lieu of traditional leadership training programs focusing on workshop instruction, some scholars suggest that leadership effectiveness can be cultivated through diverse experiences and developmental challenges (DeRue and Wellman 2009, Seibert et al. 2017). ...
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In an era of globalization, it is commonly assumed that multicultural experiences foster leadership effectiveness. However, little research has systematically tested this assumption. We develop a theoretical perspective that articulates how and when multicultural experiences increase leadership effectiveness. We hypothesize that broad multicultural experiences increase individuals' leadership effectiveness by developing their communication competence. Because communication competence is particularly important for leading teams that are more multinational, we further hypothesize that individuals with broader multicultural experiences are particularly effective when leading more multinational teams. Four studies tested our theory using mixed methods (field survey, archival panel, field experiments) and diverse populations (corporate managers, soccer managers, hackathon leaders) in different countries (Australia, Britain, China, America). In Study 1, corporate managers with broader multicultural experiences were rated as more effective leaders, an effect mediated by communication competence. Analyzing a 25-year archival panel of English Premier League soccer managers, Study 2 replicated the positive effect of broad multicultural experiences using a team performance measure of leadership effectiveness. Importantly, this effect was moderated by team national diversity: Soccer managers with broader multicultural experiences were particularly effective when leading teams with greater national diversity. Study 3 (digital health hackathon) and Study 4 (COVID-19 policy hackathon) replicated these effects in two field experiments, where individuals with varying levels of multicultural experiences were randomly assigned to lead hackathon teams that naturally varied in national diversity. Overall, our research suggests that broad multicultural experiences help leaders communicate more competently and lead more effectively, especially when leading multinational teams.
... Considering all leadership education, leadership training and development, leadership literature, leadership consulting etc. that there is, and that has been developed and conducted throughout the years (see, e.g., Gurdjian et al. 2014;Kerns, Chap. 12 in this volume; Ladyshewsky and Litten, Chap. ...
Chapter
With an effort to justify the need to debate why there are so many bad leaders, this chapter introduces the anthology as well as the chapters and their different answers on the question at stake and standpoints in the debate. After a brief background to the subject debated in the book, the book, the premises that it rests upon, and its anatomy are introduced. There is also an overview of possible, plausible explanations for the frequent occurrence of bad leaders, as well as an overview of which of these explanations that are touched upon in the various chapters.
... Only a few studies on leadership intervention effects included a thorough evaluation and measurement of leadership development outcomes (Gurjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014;Kaiser & Curphy, 2013). Studies with longitudinal measurements, which allow systematic comparison of leadership attributes before and after intervention, are relatively rare (Day et al., 2014). ...
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Authentic leadership is frequently promoted as a leadership style that responds to the contemporary challenges that leaders face. The current experimental study (n = 66) tested intrapersonal change toward authentic leadership after participation in a nature‐based training program that included a stay in remote wilderness without any facilities. Authentic leadership was measured before, immediately after, and 1 year after the training program. All components of authentic leadership increased, namely self‐awareness, internalized moral behavior, balanced processing, and relational transparency, with medium to large effect sizes (d ≈ .7). Changes in general personality traits were of a lower magnitude, suggesting that change was specific to authentic leadership, rather than extending into general psychological characteristics. The findings demonstrate that a nature‐based training program can increase authentic leadership. Immersion in wilderness is possibly conducive to change in leadership style, and could be considered as a strategy for fostering leadership change.
... Despite significant developments in both pedagogy and our theoretical understanding of leadership learning, widespread disappointment still appears to exist with what management and leadership development programmes (MLDPs) deliver (Ardichvili et al., 2016;Bolden, 2016;Fernández-Aráoz et al., 2017;Gurdjian et al., 2014;Larsson et al., 2020). In this article we wish to engage with this challenge through a detailed analysis of an element that plays a significant role in most MLDPs, namely peer interactions. ...
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Peer interaction is a standard aspect of most leadership development programmes and is seen to be conducive to learning. Realising deeper and critical reflexivity in peer interaction is, however, challenging. This study employs conversation analysis to empirically explore peer interactions in a leadership development programme for first-line managers in the public sector in Denmark. The analysis shows that a socio-moral order, that is normative expectations inherent in interactions, guide peer discussions and shape the conditions for reflection and deeper reflexivity. The socio-moral order was based on a central principle of treating each other as experts on one’s own practice. This principle allowed for reflection but turned attention away from critical reflexive practices. As a result, peer discussions took a more conservative rather than a transformational orientation. The study extends the theoretical understanding of the conditions for critical reflexivity as it demonstrates how the socio-moral order of interaction regulates engagement in critically reflexive practices.
... As noted by Gurdjian et al. (2014), understanding the difference between developing leaders and developing leadership is an important thing. Leader development focuses on developing an individual leader or an actor while leadership development focuses on the development process that inherently involves many individuals (for example Leader and followers or among colleagues in self-managed work team). ...
... A recent global survey undertaken by KPMG (2014) reports that HR professionals consider addressing skills shortages a priority. In addition, professional and academic studies show that leadership development (LD) is both a perennial issue and a core priority for organisational development in a highly competitive, uncertain and knowledge-based economy (McNally, 2014, Gurdjian et al., 2014, Consulting and Deloitte, 2015. As a result, talent management (TM) has been identified as a critical agenda item in firms' human capital development and HR strategy (Beechler andWoodward, 2009, Stahl et al., 2012) yet an area which is difficult to manage, especially at a global level (Strack et al., 2014). ...
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This study focuses on the role of coaching in talent and leadership development programmes in a multinational financial services organisation. Talent management (TM) and leadership development (LD) are the main priorities and amongst the most challenging issues on the agenda of CEOs. Coaching is often regarded as a core element of these programmes and yet there have been few attempts to explore its impact on the development of leaders within a global firm. To address this neglect, this study examines coaching in a global corporate environment, analysing perceptions of leaders who receive coaching as part of the organisation's talent management strategy. Drawing on in-depth qualitative data from 30 interviews of leaders within a multinational firm in the banking industry, this single case study argues that coaching is considered to be effective when it is long-term, bespoke, developmental and connective. Examining these characteristics, the paper argues that coaching can play a critical role within global TM and LD programmes.
... Yet, another narrative about leadership development was emerging, asserting that many leadership development programs had little impact and that perhaps the whole leadership development industry was failing (Beer, Finnstrom, & Schrader, 2016;Feser, Nielsen, & Rennie, 2017;Gurdjian, Halbeinsen, & Lane, 2014;Kaiser & Curphy, 2013;Kellerman, 2012;Pfeffer, 2015;Rowland, 2016). Arguments were made that organizations were heavily investing in leadership development with little evidence that leaders were more effective. ...
Article
Organizations are demanding leadership development that is more sensitive to context and supportive of organizational transformation, and critics of current leadership development practices claim they are too narrowly construed to yield meaningful results. Relational views of leadership may be the disruptive idea that helps reconstruct leadership development in ways that meets these concerns. To better understand how these relational views can impact the practice of leadership development, we examined the use a specific relational framework in one leadership development organization. We found that leadership development professionals used the framework to convey a relational point of view on leadership to their participants, to facilitate collective identification and action on leadership issues, to develop leadership by focusing on leadership culture, and to enable the democratization of leadership development. We use these findings to advance a constructive-developmental perspective on the development of leadership development.
... Wentworth et al. 2009;Gurdjian, Halbeisen, and Lane, 2014;Salas et al., 2012; Bernhard and Ingols, 1988. 2 Arthur et al., 2003; Executive Development Associates, undated;Wentworth et al., 2009. ...
Article
The rapidity of change and increasing complexity of the academic medical center environment require a talented and engaged workforce with competencies in adaptability, capacity for working in empowered and diverse interprofessional teams, and self-efficacy. Radiology—a crosscutting field that interfaces with most other biomedical disciplines and that is often at the forefront of technological disruption—is a potentially ideal venue to focus professional and leadership development to create positive organizational value. In this report, we detail the design of and 9-year experience with a departmental leadership academy at a large academic center intended to foster team-based skills in early to midcareer faculty and staff. Over the past decade, 100 participants have completed the program with 80% retention, substantial professional growth, and increased capacity for mentoring others. This in-house, customized leadership development program is aligned with our strategic and cultural imperative to promote nimble, engaged, and empowered teams in a diverse and inclusive setting.
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This chapter argues the timeliness of establishing leadership as a semi-profession through certification processes driven by managerial professional associations/unions. We point to positioning leadership as a semi-profession as a vehicle for driving a professionalization through knowledge-sharing among development professionals and managers, development of a common vocabulary and not least by directing the attention of scarce, yet often “uneducated” managerial talent to the fact that leadership is a skill that can and should be acquired and nurtured. Although a lack of a grand unifying theory of leadership complicates a certification of leadership, it is argued that the cost of bad leadership and the upside of professional leadership merits that more attention be directed to the development and deployment of professional leadership competence.
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This chapter first discusses the complexities of change in organizations and why so many OCD programs fail and makes the case for change agents to become evidence-based in their change agency practice. The author then offers a definition of evidence-based organizational change and development (EBOCD) and outlines the types of “best evidence” that can be used to inform and shape the formulation and implementation of OCD strategies and to critically evaluate the associated processes and change agency practices. Various distinctive evidence-based initiatives for OCD are discussed and several case examples from the United Kingdom are presented. The chapter closes with a discussion of the specific merits of “design science,” “professional partnership” research, and “replication” research.
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Leadership includes power, impact, and self-confidence. Many leaders are not aware that they profile these traits to become change agents in their communities. This chapter shares the story of a woman in Quito, Ecuador that thought that her role as an educator was not considered leadership. Imposter syndrome, more common in women than in men, is a frequent factor that limits decisions and opportunities for many individuals around the world. This case exemplifies how Claudia navigated the syndrome along with the projects she envisioned at her local community. Learning to gain self-confidence in her skills, knowledge, and attitude is key to success. Addressing the imposter syndrome in a woman could potentially reduce gender gaps in most industries.
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This research explores the relationship between participation in leadership development programmes and disengagement from the employing organization. Based on repeated interviews with 10 managers participating in an open leadership development programme, our analysis shows that half of the participants reflected a sense of distancing themselves from how their organizations practiced leadership, and for some, an emotional disengagement with their home organization which we see as analogous to changes in social identity. We problematize the role of management and leadership development programmes with regard to the relationship between organizations and employees. A series of paradoxes are reflected in our critique of this relationship. The most prominent in terms of implications is that a successful management and leadership development programme – recognized by employees and employers – can generate dissatisfaction with the home organization as a consequence of the purpose of the programme: to increase confidence and enhanced agency. This paradox has significant implication to the leadership development industry and we explore these implications.
Article
Today's leaders are often faced with resolving paradoxes stemming from interrelated, yet contradictory demands. One example is the tension between participation and decision speed because, despite its advantages, stakeholder involvement often slows the decision-making process. Theory and research suggest that a “both-and” approach in which leaders simultaneously harmonize competing demands is associated with effectiveness. Consistent with this reasoning, we hypothesized that leaders rated higher in both participative and decisive behavior are perceived as most effective. Additionally, however, we hypothesized that stakeholders place different importance on these behaviors, with direct reports emphasizing participation and supervisors emphasizing decisiveness. Using a large 360-degree feedback dataset, several analyses conducted both within and between stakeholder groups supported these predictions. These results add needed nuance to the leadership literature, suggesting that a “both-and” approach may paradoxically result in some behaviors that are less predictive of effectiveness for certain stakeholders.
Article
In 2014, CEDEP (Centre Européen d'Éducation Permanente) redesigned its General Management Program (GMP). In an effort to improve alignment of learning formats with adult learning principles, GMP decided to drop classical case studies and center learning around strategic challenges (SCs) participants face. This article discusses this novel approach, its conceptual foundations, the challenges faced during implementation, and corresponding recommendations.
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This chapter first discusses the complexities of change in organizations and why so many OCD programs fail and makes the case for change agents to become evidence-based in their change agency practice. The author then offers a definition of evidence-based organizational change and development (EBOCD) and outlines the types of “best evidence” that can be used to inform and shape the formulation and implementation of OCD strategies and to critically evaluate the associated processes and change agency practices. Various distinctive evidence-based initiatives for OCD are discussed and several case examples from the United Kingdom are presented. The chapter closes with a discussion of the specific merits of “design science,” “professional partnership” research, and “replication” research.
Chapter
Bad leaders are a distressing and discomforting reality of organizational life. “Bad bosses” are characterized as such because they are ineffective, incompetent and/or abusive. After discussing some realities concerning bad leaders and their effect on organizations, five plausible reasons for this persistent workplace problem are offered. Possible remedies are suggested, such as repositioning the role of a leader, and integrating practices for achieving high performance and well-being. An action-oriented challenge and several points to ponder are offered to encourage further engagement to help mitigate the bad leader problem. Leaders and other organizational stakeholders can benefit from a better understanding of how they can help enhance performance, well-being and virtuous behavior at work.
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Public opinion asserts that there are many “bad” leaders and managers. We challenge this view by presenting three counter perspectives. One reason is that organizations may have poor recruitment and selection procedures, resulting in the wrong people being put into these leadership and management roles. A second reason is that managers and leaders may need to implement difficult decisions for the benefit of the company. This may upset staff. A third reason is that organizations may not understand that leadership and management competence takes time and should be linked to an effective development program. The development program should increase self-awareness, provide coaching and be situated within a positive organizational learning culture. These three reasons are explored more fully in this chapter.
Article
It is not a secret that many leadership development programs are not producing their intended results, and that the majority of first-time managers are simply not effective. Even though leadership development is a high priority for organizations, most companies recognize that their programs have much to improve in selecting and developing first time managers. Perhaps it is time to reconsider the assumptions that these programs are based upon. First, while organizations tend to promote high performing individual contributors, the mindsets of an effective individual contributor do no translate to effective leadership mindsets. Second, leadership development programs generally assume that new managers can change behavior by focusing on skill development. These programs fail to identify, name, and address the underlying mindsets that influence individual action. In this article, I highlight research on leadership and leadership mindsets that can replace the assumptions of underperforming leadership selection and training programs. Building on leadership mindset research, I make recommendations to help organizations better select and train new managers.
Article
Leadership development is a top priority for many organizations and a critical driver of success. This qualitative case study research examined ways participation in a cohort‐based LDP contributed to HiPo employee's leadership development for the purpose of talent management, including an examination of which programmatic components help promote participant growth. This study illustrates the importance of, and methods to support, better leadership development outcomes for HiPos to improve talent management efforts. This research utilized a method for qualitative analysis and was conducted using a constant comparative method, requiring new findings and interpretations be compared with those previously found during analysis. Data included end‐of‐program graduate evaluations, semi‐structured interviews, and manager evaluation surveys. Findings support the importance of 360‐feedback and peer coaching as part of HiPo employee development. Each of these simultaneously improves self‐awareness, human capital, networking, and participant well‐being; the resulting model provides an illustration of the relationships found.
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Die Antwort auf die Frage, ob man Führung lernen kann, hängt davon ab, was man unter Lernen versteht. Wenn es als „Schreibtischlernen” und als das Trainieren theoretisch-analytischen Denkens verstanden wird, hilft es nur bedingt bei der Entwicklung der eigenen Führungspraxis. Denn Führen ist eine praktische, weitgehend intuitive und mit Widersprüchen durchsetze Tätigkeit. Wir verstehen Lernen als Reflexion und Auseinandersetzung mit den eigenen Denk- und Handlungsmustern. Es geht aber für Individuen nicht nur darum, herauszufinden, wie sie denken und handeln, sondern welche Dynamik sich daraus in der Interaktion mit anderen ergibt. Zur Reflexion gehört damit unweigerlich die Frage, wie andere (vermutlich) denken und handeln, wie eine Person dies interpretiert und wie alle Parteien zu einer produktiven oder unproduktiven Führungsdynamik beitragen. Das Lernen anhand authentischer Führungsfälle leistet einen bedeutenden Beitrag zur Führungsentwicklung und kann dazu beitragen, dass Führungskräfte unter verschiedenen Perspektiven ein Wissen erwerben, das einerseits Grundlagen der Führung und andererseits auch die Anwendung von Führungstheorien und -modellen umfasst. Fallstudien können auf vielfältige Art und Weise Lernräume eröffnen: So können sie den zentralen Rahmen von Unterrichtseinheiten bilden, in denen Fälle und deren Lösungen vorgestellt werden. Sie können auch als Anwendungsbeispiele in Vorlesungen verwendet werden oder den Kern von eigenständigen Kursen darstellen.