Inferring the behavior of extinct organisms is a formidable task, even under the best of circumstances (Rudwick, 1964; Stern and Susman, 1983; Kay, 1984; Thomason, 1995). Nevertheless, and in spite of inevitable complications and limitations, such inferences remain the ultimate goal of paleobiologists if we are to understand fossils as integrated organisms rather than isolated bones and atomized character states. In this chapter we attempt to breathe life back into the osteological remains of recently extinct (or “subfossil”) prosimian primates from the Quaternary of Madagascar. Subfossil lemurs provide many special opportunities to the optimistic functional morphologist, but they also present their own unusual set of complications and potential frustrations. Approximately one-third of Madagascar’s known primate species were driven to extinction in the late Holocene by the lethal interaction of aridification and human colonization (Burney, 1997; Dewar, 1997; Simons, 1997), including all taxa of large body size (> 9 kg). Two new extinct species from northern Madagascar (Babakotia radofilai and Mesopropithecus dolichobrachion) have been discovered and described in the last decade (Godfrey et al., 1990; Simons et al., 1995), and a third new species from the northwest will be diagnosed soon (Jungers et al., in prep.). Sixteen currently recognized subfossil species of Malagasy primates are represented in museum collections, most by numerous individuals, including a growing tally of specimens with associated craniodental and postcranial elements (e.g., MacPhee et al., 1984; Simons et al., 1992,Simons et al., 1995; Wunderlich et al., 1996). Table I summarizes the current taxonomy of the extinct lemurs. Aspects of morphology suggest that cheirogaleids are more closely related to galagos and lorises than to other Malagasy primates (Szalay and Katz, 1973; Cartmill, 1975; Schwartz and Tattersall, 1985; Yoder, 1992). Molecular results, as well as “total evidence” analyses that combine morphological and molecular data, argue instead that the Malagasy primates are probably monophyletic (Yoder, 1994,Yoder, 1996). Regardless of the placement of the cheirogaleids within strepsirrhines, the precise relationships among the various ancient clades of Malagasy primates remain somewhat fuzzy, even from a biomolecular perspective (Yoder, 1997; Yoderet al., 1999).