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International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
185
Abstract—Goal of this research are to know benefit of
implementation of formal communications that found in
Hierarchical organizational structure.
This research uses qualitative method and explores it in
relation to the theories that related to communication in
organizations, which apply in the organizational structure and
also the communication toward the organizational structure in
the real life.
Result of The reality, that the communication o f
hierarchical organizational structure face some problems in
the role of bureaucracy, its cause the goals of target,
programme schedule, some decisions, and also the organization
purpose weren’t compatible with the expectation. An unequal
socialization was also one of the causative agent that due to the
long term bureaucratic.
According to the research of theory, and also the field of
study, the main setlement to find the solution of evectiveness
problem in hierarchical organizational structure was using
information technology. By using information technology, it
expected to solve all the problems in the organization’s work
program.
Index TermsEffectiveness, communication, hierarchical
organizational structure.
I. INTRODUCTION
Everyone is always in communication , regardless of age,
gender, religion, economic status or ethnic background,
because human beings have the ability to communicate with
each other in their’s way and also communication tools.
With communication, someone can interact and socialize[1].
Organization needs communication to streamline their
tasks.Communication in the organization called as formal
organization. Communication in the organization is the
sending process and receiving all the organization’s
message through formal and informal group in the
organization [2].
This research was conducted in relation with a paradigm
that has prevailed throughout most of the management of an
organization. Organization is a social group which
distributes tasks for a collective goal. Organization formed
by the mutual agreement between members will be
successful if the results obtained according to the measure
predefined of success criteria. The concept that has been
agreed, it be used as reference in order to facilitate the
process of achievement, because the concept is a part
(elements) of the theory. The concept was explained about
the name or label to classify or provide the meaning of
objects, experiences, events or relationships [3].
According to the research of organizational
Manuscript received Februray 8, 2012; revised April 5, 2012.
Hardani Widhiastuti is with the Psychology Semarang University
communication was very influance toward the worker
performance in Accounting Department especially in the
organization commitment and amount of pressure at work
as Intervening variable[4].
As a background consideration, Mintzberg in stated that
here are three managerial roles which can be applied by a
manager in an organization, such as Interpersonal role,
Informational Role, and The role of decisions can be seen in
the figure 1 [5].
Fig.1. Managerial role according Mintzberg.
Studied the difference impact of organizational
communication against the employee effectiveness in
Mandiri Corporation [6], The result showed that there were
any differences in organizational communication at Mandiri
Corporation (Tasbih Subdivision) and Mandiri Cororation
(Balaikota Medan Subdivision). So in essence, the
communications within the organization is supporting the
effectiveness of the organization’s performance with a
variable related and influence each other.
Studying how innovation occurs, argued that it consists of
four stages: invention, diffusion (or communication)
through the social system, time and consequences [7]. The
innovation is needed in organization in order to adjust the
internal and external environment.
On the other hand [8], stated that the tier of management
in organization, basicly divided into three, they are:
Fig.2. Hierarchical management in organization.
The hirarchical structure that we often encountered in the
The Effectiveness of Communications in Hierarchical
Organizational Structure
Hardani Widhiastuti
International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
186
organization, composed of top managers, including
managers who occupy the board of directors or the Chief
Executif Oficer (CE) with the task of preparing the
corporate plan as well as property management company.
Middle managers that called as administration manager who
includes of division managers is responsible toward the
operational implementation plans that have been instructed
by Top Managers, and first line management operasional is
the person who responsible to guide the implementation of
daily operational activity that have done by the employees.
Thereby, it can not be separated between communications
and organizational structure, wether like or not, in fact, the
first level of management uses a lot of communications to
manage the organization in internal or external organization.
The successful of organization is also determined by first
management in manage the organization [9].
II. REFERENCES
A. Communication
Organization formed by using a capable management to
realize the organization purpose. In the course of time,
organizations use Human Resource Management (HRM)
and Industrial - Organization Psychology (PIO) also known
as work psychology to manage organization. The succesful
of managerial and organization are determined by effective
communication. Communication can be defined as
exchange of information between sender and receiver, and
understanding (perception) in meaning between the
individuals involved. The exchange analysis stated that
communication is two-way process that contain some
elements that sequentially connected in communication
process [10].
Managers faces the problems and situations that range
from low to high complexity. Low-complexity situations are
routine predictable, and managed by using objective or
standart procedure. The situation with high complexity, like
a company reorganization, sometimes are ambiguous,
unpredictable, hard to analyse and often emotionally laden.
1) Hierarchical communication
Hierarchical communication is defined as the exchanges
of information and influences the organization's members,
because there is any involvement between one and another,
manager and employees in formal organization. Managers
provide five types of information through communication to
the employees, i.e. job instructions, job rationale,
organizational procedures and practices, the feedback about
performance, and the indoctrination of organizational goal.
Besides that, employees communicate the information about
themselves to the manager, co-workers and their problems,
the organizational practice and policies, and what needs to
be done and how to do it [11].
Stated that they were some dimensions of
Communication Process that related with communication
process [12], such as:
1.The sender of message
2.Ccommunication transmission
3.Receiver
The point if the communication is expected to run
smoothly is the effort on both sides to avoid the "noise"; the
disturbances which can lead the receiver can’t get the
message from the sender. The disturbances are:
1. Barrier Process, such as sender barrier, encoding
barrier, massage barrier, medium barrier, decoding
barrier, receiver barrier and feedback barrier.
2. Personal barrier
3. Physical barrier
4. Semantic barrier
As a basic understanding of the effectiveness of
communication in general, it can be start from the the
speaking skills and how the others can receive the message
[13]. Listening is active decoding process and explain the
verbal mesages. The figure of the functions of listener,
speaker, and environmental characteristics:
Fig.3. Understanding model and audiences
The organization can't be sparated from personal
influence that involved in it, because each person has
different characteristics. For the example, the
communications that made between men and women
obviously different, it can be seen from the dialect,
intonation, pronounciation, and also the purpose fo
communication[10]. Besides that , the style of
communication in the effectiveness of communication in
organization is also influence it.
The style of common communication in organization is
very influenced by the personal style of communication.
The style of communications devided into 3 , they are:
1. Assertive
Assertive is a style in which individuals clearly state their
opinions and feelings, and firmly advocate for their rights
and needs without violating the rights of others. Assertive
communication is born of high self-esteem. These
individuals value themselves, their time, and their emotional,
spiritual, and physical needs and are strong advocates for
them selves while being very respectful of the rights of
others
2. Aggressive
Aggressive is is a style in which individuals express their
feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in a way
that violates the rights of others. Aggressive taking
advantage of others; expressive and self enhancing at
other’s expense.
International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
187
3. Nonassertive
The style of communication that encouraging others to
take advantage of us; inhibited; self denying.
Communication according to the prevailing hierarchy in
the organization also did not close the possibility of using a
tool or media, like computer. The computer used for
communication purpose through internet. Internet is a global
communication network that has fast connection, no limited
space and time, and technologically advanced [14].
Thereby, communication in the hierarchy tends to
emphasize a rule that is more fitting with the organization or
company where formal communication takes place.
Indirectly, communication is influenced by organization
culture. But, the substance that related with interests, needs,
desires of each member organization and also affected the
smoothness of communication and.
2) Grapevine Communication
Beside the formal communication, in organization or
company we often find some rumors or issues that not less
important . The "grapevine" or "rumor" is the major
informal communication medium in an organization. But,
Just for the time efficiency, sometimes rumors become the
complementary elements in formal communication.
Therefore, although communication in the hierarchy is
already proper, it will be some deviations in organization
structure that become the result of certain rumors. But, the
number of deviations is not too much, and even very
little .The research about the role of grapevine or rumor,
stated that (1) It is faster than formal channels, (2) the
accuracy around 75%, (3) some people rely on it when they
are insecure, threated, or faced with organizational changes;
and (4) the employees use grapevine to acquire the major of
their on-the-job informations [12].
3) The Distortion of Communication
Communication distortion is the problem that related to
the contain modification of the message. It causes a
decrease in communication accuracy between supervisor
and employees. Thereby, the communications between
supervisor and employees is influenced by the style of
supervisor, especially supervisor who has the power. The
distortion will be increase if the employees had a spirit to
make a big progress, and not trust the supervisor completely
[15].
Distortion of communication identified in four events in
order to improve communication, they are:
a. Increase the disortion because employees send more
favourable information and withold useful
information.
b. Increased distortion because employees screen out
information detrimental to their welfare.
c. Less accurancy because employees tend to pass
along information that helps their cause.
d. Considerable distortion because employees do not
pass up all information they receive.
4) The Collaboration of information Technology in
Communication
Internet is a global networks which use computer
networks such as (1) Intranet is nothing more than
company's internal information system, (2) Internet have
firewall that block outside Internet users from accesing
internal information, and (3) An extranet is anextended
intranet in that it connects internal emplyees with selected
customers, suppliers, and other strategic partner (the
advantages of this network are they can increase the ability
of employees to find, create, manage and also distribute the
information) [12].
Collaborative computing entails using state of the art
computer software and hardware to help the people to work
better together. Collaborative system enable people to share
Information without the constraints of time and space. With
telecommunication, it allows someone to work far away
from their office or organization.
B. Organization
Outstanding theories that often found, explain about the
group of people in a bond with the agreement of each
[12].The classical theory about organization, emphasizes
that organizations are the group of people who are bound in
a strict rules and carry out activities that have been
systematically coordinated within a structure to achieve the
goals [16] . While in theory of Modern Organization, argues
that the organization as a network system consisting at least
two people or more with the inter-dependence, input,
process and output. In the implementation, an organization
sometimes raises the impact of symbolic interpretation, the
organization produces a situation / environment / cultural /
social reality through the meaning of the interactions within
the organization Organization is formed by the interactions
(communication) that occur between individuals and several
types of knowledge in verbal or non verbal. In the last
decade, Postmodernism considers that the organization as a
place of negotiation of power, the dominating group
members and the fight of interests, so the reconstruction
power is needed. According to that issue, postmodernism try
to give the space for the members of organization to
participate.
1) Organization Structure
Organizational structure is a foothold toward employee to
perform the task according to their respective job
description [17]. Stated that organization as a determinant of
how a job is divided and organized in a formal. While the
organization is A consciously coordinated social unit,
composed of a group of people, which functions on a
relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set
of goals.
2) Bureaucratic Structure
Bureaucratic structure is a structure of highly operating
routine tasks achieved through specialization, very
formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into
functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans
of control, and decision making that follows the chain of
command.
According to beureaucratic structure, there are some
invisible characteristics , they are: the related of the
structure established between positions, the goals /
organization planning between the position as job
description, authority to carry out the duties given to the
position , lines of authority and position are arranged
according to a hierarchical order , a firm common system of
rules devine as formal system, set the actions and functions
of the position within the organization, the procedures
roward organization are formal and impersonal, the function
International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
188
of procedure is for maintaining discipline members, the
members of organization must separate their personal and
organizational life, the employees selection process in an
organization based on technical qualifications, and in terms
of promotion assessment it based on seniority and job
performance.
The disadvantage is sometimes excessive and often even
in following the rules, there is no space for modification,
less innovative and bureaucracy is efficient as long as the
emplyees just face the same problems that already explained
before. The meaning is, when the employees face the new
problems, , the bureaucracy structure become not efficient
because it need the new regulation, to solve the new
problems.
III. RESEARCH METHOD
This research uses Qualitative Method and explores it in
relation to the theories that related to communication in
organizations, which apply in the organizational structure
and also the communication toward the organizational
structure in the real life.
This research is more details, because the research was
conducted in depth interpretation with a limited object [18]
With clear restrictions and characteristics and purposeful,
this research found the problems of the effectiveness of
communication in organization especially the
communication that included in organizational structure
[19]. The approaches / type of this research are collecting
data that can be done from various sources in different ways,
observation, interview, and also create documentation that
related with the research.
Considering the case of study is the problem of
communication in an organization, this research using an
instrumentalist case study. Stated that the research on the
specific case is conducted to understand the issues better,
and also to develop the theory. While the methods that used
to obtain qualitative data is the combination of some
methods, such as observation, focus group discussion,
documentation, research, literature review, and also Method
of Roots Problem Analysis and Solutions (MRPAS).
MRPAS is a method of thinking to explore the causes of
the earlier and the earliest symptoms or problems that
appear on the surface [20]. In MRPAS principal, This topic
has been applied prior to determination. One of the three
problems roots of formal communication in job, and
reliance on the provisions from the rules of good
government regulations, and internal organization.
Observations on the application of formal communication
within the organization, especially the case in this study,
there is a very significant development since 2005, with the
three times of leadership changes.
Since the last five years of formal communication the
problem was observe carefully and intensively, the observes
found the discrepancy, one of the sample of disrepancy is
the unchanged regulations, although the behavior is in
contrast with the era. This case was not addressed by the
government, the roots of the problem is the ignorant of the
importance of writen rule that become the foundation of all
polocies. The documentsts and literatures, I got from some
books that contain the topics about organizations.
Some analysis steps that needed to find the roots of the
problems are arrange a framework problem using MRPAS,
analyze the data according to the source from document /
literature that show many concepts about communication in
organizational structure. That step begins with the case data
that applies in the society, in this case are the cases of
communication in organizational structure , it chosen
according to the prominant or unique case than the others,
the next step is compare all the data with the Existing
theories. The last step is construct a conceptual framework
based on concepts.
IV. METHOD OF DISCUSSION
In the research of the application of organization
communication in government bureaucracy was according
to the data that already gathered from the research about
communication it selves or communication in an
organization. Data obtained from 159 questionnaires 109,
the questionnaires can be distributed directly and by mail.
Object of this study were employees of the accounting
department at the state-owned enterprises in the province of
West Sumatra with 109 respondents. Organization
communication had negative impact toward pressure of
work .The result of this research did not show the
organization commitment and work pressure as the
intervering variable toward the performance of
communication organizational.
Several definitions of organizations such as Ernest Dale,
stated that organization is a planning process that includes
arrangement, development, and maintenance of a structure
or pattern of employment in a group work. So,
communication in hierarchical organization isn’t related by
the continuity of organization itself.
Thereby, the general definition of organization is a group
of people that gether to achieve the goals. Meanwhile, the
hierarchical organization structure from many definitions
and also the field study is more emphasis on job
specialization that expressed in various departments
according to functionals, product, service, and also the
distribution area. All the rules are executed in accordance
with organizational culture and the rules and also policies
that provided through hierarchical structure.
The weakness that caused by a hierarchical of
communication inherent in the organizational structure,
sometimes make the responses from members of the
organization can not be quickly handled. Moreover, the
problems that exist in the field are expected to get the
solution, but it delayed as a result of a distortion or a formal
communication barrier due to the hierarchy that formed.
The real example of applied communication in central
government or division especially in service center is the
corruption. The data obtained from various sources is the
public complaints that happened on August 2011 in
Semarang service center sub-division, they always
complaints about the building permit’s schedule that related
with the others schedule. The duration to get building permit
‘s takes 3 months, the identity card takes more than 2 weeks,
the moving letters takes more than 2 weeks, all the problems
are the impact of hierarchial bureucracy structure. These
opportunities are used to do the corruption and nepotism in
International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
189
service center sub division, and many things that associated
with Licensing.
The other weakness is applied in the implementation of
communication in hierarchical organizational structure that
exists in the education world. One things that should be
observed is the characteristics that quiet same with
bureaucracy. For the example when announcements or
invitations, or instructions which must be executed by the
educational institutions to higher education, it can’t be
received on time. It is caused by the communication that
follow the hierarcial structure from the higher position in
the ministrial, then in the Director General of Higher
Education, Coordinator of The Private College, and the last
in educational institutions . With the long system
bureaucracy, finally the message can’t be received on time.
The problem doesn’t stop here, the long system bureaucracy
still happen in each institutions, so the purpose and the
target can’t achieved. As the result of the central
government policies that didn’t understand completely by
the district institutions. There are still plenty of evidence
concerning the ineffectiveness of communication in
hierarchical organizations.
The solutions that must be found in every field is the
collaboration of Information Technology and
communications. Information Technology that’s very
popular in 19 century, is the breakthrough of effectiveness
and communication effectivity, especially in the hierarchical
structure. With communication trough technology, all the
things can be get easier and faster. The advantages make the
members of organization or company able to increase their
ability in information technology, create, manage and also
distribute the information faster. Sending the letters as a
decree letter, Letter of Assignment, Work Order Letter,
Memo service, Permit letter, etc, trough the email. Besides
that, video conference using video and audio link enable
people located at diffrent locations to see, hear, and talk
with one another. It can significantly reduce an
organization’s travel expenses.
V. CONCLUSION
According to the previous issues and some problems
formulation, I found many weaknesses of theory and the
situation in the field. I found about the implementation
communication in hierarchical organizational structure as
below :
CRONOLOGY OF THE OLD SYSTEM OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION
FLOW OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION OF RESEARCH FINDING
Based on diagram above, then with the use of IT, the
communication can be more quickly and accurate. The
result, there is any differences between the plans, objectives
and outcomes. Tips and advice mean that through the
applied communication of the using information technology
(IT), the problem of time become something that can be
handled, the impossible things become possible, something
that unreachable become reached, and all the people can
make communications with the others in the same time and
the same places.
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International
Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
190
Hardani Widhiastuti is a lecturer in Semarang
University since 1997, and then joined the
Faculty of Psychology in 1999, with specialist
on Industrial Psychology. She was born in
Jember town east Java, on 30 May 1962. Since
1984 after graduated from diploma education,
she’s became an assistant lecturer of Economics
Faculty in Diponegoro University Indonesia.
She graduated in 1992 from Psychology Faculty
in Soegijapranata University Semarang.
Then, in 1997 she became a lecturer at Semarang University.In addition
to being a lecturer, she remains a consultant. In 1998, she continued her
studies at Master Program at Diponegoro University and focused in the
field of Strategic Human Resource and graduated in 2000. In 2005, she is
completing her Doctoral Program on Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta,
Indonesia.
Since 1997 until now, she has researched and published some journals in
Journal Publication as much 13 Journals, such as “The Big Five Personality
For Supporting Performance”, (Asvatta Journal, Journal of Psychology,
Semarang University Vol I, No IV, August 2011, ISSN 2085-4986),
“Strengthening of Human Resources” (Psikodinamika Journal, Vol 8, No 2,
July-December 2009, 1-111 ISSN 1411-6073, Journal of Psychology,
Faculty of Psychology, Soegijapranata University, “Effective
Communication as a Support Customer Satisfaction” (Dynamics Social
Culture, June 2006, ISSN 1410-9859. Besides published the journal, she’s
also published some books, there are “A Power Managing Stress”, ISBN:
978-979-3948-91-1, “Role Behavior Performance Result and Performance
of The Services Sector”, ISBN: 978-979-3948-83-6, and wrote social
criticisms that was published in magazines and newspapers. She committed
on Industrial Psychology Researces until now. She was an Associate
Profesor on Psychology Faculty in Semarang University, Indonesia.
... Hierarchical structures are the earliest form [6] and they impose control over processes on all management levels. According to Buble [7], the functional type of organizational structure is the oldest and most widespread form of hierarchical structure, characterized by initial grouping of mutually dependent, similar jobs into small organizational units acting as building blocks of the highest functioning organizational unit (sector). ...
... According to Widhiastuti (2012), everyone is always in communication, regardless of age, gender, religion, economic status or ethnic background, because human beings have the ability to communicate with each other in their's way and also communication tools. With communication, someone can interact and socialize. ...
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Fairness is not an idea or a concept an individual should be struggling for, it is a basic right in the workplace. Fairness is at the heart of Organisational Justice. Unfortunately, the ideal is rarely achieved and it is an important area for research and analysis. Essentially, this work examines perceptions of organisational justice within the higher educational system of Pakistan. Faculty members are the subject of the study. In order to carry out this examination, the literature on justice has been explored from different philosophical perspectives. After reviewing existing models, theoretical concepts and initial research on educational sector of Pakistan, research hypotheses have been developed regarding the factors influencing perceptions of organizational justice. Organizational Communication, Power Distance, Organizational Structure, Reward Allocation are drawn out key influencing factors contributing to the Organizational Justice. However, Organizational Trust has been explored as a moderator to see how it affects the relationship of existing factors and organizational justice. This study is distinctive in its utilization of two research methods combined into a holistic and integrated research design. The study adopts a convergent/concurrent parallel design which allows the researcher to execute both methods (quantitative and qualitative). The thrust of using these methods is to establish if the relationships exist in the specific cultural context (through quantitative method) and to highlight how they contribute to the ideas of organisational justice in the daily work lives of faculty staff (through qualitative method). The findings of this study highlight some of the grey areas where changes are required as well as some positive sides of institutes have been emerged. Faculty members do have a view that an improvement is required in the formal vertical communications in institutes. Also, the hierarchal structures in most of the institutes are seen as the cause of distances between employers and subordinates (power distance). Most of the institutes fall through to provide the rewards that faculty members expect (monetary). Organizational trust has been found to play an important role in strengthening and weakening perceptions of organizational justice in Pakistani higher educational context. Perceptions of organisational justice are influenced by many factors in the daily lives of faculty staff. Experience of, discriminations, working conditions, ageism, genderism, favouritism, transparency, and the use of power all play a part. This research project suggests that many of these experiences are mediated and can be improved through good communication flows, more friendly organizational structures, reduced power distance among supervisors and subordinates, and more transparent reward allocation. Finally, this study presents an exclusive framework to highlight the factors and also the issues which are triggering these factors to further contribute to organizational justice.
... However, we should be very circumspect in choosing the particular form of hierarchy which we are referring to. Much information appears in the literature about hierarchical structures, but most of it is referred to business or social contexts [4,5]. More general approaches applicable to living systems are somewhat sparse [6,7,8] and these concentrate on one of two forms, most characterized by the publications of Stan Salthe [9, 10]. ...
... The managers are confronted with complex situations and problems from low to high levels. Although cases with low degrees of complexity, which are very routine and predictable, can be managed with standard guidelines, cases with high levels of complexity, which are difficult to predict, cannot be managed using standard guidelines, and their analysis and emotional management are difficult (Widhiastuti, 2012). The managers of the twenty-first century must be masters of change who can effectively use human capital and resources to be successful (Nekoranec, 2013). ...
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The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between the organizational structure perceptions and the managerial competence perceptions of individuals working as managers in national and multinational companies in Turkey and to investigate whether these perceptions are affected by "the multi-nationality" factor. In this context, the relationship between the estimation variable "Organizational Structure" and the outcome variable "Managerial Competence" is researched; additionally, the effects of both the estimation variable and the organizational and individual demographic variables on the outcome variable are analyzed. The main research question is whether the managers' perception of organizational structure affects the perception of managerial competence. The main research hypothesis is that the perception of organizational structure has a positive effect on the perception of managerial competence. The measurement tools developed by the researcher were applied to entry-, middle-and senior-level managers. The research data were obtained from 330 managers working in national companies and 270 managers working in multinational companies operating in Turkey. The results of this research indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the estimation variable and the outcome variable and that the perception of organizational structure affects the perception of managerial competence (R 2 = 0.530, p <0.05). It was observed that the organizational structure factor explained 53% of the managerial competence factor. In addition, when organizational demographic variables such as "the number of personnel working in the department" and "the model of organization" and individual demographic variables such as "management level" and "total work experience" are considered as factors in the analyses, it was observed that the R 2 parameter showing a relationship between the estimation variable and the outcome variable has increased to 62%. Other individual and demographic variables did not contribute to the model, and as a result, their effects are concluded to be either equal or constant. The moderator effect of the "multi-nationality" factor was seen to be not statistically significant, and the moderator effect was not found (R 2 = 0.001, p = 0.253> 0.05).
... H. Widhiastuti w swoich pracach poświęconych skutecznej komunikacji w hierarchicznych strukturach organizacyjnych podkreśla, że hierarchia pozwala zmniejszyć chaos i wprowadzić określony porządek. Ogranicza również zakres obowiązków i odpowiedzialności, co przekłada się bezpośrednio na możliwość podejmowania decyzji kluczowych dla sukcesu przedsięwzięcia [107]. Ponieważ miejsce w hierarchii może być nadane, wynikać ze starszeństwa lub innych zależności występujących w organizacji. ...
Thesis
Koncepcja pracy skupia się na poszerzeniu zagadnień modelowania relacji, rozumianych jako więzi i zależności występujące między członkami zespołu zaangażowanymi w proces tworzenia oprogramowania jako integralnej części cyklu życia projektu, w ramach którego wytwarzane jest w sposób zwinny oprogramowanie komputerowe. Poprzez identyfikację relacji łączących aktorów oraz ich odniesieniu do teorii kolaboracji, a także odniesienie ich do sytuacyjnego ujęcia organizacji projektowej (tj. projektu), zaproponowany został model relacji w procesie wytwórczym zgodnym z wytycznymi manifestu zwinnego tworzenia oprogramowania, który jest dedykowany organizacjom świadczącym usługi wytwarzania oprogramowania.
... Malaysians are comfortable to work within a company with hierarchical level of staffs and uneven income distribution is usually observed (Dass, 2016). High power distance also means that the structure of bureaucracy is a usual practice (Ringov and Zollo, 2007;Widhiastuti, 2012). ...
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Malaysia is going towards being a developed country. One of the major benchmark for this is the capability of Malaysia to be a significant place for traders and investors. To achieve this, every company and corporate members in Malaysia has to play their roles to create a harmony environment to attract traders and investors. This can be done by focusing to improve the productivity of the company where this directly relates to staff’s productivity. There are a lot of physical attributes that can be used as a benchmark for productivity such as ability to gain profit and to initiate an innovation of a company, as well as their contribution to the society. Our research involves to two parts; 1. developing framework to identify important criteria from national cultural values involved and 2. to identify the key criteria involved quantitatively. Both parts are important, however, in this paper, we intend to focus on the framework development and the second part will be published separately in the future. For this purpose, some literature surveys and reviews is conducted and analysis is made. A comparative review between criteria is performed to identify which criteria are effective in driving staff productivity. To add on, a hierarchical model for finding the weights for measuring the importance is developed for future reference.
... Some studies in public relations have shown that organizational structure has an effect on internal communication. For instance, the influence of organizational structure on organizational communication was well illustrated in [6,7,10,32]. Holtzhausen's survey research [10] conducted in a large South African organization found that structural changes in process implementation led to improved information flow and face-to-face communication. ...
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In this work, we apply cluster validation measures for analyzing email communications at an organizational level of a company. This analysis can be used to evaluate the company structure and to produce further recommendations for structural improvements. Our evaluations, based on data in the forms of email logs and organizational structure for a large European telecommunication company, show that cluster validation techniques can be useful tools for assessing the organizational structure using objective analysis of internal email communications, and for simulating and studying different reorganization scenarios.
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p>Abstrak Tugas pokok yang dijalankan oleh organisasi Polri dibentuk secara nasional dengan konsep organisasi berjenjang mulai dari tingkatan yang bersifat fungsional antara lain fungsi Intelijen, Reserse, Sabhara, Lalu Lintas dan Pembinaan Masyarakat. Namun dalam implementasinya hierarki komunikasi organisasi yang dikembangkan belum berjalan optimal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji tentang model hierarki komunikasi organisasi Badan Reserse dan Kriminal Kepolisian Republik Indonesia (Bareskrim Polri). Penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif yaitu peneliti mengeksplorasi suatu entitas atau fenomena (kasus) dan aktivitas (program, kejadian, proses, institusi, atau kelompok) terkait pembelajaran di Bareskrim Polri. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode wawancara dengan informan kunci yaitu. Metode ini ditujukan untuk mendapatkan database informasi yang ada pada setiap informan yaituPimpinan Polri/Kabareskrim Polri atau wakabareskrim, Direktur/Wakil Direktur Bareskrim Polri, Karo Wasidik, Kasub Dit, Kanit, Penyidik. Tehnik analisis data dilakukan dengan membaca dan memahami berbagai materi emperik ( emperical material ) yang telah dikumpulkan tersebut kemudian mengkaitkannya dengan key themes pada penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa model hierarki komunikasi mengarahkan kepada siapa anggota organisasi berinteraksi dan berkomunikasi sehingga tidak dianggap salah (secara etika dan displin) baik dalam bersikap dan berperilaku khususnya dalam hubungan person to person . Disisi lain, juga mempunyai hubungan dan saling terkait yaitu mempengaruhi pengelolaan organisasi yang muncul dalam bentuk keputusan, kebijakan dan arahan baik tertulis maupun lisan. Model hierarki komunikasi mendorong terjadinya manajemen pembelajaran yang tertib karena selain tetap membuka pola komunikasi dua arah, diskusi dan dialog serta di dalamnya ada kritik, masukan dan saran. Namun model komunikasi hierarki mensyaratkan komunikasi tersebut secara formal harus berpedoman pada etika, prosedur dan tata cara tertentu. Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the hierarchical model of organizational communication for the Indonesian National Police (Bareskrim Polri). This research uses a qualitative research type, namely, researchers explore an entity or phenomenon (cases) and activities (programs, events, processes, institutions, or groups) related to learning at the Police Criminal Investigation Unit. Data collection was carried out by the interview method. This method is intended to obtain a database of information on each informant. The analysis technique is done by reading and understanding various empirical materials that have been collected and then linking them to the key themes in this study. The results of this study prove that the hierarchical communication model directs to whom the members of the organization interact and communicate so that they are not considered wrong (ethically and disciplinarily) both in attitude and behavior, especially in person to person relationships. On the other hand, it also has a relationship and is interrelated, namely influencing organizational management that appears in the form of decisions, policies, and directions both written and oral. The hierarchical communication model encourages orderly learning management because apart from keeping open two-way communication patterns, discussions, and dialogues, and includes criticism, input, and suggestions. However, the hierarchical communication model requires that communication be formally guided by certain ethics, procedures, and procedures. </p
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Volume 7 of Qualitative Psychology Nexus contains contribution to the meeting 2008 of the Center for Qualitative Psychology in Erkner/Berlin. The general topic was to discuss the importance of qualitative approaches in psychology. Examples of studies demonstrating the particular contribution of qualitative approaches to the understanding of psychological issues were presented from the fields of exploring social interactive processes (analysis of peer counseling; flexibility of learning groups in inter-cultural education), exploring the quality of life (experiences of persons with spinal cord injuries in Japan; experiences of tumor patients), and exploring social integration (experiences of adults in a community living project; problems in re-integration of prisoners). A final contribution dealt with the characteristics of qualitative methodology as an anti-reductionist, more holistic paradigm, aiming at "understanding" on the one hand and on the other hand the necessity to teach in a stepwise and tentative manner, taking into account the available knowledge and experiences of students. Band 7 der Reihe Qualitative Psychology Nexus enthält Beiträge der Konferenz 2008 des Zentrums für Qualitative Psychologie e.V. in Erkner/Berlin. Allgemeines Thema war die Diskussion der Bedeutung qualitativer Ansätze in der Psychologie. Forschungsbeispiele belegten den besonderen Beitrag qualitativer Herangehensweise in den Feldern der Exploration sozial-interaktiver Prozesse (Analyse von Peer-Counseling; Flexibilität von Lerngruppen in der interkulturellen Erziehung), der Exploration von Lebensqualität (Erfahrungen von querschnittgelähmten Menschen in Japan; Erfahrungen von Tumorpatienten) und Erfahrungen mit sozialer Integration (Erfahrungen von Erwachsenen in einem Projekt des Zusammenlebens; Probleme bei der sozialen Integration von Straffälligen). Ein eigener Beitrag setzte sich mit den Merkmalen qualitativer Methodologie als einem anti-reduktionistischen, mehr ganzheitlichen Paradigma auseinander, das auf "Veerstehen" abzielt. Dies wurde konfrontiert mit der Notwendigkeit, in der Lehre qualitativer Methoden das Vorwissen und die Erfahrungen der Studierenden zu berücksichtigen und sie schrittweise und vorsichtig in das Vorgehen einzuführen.
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A glance at an organizational chart can show who's the boss and who reports to whom. But this formal chart won't reveal which people confer on technical matters or discuss office politics over lunch. Much of the real work in any company gets done through this informal organization with its complex networks of relationships that cross functions and divisions. According to consultants David Krackhardt and Jeffrey Hanson, managers can harness the true power in their companies by diagramming three types of networks: the advice network, which reveals the people to whom others turn to get work done; the trust network, which uncovers who shares delicate information; and the communication network, which shows who talks about work-related matters. Using employee questionnaires, managers can generate network maps that will get to the root of many organizational problems. When a task force in a computer company, for example, was not achieving its goals, the CEO turned to network maps to find out why. He discovered that the task force leader was central in the advice network but marginal in the trust network. Task force members did not believe he would look out for their interests, so the CEO used the trust map to find someone to share responsibility for the group. And when a bank manager saw in the network map that there was little communication between tellers and supervisors, he looked for ways to foster interaction among employees of all levels. As companies continue to flatten and rely on teams, managers must rely less on their authority and more on understanding these informal networks. Managers who can use maps to identify, leverage, and revamp informal networks will have the key to success.