Article

The Spark Orientation Effect for Improving Attention and Recall

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Abstract

Although some sound elements such as music or sound effects are commonly used in audiovisual messages, little research has been conducted to determine whether they guarantee better cognitive processing. The purpose of this study is to improve listeners' cognitive processing by determining the effectiveness of several sound elements in an audio message. We analyzed the capacity and the position in radio commercials of three orienting elements—appeals to the listener, music, and sound effects—to determine if and how they enhanced the listener's attention and recall. The findings indicated that the use of orienting elements significantly increased the level of attention and recall of the listeners, especially in the case of sound effects. Regarding the position of the orienting elements, the study showed they were used effectively when focused on the whole structure of the message, applying the so-called spark orientation effect.

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... In this hypothesis, accented words may act like perceptual markers during processing, and, therefore, listeners would "bounce" one at a time. This acoustic contrast accomplishes the Spark Orientation Effect (Rodero, 2019). This effect describes a speech style to draw the listeners' attention to the relevant information of a message by using the so-called orienting elements (sound effects, appeals to the listener, or music). ...
... This will result in disengagement of cognitive resources from processing and comparatively less arousal response to message content. By comparison, in the moderate vocal emphasis strategy-when the speaker highlights only the keywords in a message, the emphasis can act as an orienting feature driving the listener's attention and increasing the level of activation or arousal (Lang, 2006;Rodero, 2019). In consequence, we hypothesize that the moderate emphasis strategy will result in the most listener engagement operationalized through psychophysiological data collected for the duration of the ads: H2: Ads with a moderate emphasis strategy will achieve higher physiological arousal and greater attention-as indexed by heart rate-compared with ads with a no-emphasis or overemphasis strategy. ...
... Second, in line with the Spark Orientation Effect (Rodero, 2019), the contrast caused by the words' emphasis discriminated this information acoustically (Kristensen et al., 2013;Tong et al., 2005), introducing a novel signal that contributed to grab the listener's attention (Cutler & Fodor, 1979;Perrone et al., 2010). This distinctive and contrastive effect applied to the message's keywords operated as a structural feature increasing attention, as shown in arousal and heart rate levels in moderate strategies with 5 and 10 emphasized words. ...
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Most consumers do not like the speech style that announcers use in marketing messages. The main reason is an exaggerated way of speaking with a strong emphasis. Indeed, announcers tend to stress too many words in commercials, producing an overly emphatic speech style, which sounds choppy and stuttering. This study analyzes how different strategies of emphasizing words in commercials affect the listeners' cognitive processing. Four different strategies (no emphasis, moderate‐low, moderate‐high, and over‐emphasis) were applied to 16 commercials. Participants (N = 52) had their physiological response (heart rate and skin conductance) measured during ad presentation. Afterward they assessed the commercials' effectiveness and adequacy and performed an immediate recall and a recognition test. The results indicated that the commercials presenting a moderate emphasis (low and high) improved the listeners' cognitive processing compared to messages with no emphasis strategy and the standard industry practice of using over‐emphasis.
... Media psychology has proven fruitful for the study of the effects of sound elements and acoustic features of media messages on recipients' attention and processing capabilities. While previous research in media psychology has thoroughly examined how the auditory components of media messagesvoices, effects, silence, noise and musicaffect overall orienting responses (Bolls, 2013;Bolls and Lang, 2003;Dillman Carpentier and Potter, 2007;Potter et al., 2008;Potter et al., 2015;Rodero, 2019aRodero, , 2019b, the acoustic features of these componentspitch, melody, intensity, duration and pace, among othershave hardly been investigated (Rodero and Mas, 2020;Rodero, 2015), especially not as part of a brand or a sonic logo. ...
... For instance, Reber et al. (2004) characterize (western) music with principles such as symmetry, clarity, goodness-of-form, proportion, balance and harmony. The tendency to find regularities in the sounde.g. a synchronous increase in pitch, intensity and paceorients response and influences the perception of pleasantness, attitudes and behavior (Rodero, 2015). ...
... Pitch is one of the most important features to raise attention as found in a long tradition of human processing and perception research in both verbal and nonverbal communication (grounded in different disciplines such as linguistics, psycholinguistics, communication or even engineering). Pitch configures an attentional structure in media messages and is thus used to mark stress Potter, 2006;Rodero, 2015). The effects of pitch on motivational activation could be because of evolutionary reasons, as emotional calls and threat signals are usually characterized by a high pitch (Buss, 2008;Patel, 2010). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine how sonic logo’s acoustic features (intensity, pitch and pace) based on melodic tunes with no voice orient the response of consumers, attract attention, elicit levels of pleasantness and calmness and transmit brand personality traits. Design/methodology/approach A within-subject experimental factorial design is applied to measure emotional arousal (indexed as electrodermal activity) and enhancement on perceptual processing (indexed as heart rate), as well as self-reported factors, namely, calmness/excitement, pleasantness and brand personality scales. Findings Results show a significant increase on electrodermal activity associated with fast-paced sonic logos and a decrease in heart rate in slow-paced long sonic logos. Also, fade-up, pitch-ascending fast sonic logos are defined as more exciting and descending-pitch sonic logos as more pleasant. Research limitations/implications The use of sonic logos with no voice does limit its implications. Besides, the use of three variables simultaneously with 18 versions of sonic logos in a laboratory setting may have driven participants to fatigue; hence, findings should be cautiously applied. Practical implications First, sonic logos are best processed in a fade-up form. Second, fast pace is recommended to orient response, whereas slow pace is recommended to transmit calmness. Practitioners may opt for fast-paced sonic logos if the design is new or played in a noisy environment and opt for slow-paced sonic logos in already highly recognized sound designs. Originality/value To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to combine psychophysiological measures and self-reported scales in a laboratory experiment on how sonic logo’s acoustic features orient response, transmit emotions and personality traits.
... In this literature, heart rate is the only physiological response that seems to exhibit a 1-to-1 mapping with orienting responses, as EEG and SCL responses are also elicited by other processes (Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Berntson, 2000;Potter & Bolls, 2012). Specifically, an OR is indexed by heart rate when there is a distinct deceleration following a stimulus event (e.g. a voice change; Lang, Gao, et al., 2015;Potter, Jamison-Koenig, Lynch, & Sites, 2016;Rodero, 2015;Rodero, Potter, & Prieto, 2017) that then leads to an acceleration back to a homeostatic baseline (Barry, 1990). This deceleration and acceleration results in a U-shaped curve called the cardiac response curve (for a review of the cardiac response curve, see Thorson & Lang, 1992). ...
... Within the literature, cognitive resources have been shown to be elicited by camera cuts/edits (Lang et al., 2006;Lang, Kurita, et al., 2013;Lang, Park, et al., 2007), pitch changes or other structural features in audio (Lang, Gao, et al., 2015;Potter et al., 2008;Potter et al., 2016;Rodero, 2015;Rodero et al., 2017), motivationally relevant content (Clayton, Ridgway, & Hendrickse, 2017;Ordoñana, González-Javier, Espín-López, & Gómez-Amor, 2009;Potter & Keene, 2012;Potter, LaTour, Braun-LaTour, & Reichert, 2006;Rubenking & Lang, 2014;Wang, Solloway, et al., 2012), pop up banners in an online environment (Diao & Sundar, 2004;Lang, Borse, Wise, & David, 2002), content features in video games (Gangadharbatla, Bradley, & Wise, 2013), and computer controlled content presentation (Wise & Pepple, 2008;Wise & Reeves, 2007). These are often collectively referred to as orienting eliciting structural features (OESFs; Lang, 2009;. ...
... These studies for the most part reinforced findings related to encoding and storage-namely that information presented after OESFs is better retrieved (Rodero, 2015;Rodero et al., 2017) and that emotional or arousing messages are better retrieved than neutral, calm messages (Bas & Grabe, 2015;Lang, Chung, et al., 2005;Potter et al., 2006). Although still an emerging research area, some LC4MP research has investigated differences between explicit and implicit memory for message content (Peters & Leshner, 2013;Vyvey, Castellar, & Van Looy, 2018). ...
Article
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In the 15 years since its inception, the Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP) has contributed to understanding regarding the dynamics of message processing in a variety of domains. In this manuscript we outline the foundations and assumptions of the LC4MP, discussing salient research from biology, cognitive psychology, and communication upon which the model is built. We then conduct a systematic review of the LC4MP literature with a focus on three primary domains: cognitive load, motivated processing, and memory. In a companion piece (Fisher, Huskey, Keene, & Weber, 2018) we look to the future of the model, incorporating recent findings from communication and cognate fields to inform an updated suite of predictions.
... Rodero (2009) comprobó que tan sólo un 30 por ciento de las producciones de ficción empleaban recursos para identi ficar el espacio. Estudios posteriores con firmaron el poder del uso de recursos sonoros como los efectos de sonido y los planos sonoros en la creación de imágenes mentales (Rodero, 2010); o cómo el uso de recursos sonoros que rompen con la uniformidad del mensaje afecta de manera positiva para mejorar la atención y el recuerdo (Rodero, 2015). Sin embargo, no se conocen estudios previos que analicen empíricamente qué elementos sonoros construyen la dimensión espacial y cómo la evocación del espacio afecta a la creación de imágenes mentales, la atención y la memoria. ...
... El resultado fue que la ruptura de la uniformidad a través de los elementos orientados (las apelaciones al oyente, la música y los efectos de sonido) contribuían a mejorar a atención en el oyente. Los mensajes que contenían efectos de sonido descriptivos fueron los que obtuvieron el mayor nivel de atención (Rodero, 2015). ...
... -La prueba de reconocimiento "en lote": el receptor tiene que identificar, de entre todos los elementos presentados simultáneamente, los elementos estudiados de los nuevos. Rodero (2011Rodero ( , 2014Rodero ( , 2015 ha empleado los métodos de recuerdo libre en sus estudios sobre la memoria aplicados al ámbito de la publicidad radiofónica. Para ello, comparó diversas estrategias aplicadas en los mensajes radiofónicos: las apelaciones 85 verbales al oyente, el uso de la música y el uso de efectos de sonido. ...
Thesis
Este estudio analiza los efectos de la dimensión espacial del sonido en el procesamiento cognitivo del oyente, en concreto, en la viveza y la cantidad de imágenes mentales, el nivel de atención y el índice de recuerdo de la información. Los participantes en el experimento escucharon dos historias de ficción realizadas con cuatro tratamientos sonoros diferentes, // This study analyzes the effects of the spatial dimension of sound on the cognitive processing of the listener, in particular, on the vividness and quantity of mental images, the level of attention and the index of recall of information. An experiment was conducted in which the participants listened to two audio fiction stories, delivered with four different sound treatments. Disponible aquí: http://dspace.ceu.es/handle/10637/8608
... Therefore, if we include nonverbal sound resources in production, which may be easier to process than verbal information, we could achieve a claim of attention or an orienting response (OR), by eliciting an acoustic contrast in the message. A high level of stimulation and variation may increase attention during the stimulus (Olsen, 2002;Potter, 2006;Rodero, 2019). The nonverbal sound resources could provoke this level of variation. ...
... Some studies have demonstrated that the use of production effects and voice and music changes can provoke orienting responses (ORs) (Potter, Lang, & Bolls, 1997;Potter, 2000). Both studies by Rodero (2012Rodero ( , 2019 supported this idea. This author found that sound effects and sound shots increased the listener's attention compared to verbal information in audio stories. ...
Article
This study analyzes the influence of the audio spatial dimension on the listener’s cognitive processing. Participants listened to different audio stories with four sound verbal and nonverbal resources (dialogue; dialogue and sound effects; dialogue and sound filters; dialogue and sound shots) representing the space and perspective of the scene. They rated the stories concerning imagery, transportation, attention, and performed a cued recall test. The results showed that the audio stories with nonverbal sound resources achieved higher imagery and transportation levels than stories with verbal information. The stories with nonverbal resources, except sound effects, obtained the highest levels of attention and recall. These results reveal the crucial role of the spatial dimension in audio processing.
... This is a perceptible mechanism used to find continuities in the auditory stimuli as if the listener was continuously hypothesizing the "casual structure of the world" (Winkler, et al., 2009, p. 532). The tendency to find regularities in the sound orients response (Rodero, 2015) and influences attitudes and behavior (Winkler, et al., 2009). According to this evolutionary and cultural process, symmetry, clarity, goodness-of-form, proportion, balance, and harmony characterize western music (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro & Reber, 2003;Reber, Schwarz & Winkielman, 2004). ...
... Clearly, the fact that only one scale of emotions showed significant differences between the three-pitched levels casts doubt on the validity of this finding. Also, no theoretical grounds would support this, but the opposite (Rodero, 2015). Admittedly, self-reported scales on emotions need to be complemented by pshycophysiological measures (Potter & Bolls, 2012). ...
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La estrategia de marca sonora se refiere al uso estratégico del sonido para comunicar la identidad y valores de una marca en sus diferentes puntos de contacto con los públicos. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar qué rasgos de personalidad de marca y qué emociones autopercibidas (calma o excitación, y grado de agrado) son asociadas con los rasgos del logo sonoro. Se lleva a cabo un diseño experimental entre sujetos 3 x 3 x 2 —intensidad (en aumento, en disminución y constante), tono (ascendente, descendente y constante) y ritmo (rápido, lento)—. Las variaciones de estos rasgos dan como resultado 18 versiones del mismo logo sonoro. Este tiene una duración de 3 segundos y va acompañado de una marca desconocida y un mensaje de voz de 9 segundos. Los resultados indican que los logos sonoros más lentos y con una intensidad en aumento generan una sensación más agradable y de simplicidad que los logos rápidos y con intensidad en disminución. Por su parte, los logos sonoros con tono descendente son percibidos como más ordinarios. Así mismo, la combinación de intensidad en aumento y tono ascendente se percibe como menos emocionante y agresiva que la combinación de intensidad en disminución y tono descendente. El estudio de la percepción y procesamiento del sonido de marca puede contribuir a desarrollar las teorías sobre estrategias de marca y tener importantes aplicaciones en la producción de planes de comunicación estratégica.
... Another possible explanation may be the experience of stress, inattentive eating, and time constraints in the study's student sample [55]. Given that mindful eating is heavily reliant on paying attention [56,57] participants who may have eaten whilst studying or in a rush (e.g., if their attention is primarily focused elsewhere) could have incurred more perceived problems in the 'remembering' category. Furthermore, we may see this in conjunction with altered stress levels throughout the semester, as participants' stress levels may have influenced their emotions [58]. ...
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Demographic and psychosocial factors concerning dietary assessment error have been explored, but few studies have investigated the perceived problems experienced when completing dietary recalls. The aim of this research was to (i) compare the perceived problems encountered in two commonly used self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24HR) programs (INTAKE24© and ASA24®) and (ii) explore whether mindful and habitual eating are associated with perceived problems during dietary recall. A randomised quantitative crossover design and think-aloud methodology were employed. Undergraduate university students (N = 55, Mage = 25.5, SD = 8.2, 75% female) completed a food habits and mindfulness questions pre-program, one 24HR (whilst thinking aloud), and a systems usability scale post-program. A week later, they completed the other 24HR (whilst thinking aloud). During a pilot, a coding frame of perceived problems was devised to quantify participants’ perceived problems. INTAKE24© generated significantly fewer perceived problems across all categories compared to ASA24® (17.2 vs. 33.1, p < 0.001). Of the participants, 68% reported a preference for INTAKE24© over ASA24®. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that habits and systems usability were significant predictors of perceived problems for INTAKE24© only. No significant predictors were found for ASA24®. The results provide insight into perceived problems people may encounter when using 24HR tools.
... La música es uno de los elementos más importantes del lenguaje sonoro. Es el que en mayor medida despierta las emociones y cambia estados de ánimo porque tiene un procesamiento más emocional que racional (Rodero, 2015). En ella se pueden distinguir dos funciones. ...
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... Music is one of the most important elements of the language of sound. It is the one that most arouses emotions and elicits mood changes because it is processed emotionally rather than rationally (Rodero, 2015). Two functions can be distinguished in music: music as a creative work, as an autonomous element, and the music used to accompany other cultural creations, as a complementary element. ...
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Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to discriminate between odd and even numbers. Each visual stimulus was preceded by an irrelevant auditory stimulus, which was randomly either a "standard" tone (80%), a slightly higher "deviant" tone (10%), or a natural, "novel" sound (10%). Novel sounds prolonged the RT to successive visual stimuli by 17 msec as compared with the RT to visual stimuli that followed standard tones. Deviant tones, in turn, decreased the hit rate but did not significantly affect the RT. In the ERPs to deviant tones, the mismatch negativity (MMN), peaking at 150 msec, and a second negativity, peaking at 400 msec, could be observed. Novel sounds elicited an enhanced N1, with a probable overlap by the MMN, and a large positive P3a response with two different subcomponents: an early centrally dominant P3a, peaking at 230 msec, and a late P3a, peaking at 315 msec with a right-frontal scalp maximum. The present results suggest the involvement of two different neural mechanisms in triggering involuntary attention to acoustic novelty and change: a transient-detector mechanism activated by novel sounds and reflected in the N1 and a stimulus-change detector mechanism activated by deviant tones and novel sounds and reflected in the MMN. The observed differential distracting effects by slightly deviant tones and widely deviant novel sounds support the notion of two separate mechanisms of involuntary attention.
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Past research has examined the effect of level of involvement (high vs. low) on subjects’ reactions to persuasive communications. The authors suggest that high involvement can be differentiated into two types (cognitive vs. affective). By manipulating involvement level and type (low involvement, cognitive involvement, affective involvement), they show that the three different forms of involvement have different effects on how brand attitudes are formed. They also examine how music, as a peripheral persuasion cue, affects the process of brand attitude formation. The results indicate that the effect of music on brand attitude depends on the type and level of involvement. Music had a facilitative effect on brand attitude for subjects in the low involvement condition and a distracting effect for those in the cognitive involvement condition; its effect for those in the affective involvement condition was not clear. Alternative explanations of these results are offered and implications for advertising research are discussed.
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The melody of a song, in some situations, can facilitate learning and recall. The experiments in this article demonstrate that text is better recalled when it is heard as a song rather than as speech, provided the music repeats so that it is easily learned. When Ss heard 3 verses of a text sung with the same melody, they had better recall than when the same text was spoken. However, the opposite occurred when Ss heard a single verse of a text sung or when Ss heard different melodies for each verse of a song; in these instances, Ss had better recall when the text was spoken. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the melody contributes more than just rhythmical information. Music is a rich structure that chunks words and phrases, identifies line lengths, identifieds stress patterns, and adds emphasis as well as focuses listeners on surface characteristics. The musical structure can assist in learning, in retrieving, and if necessary, in reconstructing a text.
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The author investigates the ways in which advertisers can use silence in radio commercials to increase attention to, and subsequent retention of, information in an advertisement. It is argued here that, when music is used in an advertisement, listener attention can be focused on specific pieces of information by cutting to silence just before presenting the crucial information and by continuing the underlying silence as the information is presented. An experiment is reported in which silence effectively increases the listener retention of ad information, in comparison with the use of either background music or background silence throughout. The effect was greatest when the highlighted information was the last item of a series. However, counter to expectations, advertisements with no background music whatsoever did not induce greater overall recall than ads with background music throughout.
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Background music captures attention, evokes images, and creates ambience, but may interfere with processing of advertised messages, reducing recall. Brains are hardwired to process unexpected background sound changes first, automatically preempting processing of brand message elements and reducing recall. The degree of this recall reduction depends on the structural characteristics of the music, as well as the advertised brand. Backgrounds with more frequent harmonic and textural changes create more frequent distraction, reducing message recall. Faster tempos increase the frequency of those distractions. However, faster tempos also enable streaming of like distractions, improving message recall. In Experiment 1, backgrounds, varying in harmonic, textural, and temporal characteristics, were compared across ads for six brands. Message recall was higher for ads with backgrounds with less-frequent change. Message recall from ads for new, unfamiliar brands suffered more from background music interference than from ads for established brands. In Experiment 2, background change frequency was reduced in two ads, holding all else constant, which improved message recall.
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Advertising researchers have not investigated the impact of the imagery-evoking sound effects included in radio commercials on learning, feelings, and attitude formation. Results of the current study indicate that the inclusion of sound effects can increase imagery activity and that there is a relationship between degree of imaging and feelings. Further, it is found that imagery evoking sound effects can result in more favorable attitude toward the commercial and in improved recall and recognition of ad claims. Implications for theory and advertising practice are discussed.
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Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of music on the serial recall of sequences of nine digits presented visually. Experiment 1 compared the effects of unattended vocal or instrumental music with quiet and showed that both types of music disrupted STM performance, with vocal music being more disruptive than instrumental music. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate this result using more highly trained subjects. Vocal music caused significantly more disruption than instrumental music, which was not significantly worse than the silent control condition. Experiment 3 compared instrumental music with unattended speech and with noise modulated in amplitude, the degree of modulation being the same as in speech. The results showed that the noise condition did not differ from silence; both of these proved less disruptive than instrumental music, which was in turn less disruptive than the unattended speech condition. Theoretical interpretation of these results and their potential practical implications for the disruption of cognitive performance by background music are discussed.
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Radio’s capacity to stimulate the creation of mental images in the mind of its listeners has long been acknowledged. Nevertheless, research into mental imagery has focused principally on the study of visual stimuli, although studies into radio itself have mostly concerned the field of advertising. In this study, we examine the influence of two stimuli associated with auditory processing on radio: sound effects and sound shots. The chosen context for the study is that of a fictional story, or audio drama, through which to measure the role of these stimuli both in creating mental images in the listener’s mind and in maintaining his or her attention. Our findings demonstrate that the inclusion of descriptive sound effects and especially of sound shots in a fictional radio drama increases mental imagery and that a relationship exists between this increase and the degree of listener attention.
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This study was designed to investigate the effects of dual-task processing on consumers' responses to high-versus low-imagery radio advertisements. In a repeated-measures experimental design, participants listened to six high- and six low-imagery radio spots while simultaneously performing a visual-processing task (viewing a series of pictures unrelated to the ads or viewing a blank/black screen). Consistent with theoretical expectations, the high-imagery radio advertisements performed better than the low-imagery ads on measures of advertising involvement, attitude toward the ad, brand attitude, and purchase intention. The study found that high-imagery radio ads are universally superior, but suffer more when there is competition for cognitive resources. When a visual-processing task (viewing pictures) was introduced, consumers' responses became generally less favorable. The pattern of responses, however, varied across ad types and processing conditions. In particular, the detrimental effect of introducing a picture-viewing task was more pronounced for high-imagery ads than for low-imagery ads, as well as on measures of ad-related response (advertising involvement and attitude toward the ad). No such moderating effect was observed for brand-related responses (brand attitude and purchase intention). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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After a review of research on the use of store music, an experiment was conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. In-store interviews revealed a preference for foreground music but customers’ moods and unplanned purchases were not substantially enhanced by hearing foreground music. However, customers’ perceptions of their shopping time varied with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with time of day. These results suggest that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers’ preferences may not be the optimal approach but rather music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different-aged customers.
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The effect of music-induced pleasure and arousal on consumers' desire to affiliate in buyer-seller interactions were investigated in the context of bank services. Background music was manipulated using classical music extracts pretested to vary in pleasure (low, moderate, and high) and arousal (low, moderate, and high) according to the Affect Grid (Russell, Weiss, & Mendelsohn, 1989). Independent and interactive effects of music-induced pleasure and arousal on consumers' desire to affiliate were found. Higher desire to affiliate was associated with more pleasure and more arousal; pleasure had a stronger positive impact under low and high arousal than under a moderate level, and arousal had a stronger effect under low and high pleasure compared to moderate level. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are provided. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This study tested the effects of background music on the recall of radio commercials. Free and aided recall were significantly higher for subjects who heard the commercials containing no background music in the talk program compared to that of subjects hearing the commercials containing no background music in the music program. Furthermore, involvement level appears to be a factor in influencing recall. The involvement level with the music program was low compared to the involvement level with the talk program and this seems to have a mitigating effect on the recall of the commercials.
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The melody of a song, in some situations, can facilitate learning and recall. The experiments in this article demonstrate that text is better recalled when it is heard as a song rather than as speech, provided the music repeats so that it is easily learned. When Ss heard 3 verses of a text sung with the same melody, they had better recall than when the same text was spoken. However, the opposite occurred when Ss heard a single verse of a text sung or when Ss heard different melodies for each verse of a song; in these instances, Ss had better recall when the text was spoken. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the melody contributes more than just rhythmic information. Music is a rich structure that chunks words and phrases, identifies line lengths, identifies stress patterns, and adds emphasis as well as focuses listeners on surface characteristics. The musical structure can assist in learning, in retrieving, and if necessary, in reconstructing a text. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper applies the limited capacity model of motivated mediated messages (LC4MP) to the problem of creating effective messages about cancer. A general descrip-tion of the model is presented and then applied specifically to the task of creating effec-tive cancer communication messages by asking the following questions about cancer communication: (a) What is the goal of the message? (b) Who is in the target market? (c) What medium will carry the message? and (d) What is the motivational and personal relevance of the main information in the message for the majority of people in the tar-get market? The paper concludes that cancer is a motivationally relevant topic that will elicit aversive activation. Target markets for various types of cancer-related messages (e.g., smokers or people of a certain age) will process mediated messages in predictably different ways making certain design decisions better for certain target markets. Both structural and content elements of messages interact with the limited capacity informa-tion processing system to impact resource allocation, which in turn determines how well messages are encoded, stored, and retrieved at a decision point. Individual differences in peoples' motivational activation influence both their tendencies to engage in risky behaviors that increase the probabilities of getting cancer and their processing of health-related messages. Future research from this perspective should be done to opti-mize cancer messages for specific target audiences using specific media. Why do we study health communication specifically? Is health communication different from other types of communication? Is health communication about can-cer different from health communication about other topics? Obviously, we study health communication because we want to be able to deliver effective messages about health-related information and behaviors to people who would benefit from those messages.
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This paper presents an information-processing model that is directly applicable to the investigation of how mediated messages are processed. It applies the model to the case of television viewing to demonstrate its applicability. It provides a measure for each part of the model. It presents evidence that supports the model in the television-viewing situation. Finally, it demonstrates how the model may be used to further research and understanding in well-known theoretical traditions. This model is not meant to stand in opposition to any of these theories but, rather, should work well with them by providing hypothesized mechanisms that may underlie well-known effects. This model should prove useful both to researchers and, eventually, to message producers. To the extent that we can better understand how the content and structure of messages interact with a viewer's information-processing system to determine which parts and how much of a communication message is remembered, we will make great strides in understanding how people communicate.
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Retailers use background music in order to enhance the atmosphere of their stores. The present study shows, as predicted by the proposed model, that the effects of music on attitudes toward the store, the salesperson, and the visit to the store are moderated by cognitive processes (number of thoughts and depth of information processing), whereas previous studies focused on emotional moderators. Soothing music (i.e., both pleasant and low arousing) is shown, as predicted, to increase cognitive activity when other cognitive stimulation is low (mainly when sales arguments are weak). However, retailers are warned that enhancing cognitive activity is no panacea since it is found here that higher cognitive activity is associated with lower attitudes. It is proposed that music fit with the store may explain such results. Music fit and cognitive processed triggered by store music are strongly suggested as avenues of store atmospherics research.
Book
La radio española ha conquistado la confianza del público pero, al mismo tiempo, ha relegado su potencialidad creativa. Sumida en una etapa de transformación tecnológica, necesita ahora renovar sus procesos de producción para iniciar la recuperación expresiva del medio. Por eso, el propósito de este manual es que los profesionales descubran la radio en profundidad y sean capaces de producir todo tipo de mensajes radiofónicos potenciando su creatividad, a través de las normas que impone el lenguaje radiofónico y los nuevos recursos técnicos. Para ello, el libro se centra en analizar el lenguaje radiofónico como componente básico para producir contenidos, la tecnología y la técnica como herramienta que mediatiza todo el proceso y la estructura o narrativa de los géneros y programas radiofónicos bien sean informativos, de opinión o de ficción. En definitiva, en manos del comunicador radiofónico se encuentra pues el reto de poner en marcha un proceso de producción creativo desde su concepción hasta la realización misma de la pieza radiofónica para que la radio, además de confianza, continúe levantando pasiones.
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Obra donde se presentan estrategias para la elaboración del discurso publicitario en radio, atendiendo a cuestiones como la persuación, el uso de los elementos técnico-sonoros en el mensaje, la personalización del texto y el uso del lenguaje.
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Three experiments were designed to investigate two explanations for the integration effect in memory for songs (Serafine, Crowder, & Repp, 1984; Serafine, Davidson, Crowder, & Repp, 1986). The integration effect is the finding that recognition of the melody (or text) of a song is better in the presence of the text (or melody) with which it had been heard originally than in the presence of a different text (or melody). One explanation for this finding is the physical interaction hypothesis, which holds that one component of a song exerts subtle but memorable physical changes on the other component, making the latter different from what it would be with a different companion. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated the influence that words could exert on the subtle musical character of a melody. A second explanation for the integration effect is the association-by-contiguity hypothesis, which holds that any two events experienced in close temporal proximity may become connected in memory such that each acts as a recall cue for the other. In Experiment 3, we investigated the degree to which simultaneous presentations of spoken text with a hummed melody would induce an association between the two components. The results gave encouragement for both explanations and are discussed in terms of the distinction between encoding specificity and independent associative bonding.
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Being able to detect unusual, possibly dangerous events in the environment is a fundamental ability that helps ensure the survival of biological organisms. Novelty detection requires a memory system that models (builds neural representations of) events in the environment, so that changes are detected because they violate the predictions of the model. The earliest physiologically measurable brain response to novel auditory stimuli is the mismatch negativity, MMN, a component of the event-related potential. It is elicited when a predictable series of unvarying stimuli is unexpectedly followed by a deviating stimulus. As the occurrence of MMN is not usually affected by the direction of attention, MMN reflects the operation of automatic sensory (echoic) memory, the earliest memory system that builds traces of the acoustic environment against which new stimuli can be compared. The dependence of attentive novelty detection on earlier, pre-attentive processes, however, has remained elusive. Previous, related studies seem to suggest a relationship between MMN and attentive processes, although no conclusive evidence has so far been shown. Here we address novelty detection in humans both on a physiological and behavioural level, and show how attentive novelty detection is governed by a pre-attentive sensory memory mechanism.
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Salient auditory stimuli (e.g., music or sound effects) are commonly used in advertising to elicit attention. However, issues related to the effectiveness of such stimuli are not well understood. This research examines the ability of a salient auditory stimulus, in the form of a contrast interval (CI), to enhance recall of message-related information. Researchers have argued that the effectiveness of the CI is a function of the temporal duration between the onset and offset of the change in the background stimulus and the nature of this stimulus. Three experiments investigate these propositions and indicate that recall is enhanced, providing the CI is 3 s or less. Information highlighted with silence is recalled better than information highlighted with music.
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One function of working memory is to protect current mental processes against interference. In contrast, to be able to react flexibly on unpredictable environmental changes working memory should not totally be encapsulated from processing task unrelated information; that is, it should remain distractible. By manipulating the task load of the primary task in an auditory distraction paradigm we investigated how these opposing functions are coordinated by working memory. The behavioural results show that distraction effects were still present but reduced markedly with higher task demands. This suggests that working memory exerts some control over involuntary attention. In addition, event-related brain potentials related to the different processing stages reveal that the preattentive change detection system underlying distraction was not modulated by task demand whereas distraction per se was. The present data suggest that working memory is able to coordinate the maintenance of distractibility and the focus on the task at hand.