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Fuel for growth and development

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Abstract

World Statistics Day is the ideal time to showcase diverse applications of data, and how the work of statisticians is helping improve the lives of people around the world. The next 20 pages offer merely a glimpse of the full range of problems to which statistical analysis is applied, despite touching on a wide range of issues: from economic development to trade and transport, data sharing, human rights and hunger. We begin, though, with a special introduction from John Pullinger, the UK National Statistician and current chair of the UN Statistical Commission, on the importance of World Statistics Day.

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... Destructive plant sampling was completed for corn at the V6 (six leaves with collar visible), V10 (10 leaves with collar visible), and VT (tassel stage) growth stages (Abendroth et al., 2011) and divided in shoot and root parts. Soybean plants were sampled at the V3 (three sets of unfolded trifoliolate leaves) and R3 (beginning pod) growth stages (Pedersen, 2003) and divided in shoot and root parts. Root samples were triple rinsed using tap water to separate the growing media, packed in re-sealable zipper storage plastic bags, and stored at 4°C in a cold room. ...
... This tendency was similar for both shoot and root plant parts with Table 5. Soybean root dry weight, length, surface area, average diameter, and volume as well as shoot dry weight and root/shoot ratio as affected by soybean genotype and growth stage in the greenhouse. (Pedersen, 2003). ‡ Numbers followed by different letters within rows for each main effect and the genotype × growth stage interaction represent statistically significant differences at p ≤ 0.05. ...
... ‡ Numbers followed by different letters within rows for each main effect and the genotype × growth stage interaction represent statistically significant differences at p ≤ 0.05. (Pedersen, 2003). ‡ Numbers followed by different letters within rows for each main effect and the genotype × growth stage interaction represent statistically significant differences at p ≤ 0.05. ...
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Core Ideas Drought‐tolerant corn increased root length up to 33% over conventional corn. Differences in root growth among soybean genotypes were site‐specific. Nutrient dilution effect occurred in both corn shoot and root, but not in soybean. N, P, Mn, and Zn concentrations were higher in the root biomass for soybean compared with corn. Larger root systems can help crops to explore more soil volume and increase nutrient uptake. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential differences in root system growth of two corn (Zea mays L.) and two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants of contrasting genotypes. Two experiments were conducted as part of this study (greenhouse and field). The corn genotypes used in the study were considered as drought tolerant (DT) and conventional (CR)–not drought tolerant; whereas soybean genotypes were considered as highly suitable for poorly drained soils (PD) and suitable for well‐drained soils (GD). During the growing season, shoots and roots biomass were recorded and analyzed for total nutrient concentration. Roots were scanned and processed to measure root length, surface area, diameter, and volume. In the greenhouse, corn root length and volume showed greater values for the DT at the VT growth stage compared with the CR. The DT also showed higher N, Mn, and Zn uptake. In the field, the DT showed greater root length at one location. For soybean, the GD showed increased root surface area and volume at one location when compared with the PD. The PD showed higher Zn uptake than the GD. Furthermore, evaluations of nutrient dilution as a function of root biomass was similar to those observed for shoot biomass for corn, but not clear for soybean. This study emphasizes the importance of root system evaluations among different genotypes as it can help on strategies to increase nutrient uptake by crops.
... Maize and soybean are annual crops and hence the mass of individual plants changes significantly over the growing season. Each progress through vegetative and reproductive stages of development (Abendroth, Elmore, Boyer, & Marlay, 2011;Pedersen, 2009). During the vegetative stages plant mass changes rapidly as new leaves appear and the stem increases in size. ...
... The developmental process for soybean is more complex than maize. In addition to GDD, soybean plants are sensitive to the period of sunlight (photoperiod) (Pedersen, 2009). ...
... Soybean plants were sampled at the R2 growth stage (Pedersen 2003) and partitioned into shoot and root parts. Root samples were pre-cleaned in the greenhouse to remove most of the soil, and later tap water was used to separate the remaining soil. ...
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O manejo do fertilizante fósforo (P) pode alterar o crescimento da raiz e da parte aérea da soja, promovendo desequilíbrios morfológicos na planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar os ajustes morfológicos da soja (Glycine max (L.)) em diferentes colocações e taxas de adubação fosfatada em solo P, foi realizado um estudo em casa de vegetação com dois objetivos principais: 1) avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre a raiz e acúmulo de biomassa na parte aérea e as alterações associadas no comprimento das raízes; e, 2) estimar o efeito das alterações do crescimento radicular na absorção de macro e micronutrientes na planta. Os tratamentos com fertilizantes foram: (1) transmissão P na superfície do solo (BR), (2) P5x5 cm (B) aplicada na faixa (B) e (3) banda profunda P a 20 cm de profundidade (DB); usando duas taxas: (1) 60 e (2) 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 em solo com alta fertilidade. Imagens de minirhizotron e medidas de SPAD foram realizadas uma vez por semana até o florescimento. O peso seco da raiz e da parte aérea, bem como a absorção total de macro e micronutrientes foram avaliados no mesmo estágio. O aumento dos níveis de P no solo promovidos pela adubação mostra um efeito negativo no peso seco da raiz na taxa de 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e muito pouco estímulo à alocação de biomassa nas raízes quando a taxa de P foi aumentada para 120 kg P2O5 ha -1 em tratamentos B e DB. O tratamento de controlo (sem fertilizante) mostrou um comprimento de raiz 108% maior do que o tratamento com B-60. Essas alterações também alteraram a absorção de macro e micronutrientes e afetaram o teor de clorofila nas plantas de soja. O aumento dos níveis de P no solo promovidos pela adubação mostra um efeito negativo no peso seco da raiz na taxa de 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e muito pouco estímulo à alocação de biomassa nas raízes quando a taxa de P foi aumentada para 120 kg P2O5 ha -1 em tratamentos B e DB. O tratamento de controlo (sem fertilizante) mostrou um comprimento de raiz 108% maior do que o tratamento com B-60. Essas alterações também alteraram a absorção de macro e micronutrientes e afetaram o teor de clorofila nas plantas de soja. O aumento dos níveis de P no solo promovidos pela adubação mostra um efeito negativo no peso seco da raiz na taxa de 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e muito pouco estímulo à alocação de biomassa nas raízes quando a taxa de P foi aumentada para 120 kg P2O5 ha -1 em tratamentos B e DB. O tratamento de controlo (sem fertilizante) mostrou um comprimento de raiz 108% maior do que o tratamento com B-60. Essas alterações também alteraram a absorção de macro e micronutrientes e afetaram o teor de clorofila nas plantas de soja.
... In turn, SCN interacts with edaphic factors and these relationships may influence Fusarium root rot. High pH soils are more prone to problems with SCN; in a recent example, Pedersen et al. (78) showed consistent positive correlations between soil pH and SCN populations in several experiments in Iowa and Wisconsin. Soil pH can affect soilborne fungi as well; Killebrew et al. (43) found that isolation of F. virguliforme and severity of SDS was higher when soil pH was high. ...
... Plant Nutrient Sampling. Soybean plant nutrients were quantiÞed at the end of July when plants were in the R4 stage (pod growth; Pedersen 2004). The single uppermost trifoliolate was removed from Þve plants at each of the four sample locations per Þeld (20 trifoliolates per Þeld). ...
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The soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an invasive economic pest of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) in the United States. Research has shown the endemic natural enemy community in the United States is capable of suppressing A. glycines below EILs, but this biological control is inconsistent, especially in simple agricultural landscapes. In the course of a 3-yr project (2006–2008) we sought to determine the affects of landscape composition, configuration, and plant nutrients (N, P, and K) on A. glycines and aphidophagous natural enemy abundance. Specifically, we tested whether nearby grasslands contribute to the abundance of natural enemies and the suppression of A. glycines. The study site was located around the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, composed of >2,000 ha of reconstructed prairie, located in Jasper County, IA. We sampled A. glycines, natural enemies, and plant nutrients in 100 soybean fields while characterizing the landscape surrounding each field. A. glycines abundance was lowest in 2006 but reached economically damaging populations in 2007 and 2008. The ratio of natural enemies to A. glycines decreased in each year of our study (2006 > 2007 > 2008). Variation in A. glycines and natural enemies was best explained by year and, to a lesser extent by plant nutrient levels and landscape variables. Results suggest grassland habitat did not significantly contribute to the biological control of A. glycines. Furthermore, yearly decline of natural enemy may have facilitated the colonization of A. glycines leading to outbreaks later in the season.
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The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) raises concerns both about their accumulation in crops and human exposure via crop consumption. Plants take up AgNPs through their leaves and roots, but foliar uptake has been largely ignored. To better understand AgNPs-plant interactions, we compared the uptake, phytotoxicity, and size distribution of AgNPs in soybean and rice following root versus foliar exposure. At similar AgNP application levels, foliar exposure led to 17–200 times more Ag bioaccumulation than root exposure. Root but not foliar exposure significantly reduced plant biomass, while root exposure increased the malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents of leaves to a larger extent than did foliar exposure. Following either root or foliar exposure, Ag-containing NPs larger (36.0–48.9 nm) than the originally dosed NPs (17–18 nm) were detected within leaves. These particles were detected using a newly developed macerozyme R-10 tissue extraction method followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In response to foliar exposure, these NPs were stored in the cell wall and plamalemma of leaves. NPs were also detected in planta following Ag ion exposure, indicating their in vivo formation. Leaf-to-leaf and root-to-leaf translocation of NPs in planta was observed but the former did not alter the size distribution of the NPs. Our observations point to the possibility that fruits, seeds, and other edible parts may become contaminated by translocation processes in plants exposed to AgNPs. These results are an important contribution to improve the risk assessment of NPs under environmental exposure scenarios.
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Decreased biological nitrogen fixation in glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has been attributed directly to toxicity of glyphosate or its metabolites, to N2-fixing microorganisms. As a strong metal chelator, glyphosate could influence symbiotic N2 fixation by lowering the concentration of nickel (Ni) that is essential for the symbiotic microorganisms. Evaluation of different cultivars grown on different soil types at the State University of Maringá, PR, Brazil during the summer 2008 revealed, significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance) and nickel content with glyphosate use (single or sequential application). This work demonstrated that glyphosate can influence the symbiotic N2 fixation by lowering nickel content available to the symbiotic microorganisms.
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Lost Childhoods in Haiti: Quantifying Child Trafficking, Restavèks & Victims of Violence
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