Article

Multi-College Bystander Intervention Evaluation for Violence Prevention

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Abstract

Introduction: The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. Methods: First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Results: Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (p<0.01). Conclusions: Green Dot may be an efficacious intervention to reduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements.

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... Many institutions of higher education have attempted to address the issue of sexual violence through various prevention programs, including bystander intervention initiatives. [8][9][10] Stemming from the work of Latan e and Darley, 11 bystander intervention curricula teach safe and appropriate methods of interrupting potentially dangerous situations. 8,9 Evaluations of currently utilized bystander intervention programs indicate positive attitudinal and behavioral changes. ...
... [8][9][10] Stemming from the work of Latan e and Darley, 11 bystander intervention curricula teach safe and appropriate methods of interrupting potentially dangerous situations. 8,9 Evaluations of currently utilized bystander intervention programs indicate positive attitudinal and behavioral changes. 8,10 Most importantly, there is evidence to suggest that campuses that implement bystander intervention initiatives have lower sexual victimization and perpetration rates than campuses that do not. ...
... 8,10 Most importantly, there is evidence to suggest that campuses that implement bystander intervention initiatives have lower sexual victimization and perpetration rates than campuses that do not. 9 Much of the extant literature on bystander intervention and college sexual assault has focused on the relationship between bystander characteristics and willingness to intervene. Less is known if or how the context of the situation impacts the decision to intervene. ...
Article
Universities have attempted to address sexual violence on campuses through various prevention programs, including bystander intervention. Unfortunately, the extant literature on bystander intervention has primarily focused on bystander characteristics. Little is known about how situational characteristics affect the likelihood of intervening during sexual violence; yet, these variables have the potential to influence the effectiveness of bystander intervention programs. Using data collected from college students (N = 626) at a single university located in a large Southern metropolitan city, the present study utilizes a factorial survey design to investigate the impact of location, victim/offender sex, and perceptions of alcohol use on self-reported probability of intervention in an ambiguous sexual scenario. Results indicate that participants were more likely to intervene in scenarios that depicted a fraternity-hosted social (vs. on-campus) and less likely when there was a female perpetrator and a male victim. Perceived alcohol use did not impact intervention.
... 14,17,[19][20][21] Bystander intervention programmes have been associated with reductions in violence and/or facilitating factors across a number of settings. [22][23][24][25] Such programmes aim to promote norms that protect against sexual violence and encourage positive bystander intervention. Specific to nightlife, a recent study in the USA examined the impact of a bar staff bystander training programme, with findings suggesting positive impacts on altering rape myths and barriers to intervention, including bartenders' willingness to intervene. ...
... In recent years, evidence of the implementation and impact of bystander programmes to prevent violence has started to emerge, with studies suggesting positive impacts on preventing violence and/ or promoting factors that protect against violence. [22][23][24][25] While such programmes have predominately been implemented in US college settings, 22 they are increasingly being implemented in other settings, including nightlife. 20 Similar to recent studies, our study suggests that bystander programmes may be implemented beyond college settings, and are associated with positive impacts, particularly relating to bystander intervention. ...
... In recent years, evidence of the implementation and impact of bystander programmes to prevent violence has started to emerge, with studies suggesting positive impacts on preventing violence and/ or promoting factors that protect against violence. [22][23][24][25] While such programmes have predominately been implemented in US college settings, 22 they are increasingly being implemented in other settings, including nightlife. 20 Similar to recent studies, our study suggests that bystander programmes may be implemented beyond college settings, and are associated with positive impacts, particularly relating to bystander intervention. ...
Article
Background Preventing sexual violence in nightlife environments is a pervasive issue across many countries. This study explored the associated impact of a nightlife worker sexual violence awareness raising/bystander training programme (STOP-SV) on trainees’ sexual violence myth acceptance and readiness and confidence to intervene. Methods : Pre- and post-test (n = 118), and 3-month follow-up (n = 38) trainee surveys were implemented across three countries (Czech Republic, Portugal and Spain). Paired-sample tests examined changes across time-periods in participants’ myth acceptance (e.g. unwanted sexual advances are a normal part of a night out), and readiness and confidence to intervene. Multi-nominal regression was used to examine the relationship between the change in pre-to-post-training scores and trainee characteristics. Results Compared to pre-training, post-training participants were significantly (P < 0.01) less likely to agree with sexual violence myths, and more likely to be ready and confident to intervene. In bi-variate and multi-variate analyses, we found no significant associations between the change in pre-to-post-training scores and trainee characteristics. Analyses of the small follow-up sub-sample illustrated some positive changes at the post-training and follow-up time-periods (i.e. reduction in sexual violence myth acceptance). Conclusion This exploratory study suggests that the STOP-SV training programme was associated with a decrease in trainees’ acceptance of sexual violence myths, and an increase in their readiness and confidence to intervene. Our findings support the case for further implementation and evaluation of awareness raising/bystander programmes for nightlife workers that aim to prevent and respond to sexual violence.
... Evidence has shown that bystander intervention (Banyard et al., 2005), the active support provided by those who are aware of a potential harassment case, even if not of the direct victims, constitutes one of the most efficient measures to overcoming sexual harassment (Coker et al., 2016). However, bystanders may also suffer from injury and retaliation by taking the side of the survivors, which is defined as bystander harassment (O'Connor, 1999) or second-order sexual harassment (Dziech & Weiner, 1990). ...
... Understanding sexual harassment in its broadest sense has involved analyzing SOSH and its implications for victims and their communities (Flecha, 2021). Coker et al. (2016) evaluated the impact of the results of several university measures and mechanisms that have been implemented to address sexual harassment. Through the first multiyear empirical evaluation of the 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act (which requires US colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence), they demonstrated that programs based on bystander intervention are some of the most efficient programs for addressing sexual harassment and reducing GBV. ...
... To prioritize direct victims, the reality of SOSH must be approached. Although bystander training is effective (Coker et al., 2016) and individuals can learn to respond to a potentially damaging situation or interaction to positively influence the result, if there is no protection for them, then people will tend to not intervene, even if they know how to do so and are trained for it. To convert a passive bystander into an active bystander, protection and legislation become crucial. ...
Article
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Backgroud Countless efforts to combat sexual harassment have been proposed, and for the first time in history, the second order of sexual harassment (SOSH) has been legislated under the term second-order violence (SOV) by a unanimous vote of the Catalan Parliament. Advances in preventing and responding to sexual harassment contribute to highlighting the intervention as being crucial to supporting survivors against retaliation. A lack of support provides a general explanation on why bystanders tend not to intervene and highlights the reality that reprisals are suffered by those who support victims. Methods From the existing knowledge about sexual harassment prevention and response mechanisms, this paper analyzes scientific evidence through a review of the literature published in databases, as well as legislation, reports, and other materials. Results The context that enables SOV legislation is grounded in three realms: (1) bystander intervention and protection, (2) the role of support networks in protecting survivors, and (3) awareness and legislation of SOSH. An active bystander refers to the involvement of someone who is aware of potential sexual harassment situations. Conclusions The lack of legislation against SOSH limits bystander intervention and support; therefore, legislating protection for supporters has become urgent and necessary. Legislating SOSH has great social implications because gender equality cannot be fully achieved if bystander protection is not legally considered. Policy Implications: As no legal system has previously contemplated SOSH, its pioneering parliamentarian approval and establishment by Catalan law constitute a legal key innovation for the field of gender and women’s studies. In fact, evidence reported here are important in developing further regulations and policy. Policy Implications As no legal system has previously contemplated SOSH, its pioneering parliamentarian approval and establishment by Catalan law constitute a legal key innovation for the field of gender and women’s studies. In fact, evidence reported here are important in developing further regulations and policy.
... 16 Full-text screening was conducted for 44 publications; 31 studies 32,36−51,52−64 met inclusion criteria ( Figure 1). Two studies were reported in 1 publication, 42 1 study was reported in 4 publications, 26,52,65,66 1 study was reported in 3 publications, 36,67,68 and 2 studies were each reported over 2 publications. 38,59,69,70 For the 4 studies that are represented by multiple publications, the publication with the latest data point was chosen as the main publication. ...
... 38,59,69,70 For the 4 studies that are represented by multiple publications, the publication with the latest data point was chosen as the main publication. 36,38,52,59 Summary evidence tables for all included studies can be found at https://www.thecom munityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/SET-Violence-IPV-SV.pdf. ...
... A total of 8 studies 38 52 Two studies were implemented in the home, 39,53 and 2 were implemented in community centers or agencies. 44,62 Of the 17 studies reporting population density, most took place in urban areas 36,40,41,44,45,47,58,59,61,62 or a mixture of urban and suburban, 39 ...
Article
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Introduction Intimate partner violence and sexual violence are widespread and often occur early in life. This systematic review examines the effectiveness of interventions for primary prevention of intimate partner violence and sexual violence among youth. Methods Studies were identified from 2 previous systematic reviews and an updated search (January 2012–June 2016). Included studies were implemented among youth, conducted in high-income countries, and aimed to prevent or reduce the perpetration of intimate partner violence or sexual violence. In 2016–2017, Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) methods were used to assess effectiveness as determined by perpetration, victimization, or bystander action. When heterogeneity of outcomes prevented usual Community Guide methods, the team systematically applied criteria for favorability (statistically significant at p<0.05 or approaching significance at p<0.10) and consistency (75% of results in the same direction). Results A total of 28 studies (32 arms) met inclusion and quality of execution criteria. Interventions used combinations of teaching healthy relationship skills, promoting social norms to protect against violence, or creating protective environments. Overall, 18 of 24 study arms reported favorable results on the basis of the direction of effect for decreasing perpetration; however, favorability for bystander action diminished with longer follow-up. Interventions did not demonstrate consistent results for decreasing victimization. A bridge search conducted during Fall 2020 confirmed these results. Discussion Interventions for the primary prevention of intimate partner violence and sexual violence are effective in reducing perpetration. Increasing bystander action may require additional follow-up as effectiveness diminishes over time. Findings may inform researchers, school personnel, public health, and other decision makers about effective strategies to prevent intimate partner violence and sexual violence among youth.
... Many bystander intervention approaches, such as Bringing in the Bystander (Banyard et al., 2007;Cares et al., 2015), Mentors in Violence Prevention (Cissner, 2009;Katz, 1995;Katz et al., 2011), and Green Dot (Coker et al., 2011;Coker et al., 2016Coker et al., , 2015Cook-Craig et al., 2014) provide education around bystanding while also addressing gender-based stereotypes and violence. Bringing in the Bystander and Green Dot have a community component with the understanding that programs that address campus culture may be the most effective (Basile et al., 2016;Dills et al., 2016;White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, 2014). ...
... Bringing in the Bystander and Green Dot have a community component with the understanding that programs that address campus culture may be the most effective (Basile et al., 2016;Dills et al., 2016;White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, 2014). But research shows that while these programs may be effective in changing attitudes and/or helping potential bystanders feel that they will be effective if they do intervene Coker et al., 2011;Coker et al., 2016Coker et al., , 2015Cook-Craig et al., 2014;Katz & Moore, 2013), the effects are frequently not long-lasting Jouriles et al., 2018). Research on these programs relies on measures of attitudes that show a weak relationship to actual bystander actions, and attitude scores often return to baseline soon after the program is over (Anderson & Whiston, 2005;Breitenbecher, 2000;Dills et al., 2016;Jouriles et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Sexual assault on college campuses has become a major concern. A common response has been to provide bystander intervention training, which research shows may provide short-term attitude change without reducing the number of assaults. Current curricula and research may neglect the very factors that could play a part in students’ desire and ability to intervene, one of which may be moral motivations. For this qualitative study, we interviewed students (n = 38) who identified as having been bystanders to a ‘sketchy sexual situation’ to understand, from a moral perspective, their decisions to intervene or not. In exploring narratives, we used Moral Foundation Theory to categorize the moral reasoning of participants and explore the voices and motivations that adhere to these categories. Through a thematic/discourse analysis we identified additional discourses. Implications for changes to bystander intervention training are discussed.
... Over the past two decades, evidence regarding the role of bystanders in sexual assault prevention efforts has burgeoned. There are now numerous reviews documenting the efficacy of bystander intervention approaches to sexual assault prevention (Coker et al., 2016;Jouriles, Krauss, Vu, Banyard, & McDonald, 2018;Kirk-Provencher et al., 2021;Storer, Casey, & Herrenkohl, 2016). For these reasons, it is important to formally recognize the presence of bystanders as a situational factor that can influence sexual violence. ...
Chapter
The Integrated Model of Sexual Assault and Acquaintance Rape is a multifactor theory of prevention which integrates mutually reinforcing mechanisms that work together to both reduce an offender’s risk of perpetrating and to empower individuals in the perpetrator’s environment to take action to prevent violence. This chapter reviews the development of the model and augments the model to include new developments in research. Given the accumulation of research describing the role of hypermasculinity in sexual aggression, it is now prudent to ensure that programs attend to male socialization into masculine norms and how men perceive these norms. Furthermore, as it is now recognized that successful programs can engage men as allies in sexual assault prevention through bystander intervention training, prevention approaches can benefit from addressing ways in which perceptions of social norms influence helping behavior. Lastly, situational characteristics such as alcohol use as well as an individual’s use of risk reduction and resistance tactics also warrant greater attention in prevention approaches. The chapter concludes with a review of the implementation of the Integrated Model of Sexual Assault and Acquaintance Rape in prevention programs for men, as well as best-practice recommendations for program facilitation.
... Although there is only limited empirical evidence to date regarding the impact of structural climate on individual-level outcomes like sexual assault victimization rates (DeLong et al., 2018), we argue that this is an area ripe for exploration. Aspects of structural climate may have a direct impact on individual-level outcomes; for example, the existence of evidence-based, mandatory sexual violence prevention programming might directly result in lower rates of sexual assault (Banyard et al., 2007;Coker et al., 2015Coker et al., , 2016Senn et al., 2015). Other research suggests that alcohol policies, both on campus and in their surrounding community, influence rates of sexual violence, including policies related to alcohol pricing, outlet density, barroom management, and campus policies restricting alcohol use (Lippy & DeGue, 2016;Stotzer & MacCartney, 2016). ...
... Toward this goal, bystander intervention training programs aim to increase individuals' knowledge about sexual and dating violence, decrease belief and acceptance of rape myths, and increase individuals' ability to intervene in risky situations (Banyard et al., 2007;Burn, 2009;Jouriles et al., 2018;Palm Reed et al., 2015). Whereas some programs such as Green Dot (Coker et al., 2016;Coker et al., 2011) and Bringing in the Bystander engage all members of the campus community, some programs designed to engage boys and men as allies in sexual violence prevention include bystander intervention as a component of their prevention program curriculum (Gidycz et al., 2011;Katz et al., 2011;Orchowski et al., 2018;Salazar et al., 2014). ...
Article
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals are at increased risk for experiencing sexual violence. Bystander intervention training programs are a first-line prevention recommendation for reducing sexual and dating violence on college campuses. Little is known regarding the extent to which SGM individuals are represented in the content of bystander intervention programs or are included in studies examining the effectiveness of bystander intervention programs. The present critical review aimed to fill this gap in knowledge. Twenty-eight empirical peer-reviewed evaluations of bystander intervention programs aimed at reducing dating violence or sexual assault on college campuses were examined. Three studies (10.7%) described including content representing SGM individuals in the program. Personal communication with study authors indicated that—although not mentioned in the publication—many programs describe rates of violence among SGM students. When describing the study sample, six studies (21.4%) indicated that transgender, nonbinary, or students classified as “other” were included in the research. Approximately two thirds of studies (67.9%) did not describe participants’ sexual orientation. No studies reported outcomes specifically among SGM individuals, and two (7.1%) mentioned a lack of SGM inclusion as a study limitation. Work is needed to better represent SGM individuals in the content of bystander intervention programs and ensure adequate representation of SGM individuals in studies examining the effectiveness of bystander intervention programs.
... Bystander intervention programs are being implemented across different social contexts, from university campuses, to businesses, and different institutions (Banyard et al., 2005). Directed at making bystanders more aware of existing or potential cases of GV in their environments and to actively defend and support victims in such cases, bystander intervention programs have been found to be efficient in overcoming sexual harassment (Coker et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a wide and rich scientific literature about Gender Violence (GV) in diverse institutions and contexts, now including Isolating Gender Violence (IGV). However, there is an almost absolute silence about GV and IGV within the field of critical pedagogy despite its pretention to influence children’s education. This paper is part of a long research program on GV and presents the first evidence about its existence within critical pedagogy. The communicative methodology of this research has included interviews to 15 authors of critical pedagogy and 1 discussion group. The gender dimension is key in this research, most lists of outstanding critical pedagogists include only white males and most of them from North America, in this research there are 15 women of the 21 interviewees and diverse gender options and cultures are represented. The results clearly show that, as in any other social institutions and domains, within critical pedagogy there are upstanders against GV, those who maintain a guilty silence and harassers making direct GV and/or IGV.
... While sexual violence is oftentimes considered together with general violence in discussions related to threat assessment and targeted attacks (Coker et al., 2016), the amount of research related to sexual violence perpetration and impact warrants an independent consideration for the current dissertation. Research has indicated that up to one in five college women who are raped are victimized during their college years, and that sexual harassment and violence occur frequently on college campuses (Richards, 2016;Carretta, Burgess, & DeMarco, 2016). ...
Article
Acts of targeted violence are of great concern to college administrators. Additionally, targeted violence motivated by bias (e.g., racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia, etc.) is occurring at an increasing rate on campuses across the country. Previous research has identified potential pre-incident behaviors which may serve as indicators that an individual is escalating towards violent action. However, very limited research has been conducted which examines pre-incident behaviors which occur in bias motivated violence or aggression. With an undergraduate population (n = 1342), this study utilized a survey asking about exposure and response to both otherwise and biased motivated potential pre-incident behaviors on a college campus in order to make an initial attempt to compare events with differing motivations, and to provide initial estimates of the prevalence of these bias motivated pre-incident behaviors on a college campus. When compared to a no assault group, individuals who reported that the behaviors escalated to eventual physical or sexual assault witnessed more types of pre-incident behavior, higher numbers of pre-incident behavior, and increased repetitive unwanted contact, stalking behavior, threatening messages, and unwanted sexual advances. When compared to a group who reported non-bias motivation, those reporting behaviors motivated by some form of bias reported increased rates of disparaging, offensive or crude remarks, and threats. When reporters and non-reporters were compared, those who reported indicated witnessing a higher number of pre-incidents behavior. These findings suggest that while rarer than otherwise motivated events, bias motivated pre-incident behaviors occur on campus, can escalate to violent behavior, and are reported at a lower rate. Overall, it was found that increased pre-incident behavior is correlated to heightened risk of violence on campus in both bias and otherwise motivated events. The current study had multiple implications for managing bias motivated pre-incident behavior and improving reporting rates including improved community outreach, implementation of a threat assessment model, and further research to better understand bias motivated behavior on a college campus. Advisor: Mario J. Scalora
... Over time, this may not just have an effect on buffering the negative effects of mistreatment but might also lessen the occurrence of mistreatment altogether (and thereby minimize damage to workers' health). In support of this assertion, an evaluation of training programs to encourage active constructive bystanders in college campus sexual violence found that interpersonal violence rates decreased 17% among students in the intervention group compared to the control group (Coker et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Workplace bullying has negative effects on targets' well-being. Researchers are increasingly aware that bullying occurs within social contexts and is often witnessed by others in the organization, such as bystanders. However, we know little about how bystanders' responses influence outcomes for those exposed to bullying. In this multilevel study, involving 572 employees within 55 work groups, we explore how bystanders' passive (e.g., inaction) and active constructive (e.g., defending the target) responses to bullying can affect targets' somatic symptoms and work engagement. Drawing from Job-Demands Resource theory, we propose that passive and active constructive bystanders can worsen or buffer bullying's effects on these well-being outcomes, respectively. Specifically, we propose that passive bystanders can act as further demands for targets to cope with, leading to demand accumulation, while active constructive bystanders can act as resources. We found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with somatic symptoms and low work engagement. The number of passive and active constructive bystanders in the target's work group moderated the relationship between exposure to bullying and engagement. In particular, with larger numbers of passive bystanders, the negative relationship of bullying exposure with engagement strengthened. Conversely, with a higher number of active constructive bystanders, bullying's negative relationship with engagement was mitigated. However, there was no moderating effect for somatic symptoms. This study contributes as the first empirical test of whether bystander behavior shapes the consequences of bullying for targets and provides a novel, group-level perspective to the bullying bystander literature. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... It claims that some people, groups and institutions might be subjected to violence due to accompanying victims in the reporting process or defending them from revictimization, as a form of coercion against such support. While bystander intervention (V L. Banyard, V L. Banyard, et al. 2005) is considered one of the most efficient mechanisms for addressing harassment (Ann Coker, Ann Coker, et al. 2016), by being on the victim's side, bystanders can suffer retaliations, identified as bystander harassment (Christopher O'Connor 1999). Thus, protection for those who support survivors is a priority in order to eradicate GBV. ...
Article
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Gender-based violence affects 1 in 3 women worldwide and is the leading cause of death among women. Journalism has a duty to provide fair and coherent information and has a huge effect on peoples’ perceptions. This study examines how one excellent journalism practice contributes to social impact and overcomes sexual harassment. Social impact is considered a crucial factor for evaluating the impact of science. This concept is used to evaluate journalism practice, while the contribution is made through an analysis of the social impact achieved following the RTVE documentary “Voices against Silence” (Golden Globe Award at the 2018 World Media Festival, Hamburg). Implementing the social impact of social media (SISM) methodology and additional interviews (14), this study examines evidence of this documentary’s social impact by exploring citizens’ voices through social media (Twitter and Facebook) and interviews with people whose lives have been impacted by watching this documentary. The evidence collected is linked to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 to overcome sexual harassment. The results indicate this documentary had a social impact by contributing to overcoming sexual harassment and improving trust in journalism as well as providing a reputation for journalistic coverage, which also leads to social impact.
... Given the shared risk factors across forms of violence, and legislation (e.g., Title IX, Campus SaVE Act) requiring educational institutions respond to several forms of interpersonal violence, consolidated programs aimed at the prevention of multiple forms of interpersonal violence would be most efficient. Schools have introduced several interpersonal violence prevention programs aimed at third parties (e.g., Green Dot; Coker et al., 2016). However, evidence-based prevention programs directed at offenders themselves are needed. ...
Article
This study examines the moderating effects of gender, child abuse, and pathological nar-cissism on self-reported stalking, sexual harassment, intimate partner violence, and sexual aggression in undergraduate men and women. Child abuse was positively associated with engaging in all forms of interpersonal violence for both genders. For women, pathological narcissism moderated this association such that higher levels of pathological narcissism reduced the association between child abuse and engaging in stalking, sexual harassment , sexual aggression. For men. pathological narcissism exhibited independent positive associations with engagement in sexual harassment and sexual aggression and a negative association with engagement in intimate partner violence, but no moderating effects. These gender differences have important implications for the assessment of women's violence, and university violence prevention and advocacy programs.
... Witnessing bullying situations contributes to anxiety and depressive symptoms among middle school students [13]. Despite bystander intervention having been proven a successful strategy for preventing sexual violence, particularly in college communities [14], few studies have examined what happens after bystanders intervene and the possible adverse consequences for them. A study conducted in the USA explored bystanders' outcomes and the actual consequences of their actions in response to risk for sexual assault. ...
Article
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Scientific literature has shown that both suffering gender-based violence and taking a stand against it could provoke severe retaliation from bystanders, including negative consequences on health. Together with some women, several men—defined as New Alternative Masculinities—have also contributed to fighting against sexual violence in several contexts, also suffering dramatic consequences, known as Isolating Gender Violence (IGV). This article fills the gap on inquiring how men suffering IGV due to intervening in supporting survivors has affected the men’s health. Six in-depth interviews were conducted with men from different contexts and countries and men of different social profiles. The findings reveal how men’s health is better protected when they build networks of support while overcoming the fear of retaliation in achieving to empower direct survivors. In addition, the results recognize men as crucial actors in the struggle against GBV and overcoming IGV, as women potentially do. This may inspire other men to intervene and break the silence regarding GBV in societies and institutions, as it shows that men and women together are needed to fight against GBV.
... Following the 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act, U.S. colleges are required to provide bystanderbased training to students in an effort to reduce sexual violence. Some research has found that programs focusing on bystander intervention can be effective in reducing rates of sexual assault (Coker et al., 2016) and reducing rape myth acceptance (Coker et al., 2011). Participants in the present sample had all completed mandatory bystander and sexual consent education trainings when they first enrolled in the university. ...
Article
Prevalence of sexual assault remains high on American college campuses, and sexual consent education is lacking within school-based sexual health education programming. Much empirical research has aimed to reduce sexual violence through a deeper understanding of college students' perceptions of sexual consent. However, researchers have not yet examined the impact of broader social discourse, such as that initiated by the #MeToo movement, on emerging adults' conceptualizations of sexual consent. Gendered focus groups were conducted with 34 college students at a large midwestern university in spring of 2019. Qualitative analyses using a phenomenological framework revealed a developmental process of consent education shaped by socialized sexual scripts and public discourse of the #MeToo movement. Four distinct themes emerged: (1) Introductions to Consent in Childhood, (2) Lack of Sexual Consent Education in Adolescence, (3) The Nuanced College Context, and (4) Consent in the Era of #MeToo. Findings reveal that consent is introduced in childhood, outside the context of sexuality, but is generally not revisited within the context of sexual consent by parents or educators during adolescence, leaving media messaging and socialized sexual scripts to serve as guides for sexual consent. This lack of sexual consent education in adolescence then leaves emerging adults unprepared for nuanced sexual experiences in the college context and unable to critically engage with public discourse surrounding consent such as the #MeToo movement, which has caused both fearful and positive outcomes. Findings support the need for earlier and more comprehensive education about sexual consent in childhood and adolescence and the need for college sexual assault prevention programs to include further instruction on navigating ambiguous sexual consent experiences.
... Public education is required through a government campaign including TV advertising, to insist that this is a public issue and therefore everyone's business. Bystander Intervention courses within schools, colleges and universities would enable young people to feel more confident about recognising the signs and about intervening when safe to do so (Coker et al., 2016;Pfetsch, Steffgen, Gollwitzer, & Ittel, 2011). ...
... Además, se les entrena para intervenir de manera segura y generar un cambio en las normas sociales. De esta manera, se busca reducir la ocurrencia de la violencia futura y tener impacto a nivel individual y comunitario (Coker et al., 2016). ...
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Objetivo: En la presente investigación se determina la prevalencia de la violencia contra las mujeres basada en el género (VcM) en las universidades de Ecuador, se identifican las mejores prácticas y el estado de las investigaciones en materia de prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres en las instituciones de educación superior en el mundo, y se propone un modelo de prevención integral de la VcM en las universidades. Método: El diagnóstico se realizó mediante un diseño descriptivo-explicativo, sobre la base de datos observacionales (encuestas) y relaciones de variables, acorde a un modelo teórico. Los datos provienen de encuestas a 23.261 estudiantes y 4.064 docentes y personal administrativo de las principales escuelas profesionales de 16 universidades con 22 sedes o campus universitarios en Ecuador. Resultados: En Ecuador, 1 de cada 3 estudiantes universitarias reporta haber sido agredida alguna vez por su pareja o expareja, desde que está en la universidad. Considerando solo los últimos 12 meses, 1 de cada 5 estudiantes ha sido agredida por sus parejas o exparejas, un promedio de 18 veces. Se ha encontrado también que 1 de cada 3 estudiantes mujeres ha sido agredida por otros integrantes de la comunidad universitaria, 10 veces promedio en el último año. Docentes y personal administrativo también reportan haber sido agredidas por sus parejas u otros integrantes de la comunidad universitaria. Como consecuencia, días de productividad académica son perdidos debido a la VcM. Se ha encontrado que las estudiantes pierden 11 días al año cuando son agredidas por sus parejas y casi 13 días cuando son agredidas por otros integrantes de la comunidad universitaria. La pérdida es mucho mayor cuando sufren, al mismo tiempo, ambos tipos de VcM, llegando a casi 29 días perdidos al año. Los agresores también pierden días de productividad académica y laboral. Se han encontrado diversos factores personales (actitudes y aceptación de la violencia) y contextuales asociados a la alta prevalencia de la violencia contra las mujeres. Costos: Considerando los costos indirectos de estudiantes y docentes, se ha encontrado que las universidades de Ecuador asumen 68.833.079 USD en costos indirectos al año, valor monetario de 3.664.409 días perdidos de 252.429 estudiantes y docentes afectad*s por la violencia contra las mujeres. Este monto equivale al 3,13% del presupuesto nacional universitario. Propuesta: La revisión sistemática demuestra que las acciones de prevención en la educación superior, a nivel mundial, son aún incipientes y fragmentadas, con poca evidencia de efectividad. Se propone, al respecto, un modelo integral de prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres basado en la cadena de valor de las universidades.
... While perpetration of dating violence was significantly reduced among those in the intervention group, there was not a significant difference in gender-equitable attitudes corresponding to the decline in perpetration. Finally, the "Green Dot" bystander intervention program does not specifically address rape myths (Coker et al., 2011) yet, the program has demonstrated effectiveness in both reducing rape myth endorsement (Coker et al., 2011) as well as declines in interpersonal violence perpetration rates (Coker et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
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Changing problematic attitudes about sexual violence, or “rape myths,” has remained a central focus of sexual violence prevention efforts and research for a number of decades. The following chapter reviews the role of rape myth beliefs in sexual violence prevention including its conceptualization, measurement, correlates, and ability to predict the perpetration of sexual aggression. The chapter concludes with a review of how rape myths are addressed in the context of prevention as well as future areas needing investigation.
... At the individual level, bystander training has resulted in a reduction of sexual assaults on college campuses by educating students to intervene safely with peers to prevent assault (Coker et al., 2016). Bystander training also has succeeded in reducing racial bias (Nelson et al., 2011), and school-based bullying (Polanin et al., 2012), as well as increasing workplace safety (Otto et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Bystander intervention training programs increasingly are used to motivate individuals to intervene in interpersonal situations that are causing harm to others or are violating social norms of fairness. Here, we describe the creation of and immediate response to a Bystander Leadership™ intervention training program to reduce gender and race bias among faculty members. The program addresses the gender, racial, and cultural intersectionality of both U.S. and international faculty and uses a behavioral change approach to influence both individual and peer culture. Participants indicated that the workshop provided them with knowledge and practice to enact the five steps of bystander intervention in observed situations of bias and exclusion: notice and interpret the experience of others as different from one’s own; lead by taking responsibility to intervene; decide what to do; and act to intervene. They reported being equipped with concrete tools and a sense of efficacy to intervene in future incidents.
... The direct or indirect support and intervention of all those who see or have knowledge of a case are what makes a person feel supported. Most research in the analysis of the mechanisms that have been most successful in preventing and responding to GBV in universities and organizations has to do with the bystander's role [8]. Slogans such as "be an active bystander", "take the pledge", "if not you, who?", "if, not now, when", "see something, say something", raise awareness of the so-called historical social moment to be on the victim' side [17]. ...
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Scientific literature has presented relevant evidence about the existence of gender violence in science and has evaluated some programs and actions against this problem. Although many researchers have identified the importance of those intervention programs to overcome this harassment, it is still a predominant reality in institutions, surrounded by the law of silence. Emerging lines of research are studying which of those programs are successful in this endeavor, and their transferability to other contexts. This research has analyzed one program: Programme of Women’s Dialogic Action (ProWomenDialogue). To gather evidence for expressing whether or not ProWomenDialogue has an impact, and whether it constitutes a successful action against harassment, the SIOR (Social Impact Open Repository) criteria, emerging from the FP7 IMPACT-Project, have been used for the evaluation of this research’s social impact. Drawing on SIOR, ProWomenDialogue shows unprecedented transformations in academia through six lines of action. The political impact led to legislation that made compulsory the creation of equality committees and protocols against sexual harassment. Social impact, aligned with SDG 5, inspires the reduction of GBV, while encouraging the career promotion of female researchers. ProWomenDialogue embodies a Successful Action platform against violence, presenting their features as recommendations to be implemented in other settings.
... Det föreslås också att ge besättningen utbildning och träning i hur de kan agera som åskådare till en kränkande situation. Denna typ av så kallad bystander-träning har också visat sig vara effektiv i andra kontexter som inom militären och universitets-och skolmiljö (se exempelvisCoker et al., 2016;Mujal et al., 2019;Vukotich, 2013).På organisatorisk nivå föreslås åtgärder för att förbättra den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön ombord, stärka kunskaper och förutsättningar för chefer och arbetsledare ombord och säkerställa att det finns tydliga och fungerande rutiner för att rapportera kränkande särbehandling och andra tillbud och ohälsa -även inom OSA-området.Flera av åtgärderna kräver troligen insatser på branschnivå, då de berör områden som upplevda orättvisor kopplade till osäkra anställningar och ojämlika villkor mellan olika kategorier av sjöfarare.Ur såväl ett globalt som nationellt perspektiv är det inte nödvändigtvis mer lagstiftning som krävs utan snarare implementering och kontroll av efterlevnaden av de regelverk som redan finns. Det gäller särskilt svenskflaggade fartyg där kränkande särbehandling regleras och ska hanteras genom såväl det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet, som rederiets och fartygets säkerhetsledningssystem. Däremot kan de instanser som ansvarar för att kontrollera att regelverket efterlevs, både lagstiftande som flagg-och hamnstater, och självreglerande som klassificeringsbolag och sjötransportköpare, behöva ställa nya typer av frågor för att få bättre och djupare insikter om arbetsförhållandena ombord, med särskilt fokus på organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö. ...
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The purpose of the project presented in this report has been to identify, evaluate and compile existing strategies and methods to reduce the risk of workplace bullying and harassment and strengthen the work for a good organizational and social work environment in an equal maritime industry. This has been done through a systematic literature review, workshops, and interviews with stakeholders in the Swedish maritime industry. The literature review clearly demonstrates that workplace bullying and harassment is a significant problem that needs to be addressed. More than 50 percent of women seafarers report that they have been victimized. The perpetrators are mostly found among the victims' managers and supervisors. Employees must be ensured of the social support of managers and colleagues, and problems in the work environment must be dealt with quickly and correctly. Creating crew courage, where bystanders interfere in a situation and stand up for the victim, is central. Managers need routines, mandate, but also resources to be able to act forcefully. The entire industry needs to take the leap from policy to practice in creating a diverse and inclusive maritime industry. The image of a seafarer and of required skills need to be revisited and revised, to reach a wider recruitment base. An increased proportion of seafarers from minority groups is likely to challenge and change prevailing gendered norms. The results from this project demonstrate that workplace bullying and harassment on board must not be ignored; this would probably exacerbate the scale of the problem. Instead, a broad and united front is required to create a modern and sustainable shipping where decisions about the work environment are based on knowledge.
... At the individual level, bystander training has resulted in a reduction of sexual assaults on college campuses by educating students to intervene safely with peers to prevent assault (Coker et al., 2016). Bystander training also has succeeded in reducing racial bias (Nelson et al., 2011), and school-based bullying (Polanin et al., 2012), as well as increasing workplace safety (Otto et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the diseases it causes remain a public health threat. Data describing health education campaigns for COVID-19 on university and college campuses are lacking, however. Purpose This study explored college students’ experiences of a USA campus COVID-19 campaign encouraging masking, social distancing and handwashing. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 33 demographically diverse students. Questions focused on students’ experiences during COVID-19, actions and beliefs, and reactions to the university’s COVID-19 prevention campaign. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate responses to the campaign and identify suggestions for future interventions. Results Students identified three areas of concern – lack of enforcement for nonadherence, inequities and inconsistencies in messaging and failure to connect messages to students’ daily experiences – as problematic. Participants also said the campaign did not address their primary COVID-19 concerns, outlining four thematic content areas needing more attention – learning in quarantine, missing the ‘college experience’, difficult social relationships and chaos and uncertainty. Discussion COVID-19 prevention campaigns on campus may be best served by a holistic ecological model engaging with needed forms of support on multiple levels. Conclusion Health education and promotion campaigns that speak to individual, relational, community and policy aspects of disease such as COVID-19 are more promising than campaigns that promote single prevention actions.
Article
Bystander intervention programs have consistently demonstrated a positive change in communitywide norms regarding sexual assault. However, much of the extant research is limited by the failure to measure the prevalence of opportunities to intervene relative to actual intervention behavior and the failure to examine how bystander behaviors may be affected by a personal history of sexual victimization. The current study aims to determine the relationship between a bystander’s previous history of sexual victimization, perceived barriers to intervention, observed opportunities to intervene, and actual intervention behavior in a range of high-risk, low-risk, and post-assault bystander opportunities in undergraduate students. Male and female undergraduate students ( N = 591) completed retrospective measures of their opportunities for and intervention in a range of bystander behaviors and perceived barriers to intervention. They also reported on their personal history of sexual victimization. The results indicated that those with a history of sexual victimization tended to perceive greater barriers to intervention than those without such history. Notably, individuals with a victimization history reported that they were less likely to notice a risky situation and to identify the situation as dangerous. However, noticing or intervening did not vary across different types of bystander intervention situations. In terms of gender differences, although men reported perceiving greater barriers due to the diffusion of responsibility and fewer barriers related to audience inhibition and skill deficits when compared to women, there were no significant gender differences in intervention behavior. Data were situated within current empirical and theoretical models of sexual and intimate partner violence, and implications of these findings for bystander intervention programs and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
As a part of socio-ecological approaches to campus sexual violence prevention, there is a call for greater attention to the role of the environment. Despite this, physical space, an aspect of the built environment, is understudied. There is a lack of models for the ways physical space can help facilitate prevention efforts on campus. Disciplines such as criminology have put forth theories such as crime prevention through environmental design, which offer a foundation for application to college campuses but which require modification. The current model draws from reviews of research, theory, and critiques of work on the prevention and the physical environment to present a strengths-centered, social justice–based model for campuses to incorporate the consideration of physical spaces into sexual violence prevention planning.
Article
Active bystandership (AB) training in the Baltimore Police Department (titled Ethical Policing is Courageous, (EPIC)) was designed to (1) prevent misconduct, (2) avoid mistakes, and (3) promote healthy officers. AB training promotes an organizational culture where officers feel empowered to intervene when noticing their colleagues are or are about to, engage in dangerous, unwanted, or inappropriate behaviour. It focuses on direct intervention in an informal capacity rather than formalized reporting. Self-report surveys (n = 1,753) were collected immediately post-completion of EPIC training. Survey domains included perceived impact of the training on behaviour, application to the job, confidence in ability to intervene, and ability to address ethical challenges. A large majority of respondents indicated greater likelihood of intervening after the training and having confidence in their ability to intervene with peers and supervisors; write-in responses suggested that the biggest perceived challenge was in intervening with supervisors.
Article
Most collegiate sexual misconduct victims disclose their experience to a friend, whose reaction and subsequent action are vital for a victim’s social-emotional recovery. The current study focuses on this broader peer community that has learned about an assault and their motivation or reluctance to take action in its aftermath. Thirty-nine undergraduate students were interviewed about the one or more times they had heard of someone else’s uncomfortable sexual encounter, for a total of 86 recalled incidents. Overall, students who learned of misconduct were affected by their newfound knowledge: they were shaken when an assault was discussed lightly, they evaluated the severity of the assault, they prioritized the victim’s wellbeing when considering actions to take, or they were surprised to hear of the assault in the first place. Yet grounded theory analysis identified four main barriers—a belief that the situation is not serious enough, a desire to avoid harming the victim, a lack of knowledge and confidence with their role, and a preference to take action outside of formal channels—that often prevented these reactions from translating into responsive action, leaving victims with less social support and continuing the underreporting of sexual misconduct. Recommendations include expanding bystander intervention training to include an assault’s aftermath and adding educational programming that challenge rape myths.
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In December 2020, the Catalan Parliament approved by unanimity the world’s first legislation of the concept of Isolating Gender Violence (IGV); in 2021, several parliaments are developing their own legislations. The elaboration of this concept and later this name has been a long and dialogic process among diverse scientists, policymakers, governments, parliaments, victims, survivors, social organizations and citizens. Since 2016, CREA (Community of Research on Excellence for All) has developed a process of elaborating the concept of IGV oriented to obtain the scientific, policy and social impact required to make a key contribution to overcoming gender violence. This process was simultaneous to the elaboration by the same researchers of the criteria of policy and societal impact of the EU’s scientific programme of research (Horizon Europe). This paper presents this dialogic research conducted to get the concept and the name IGV and the consequences of this concept along scientific, policy and social impact. The results show that the key for getting the name and the impacts of this scientific robust concept has been three of the main characteristics of the present EU research program Horizon Europe: the priority of social impact, the co-creation of knowledge between scientists and citizens and sustainability.
Chapter
The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) poses unprecedented challenges for today’s society. The areas affected by this advanced wave go beyond a technological revolution, involving gender and ethical issues. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) prioritize gender equality as one of its 17 principles. Gender-based Violence is a problem increasingly addressed in different forums, from several perspectives. A lot has already been studied on empowering survivors in order to break their silence and go forward. In times of the 4IR, we also need to defend and legally protect those who support survivors, which may sometimes become victims of Second Order of Sexual Harassment (SOSH). Survivors need support in order to complain and proceed; therefore, this support needs protection. This chapter will argument on the importance of raising awareness on SOSH arguing for a SOSH legislation to eradicate GBV. The COVID-19 crisis provides a context in which our focus also goes towards attending survivors of domestic and family violence as an emergency matter aggravated by the lockdown. Thus, protecting those who speak up on survivors’ side is urgent and necessary.
Article
The #MeToo movement centers on raising awareness of risky situations for victimization and encourages the general community to intervene in these situations. Similarly, sexual violence awareness programming that take place on college campuses throughout the academic year can prime individuals to be active bystanders. Except for a handful of systematically evaluated bystander intervention programs, however, it is unclear how informal sexual violence awareness programming affects actual intervention behaviors. The link between prior victimization and bystander intervention is also not well understood. Given these gaps in research, the current study examines how exposure to sexual violence awareness programming and prior victimization are associated with bystander intervention. In particular, we consider the intersection of prior sexual victimization and participating in sexual violence awareness programming on campus. Utilizing a sample of 735 college students from a four-year southeastern university, the results of the current study demonstrate victims of sexual violence who attend sexual violence awareness programming are less likely to intervene. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of program design and suggest that increased attention to the problem of sexual violence does not necessarily translate into bystander intervention. Overall, this may run counter to goals of the #MeToo movement and deserves further attention. Avenues for future research are discussed.
Article
Many college students who experience sexual assault experience subsequent (i.e., repeat) sexual assault incidents. There is also an established relationship between sexual assault and binge drinking. The “once bitten, twice shy” (OBTS) hypothesis suggests that those who experience alcohol- or drug-related (AOD) sexual assault would reduce how frequently they binge drink in an effort to avoid repeat victimization. We test this hypothesis by analyzing two years of survey data collected from a panel of three cohorts of freshmen women. Supportive of OBTS, our analyses reveal that students who experienced an AOD-related sexual assault at time 1 only reduced the number of days they binge drank from time 1 to time 2 and that this change significantly differed from repeat victims. Implications for efforts to reduce sexual victimization against college women are discussed.
Article
The “once bitten, twice shy” (OBTS) hypothesis argues that crime victims who change their involvement in risky lifestyle behaviors reduce their likelihood of experiencing repeat victimization. Tests of this hypothesis have yielded weak to mixed results, which may be due to methodological issues. We address these methodological issues by testing the OBTS hypothesis for repeat drugging victimization with survey data from a panel of three freshman cohorts at three large, public universities. Supportive of the OBTS hypothesis, the multivariate results show that, on average, those not drugged at Time 1 or Time 2 and those drugged at Time 1 and Time 2 increased the number of days they binge drank in the past month significantly more than those who were drugged at Time 1 only. Our findings have implications for both victimology theory and drugging prevention programming.
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Research shows that bystander training has the potential to reduce violence and abuse. It is not clear how and why the training works. We evaluated bystander training to find out what works. We found that interactive techniques, such as group discussions, ‘the video’, and the use of real‐world examples were the best ways of delivering the training because they stood out and were remembered by participants. These findings add to the paucity of research on what works in bystander training, and in doing so, raises implications for the design and delivery of future training.
Article
Dating violence is a prevalent problem among college-aged couples. Empirical studies based on social learning theory have found a strong relationship between early exposure to violence and violent behaviors in later life. However, researchers have not fully examined which contexts exacerbate the potential risk of violence perpetration among individuals who have experienced violence. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether pro-violence messages received in childhood moderate the effect of early exposure to violence on acceptance of violence and dating violence perpetration. The current study used a sample of U.S. college students (N = 3,302) using cross-sectional data from the International Dating Violence Study (2001– 2006). Findings from ordinary least squares regression analyses showed that receiving pro-violence messages during childhood was associated with acceptance of violence among male and female students (p < .5), but that such messages are associated with increased dating violence perpetration among female students only (p < .5). Overall, pro-violence messages did not moderate the relationship between early exposure to violence and acceptance of violence and dating violence perpetration. Among the female sample pro-violence messages moderated the relationship between early exposure to violence and acceptance of violence (p < .5). These findings highlight the significance of pro-violence messages on later attitudes toward violence. However, subsequent studies are needed to explore the risk factors that adjust or reinforce the relationship between early exposure to violence and acceptance of violence and dating violence behaviors in later life.
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Sexual harassment in the workplace is a prevalent issue, with 60% of women reporting that they have experienced workplace sexual harassment. In this chapter, the authors offer the bystander intervention as a strategy for preventing and coping with sexual harassment at work. Bystander intervention behavior can include removing a victim from a harassing situation, speaking up to a harasser, or reporting the harasser on behalf of the victim. Bystander intervention trainings have the ability to give men the perception of psychological standing in the issue of sexual harassment. Positive deviance can be a large factor in bystander interventions. Bystander intervention trainings are also shown to positively change perceptions on issues of gender equity and sexual harassment. Traditional sexual harassment trainings that simply go over policies can actually reinforce gender stereotypes, and it is not clear that they change attitudes or behavior surrounding sexual harassment.
Article
This study applied Andersen's Model of Health Service Use to examine help-seeking behaviors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and predisposing, enabling, and need factors for help-seeking among college students. The sample (N = 2,719) consisted of those who experienced IPV and was recruited from six universities in the United States and one university in Canada through an online survey. Results showed that 45.4% of the sample had sought some form of help for IPV. The most utilized source of formal help was from medical services, and friends were the number one source of informal help. Gender, age, sexual orientation (predisposing factors), IPV training (enabling factor), experiencing psychological and technological violence, and IPV consequences (need factors) were associated with seeking help. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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College students can use bystander intervention tactics to prevent sexual assault within their communities. One's group memberships and group identification—conceptualized within social identity theory—could influence attitudes and behaviors related to bystander intervention. College students ( n = 1,170) participated in an online survey measuring group membership with student subgroups, identification, and bystander intervention perceptions. Subgroups in this study included fraternities/sororities, student organizations, National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes, club/intramural sports, and spiritual/faith-based organizations. For various student subgroups, group identification was significantly correlated with individuals’ perceived willingness and likelihood to engage in bystander intervention and their perceptions about the helpfulness of bystander intervention tactics.
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In the aftermath of the global #Metoo-movement, sexual harassment (SH) and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) have emerged at the forefront of public debate and research. Higher education instituions (HEI) worldwide have responded with different preventive measures, targeting context-specific challenges and solutions. In India, post the enactment of the law on prevention and repatriation of SH of women at work in 2013, governing bodies in HE have issued several policies and guidelines. However, almost no empirical studies have explored the implementation and consequences of these initiatives. This pioneering study explores the Indian experiences of procedural change in this sense, through the challenges faced by internal complaints committee members. A specific focus in the analysis is on the members discourses on executing the quasi-legal and behavioural mandates of the law. In conclusion, ambiguities within the law as such, misrecognized cognitive biases in committee members narratives, and a lack of adequate conversation on GBV and SH sums up to identified bureaucratic grey zones. Several recommendations on context specific preventive measures are suggested as well as core recommendations on future research targeting prevention of GBV and SH in HEI more generally.
Article
Failure to take responsibility for intervening has been identified as a primary barrier to bystander intervention. Building on these findings, we examine how perceptions of responsibility affect responses to witnessing victimization in the online realm—a topic that has received limited attention. Using a maximum-likelihood selection model, we analyze data from the Pew American Trends Panel ( N = 3709) to estimate the effects of respondents’ perceptions of the role different groups should play in addressing online harassment on their likelihood to engage in intervention, target hardening, or inaction in response to witnessing online harassment, conditioned upon their likelihood of having witnessed such behavior. Findings indicate that the greater role respondents believe online users should have in addressing online harassment, the more likely they are to intervene. ( b = .310). The greater role respondents believe law enforcement or elected officials should have in addressing online harassment, the less likely they are to intervene ( b = −.135 and −.072, respectively). These findings have implications for future efforts to curb online harassment through users’ crime prevention efforts.
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This article presents a qualitative study of 44 Women of Color undergraduate student survivors’ perceptions of campus sexual assault prevention programming using the framework of standpoint theory. Participants held perceptions concerning online training prior to college, the in-person presentations they attended during new student orientation, and the lack of information relayed through prevention programs about sexual assault perpetration. Findings highlight the need for continued research investigating the standpoints of Women of Color students to better inform implementation of prevention efforts.
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Students' participation in relevant service learning can have a unique impact on their institution of higher education, if provided the opportunity. This article explores student-designed sexual misconduct prevention efforts taking place in an undergraduate project management course at one institution of higher education. We found that involving students in particular kinds of campus communication design and implementation simultaneously improved those efforts and offered students the opportunity to participate in impactful civic projects. In our article, we first examine the most common approach to sexual misconduct prevention, while considering its limitations. We then introduce a nontraditional collaboration---technical communication student involvement within prevention work---which resulted in new efforts. Finally, we illustrate how instructors can integrate similar collaborations.
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Sexual violence (SV) remains at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and growing evidence demonstrates that youth and adults engaged in sport are at increased risk of victimization and perpetration of SV. Unfortunately, sport SV prevention strategies are rarely built on theory or theoretically grounded evidence, despite demonstrated effectiveness of such approaches. This study aimed to answer to questions: 1) Which theories are relevant to the development of effective SV prevention strategies in sport?; and 2) How has theory been incorporated into existing SV prevention literature on sport safety? A scoping review of the literature plus expert input identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sport. A systemized review of the literature regarding SV prevention in sport resulted in the identification and characterization of 41 published articles. Authors then examined theory’s role in prevention literature. This study identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sports and applicable across the behavioral spectrum. Most theories were rooted in the Behavioral (41%), Situational (24%) or Social/Attitudinal (21%) areas. Less common were theories grounded in Feminist (14%) domains. Theories were predominantly focused at the individual (42%), organizational (29%), and interpersonal (18%) ecological levels. Of the 41 sport prevention articles, 33 (83%) referred to a theory either explicitly or implicitly. Though most theories have been incorporated into prevention efforts, closer examination indicates that the majority were descriptive, unlikely to use a sophisticated methodology (10%; e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental), and rarely intended to assess a specific prevention program/strategy or policy (21%). Strong theoretical foundations are available for SV prevention research focused on sports, and their application appears to show value across the developmental spectrum of athletes. There remains a need for greater focus on theory-driven research intended to develop prevention strategies and policies designed to enhance athlete safety.
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Objectives: Despite the substantial influence these acute alcohol-related problems cause globally, past research has failed historically to capture the dynamic nature of drinking events, including how multiple factors (ie, individual, group, and environmental) interact to affect event-level intoxication. Fortunately, technology (eg, transdermal alcohol monitors) and smartphone surveys have provided researchers with new avenues to measure the complex nature of alcohol consumption. This paper presents the methods of a pilot study that sought to measure event-level alcohol consumption in a natural drinking group of college students. Methods: Ten groups of friends (N=49) were followed for 2 weeks with daily diary surveys, continuous activity trackers, hourly geographic ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) on 4 separate drinking occasions, and a transdermal alcohol monitor during one group-based social event. Results: On average, participants responded to > 75% of both daily diaries and EMAs and were compliant with activity trackers on 96% of monitoring days. Over 90% of the sample had usable transdermal data and after smoothing, peak transdermal alcohol contents ranged from 0.13 to 0.395 during the observation evening. Conclusion: The lessons learned during this pilot study can provide a building block for future work in this area, especially as data collection in alcohol research rapidly advances.
Chapter
The bystander approach for sexual assault prevention, rooted in the understanding that violence is a community issue, necessitating a shift in cultural norms that support the use of violence against women, has gained traction in recent years. This approach offers the benefit of moving away from addressing men as potential perpetrators, yet evidence suggests that men may face considerable barriers to prosocial intervention. One variable aspect of the current slate of bystander programs is their degree of attention on the role of gender norms in both risk for sexual assault perpetration and bystander inaction. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) briefly review the history of the bystander intervention model, (2) summarize theoretical models of bystander behavior and empirical evidence of influences of men’s intervention behavior, (3) review evidence-based programmatic initiatives based on this model, and (4) offer considerations for engaging men and boys as prosocial bystanders for the prevention of sexual assault.
Article
The bystander intervention (BI) model recognizes a range of prosocial helping behaviors individuals can perform to support sexual and dating violence (S/DV) prevention efforts. Individuals can demonstrate a commitment to ending violence through proactive BI, such as participating in prevention initiatives or talking with peers about ways to keep safe, which are different than reactive BI behaviors when violence is underway. Given the anchoring of the BI model in Diffusion of Innovation Theory, which articulates the uptake of new behaviors throughout a population or community and the role of change agent aids in that process, investigating demographic, and other individual-level correlates, of proactive behaviors may help identify those students who are particularly positioned to help diffuse and normalize anti-violence behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of students’ engagement in peer discussions about violence prevention in the past year and (2) the correlates of reporting to have those discussions among university students in a cross-sectional study implemented on two campuses in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. Results showed that the most common discussion was talking to friends about being safe in dating relationships and the least common was talking with friends about participating in violence-prevention-related activities, with 66.2% and 22.5% having done so, respectively. Women, younger students, and those reporting to know a survivor of either DV or SV were more likely to report having discussions, compared to men, older students, and those not knowing a survivor. Additional relationships were detected between other individual characteristics, knowledge about violence/victimization, and climate-related variables but differed depending on whether participants participated in the DV or SV-related survey module. Findings suggest the need for BI training initiatives to emphasize proactive engagement and peer discussions, and that gender continues to be a robust indicator of violence-prevention actions.
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Evidence suggests that interventions to engage bystanders in violence prevention increase bystander intentions and efficacy to intervene, yet the impact of such programs on violence remains unknown. This study compared rates of violence by type among undergraduate students attending a college campus with the Green Dot bystander intervention (n = 2,768) with students at two colleges without bystander programs (n = 4,258). Violent victimization rates were significantly (p < .01) lower among students attending the campus with Green Dot relative to the two comparison campuses. Violence perpetration rates were lower among males attending the intervention campus. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
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This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates ( Foshee et al., 1996); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).
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Stimulated originally by the Navy's Tailhook episode in 1991, and more recently by revelations of widespread sexual harassment of female Army recruits, there appears to be a growing consensus that the harassment of female military personnel is a problem with profound consequences for both individuals and armed services more generally. At the same time, there are few reliable estimates of the actual nature, prevalence, and severity of this problem. This article attempts to address the issue by describing the development and measurement characteristics of a military version of the SEQ—DoD, which was administered to more than 28,000 military personnel as part of the Department of Defense study of gender issues in the services. Following analysis of the structure of the instrument, the incidence rates for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, armed service, and rank are examined. Options for scoring the SEQ—DoD and the question of who should be counted as sexually harassed are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 7,945 college undergraduates, we report on the association between having received Green Dot active bystander behavior training and the frequency of actual and observed self-reported active bystander behaviors as well as violence acceptance norms. Of 2,504 students aged 18 to 26 who completed the survey, 46% had heard a Green Dot speech on campus, and 14% had received active bystander training during the past 2 years. Trained students had significantly lower rape myth acceptance scores than did students with no training. Trained students also reported engaging in significantly more bystander behaviors and observing more self-reported active bystander behaviors when compared with nontrained students. When comparing self-reported active bystander behavior scores of students trained with students hearing a Green Dot speech alone, the training was associated with significantly higher active bystander behavior scores. Those receiving bystander training appeared to report more active bystander behaviors than those simply hearing a Green Dot speech, and both intervention groups reported more observed and active bystander behaviors than nonexposed students.
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Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media.
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This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence.
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This large, statewide sample from 26 high schools provided the first population-based estimates of stalking victimization and perpetration among adolescent females and males. Our stalking definition required that pursuing tactics occurred at least 3 times in the past 12 months and included being followed, spied on, or monitored; someone showed up or waited for you when you did not want them to; and receiving unwanted messages. Among 18,013 students, 16.5% disclosed being stalked and 5.3% stalking; 2.8% disclosed both stalking victimization and perpetration. A majority of students reported being most afraid of a former boyfriend or girlfriend as the stalker.
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Perpetration of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse is prevalent in adolescent relationships. One strategy for reducing such violence is to increase the likelihood that youth will intervene when they see peers engaging in disrespectful and abusive behaviors. This 12-month follow-up of a cluster RCT examined the longer-term effectiveness of Coaching Boys Into Men, a dating violence prevention program targeting high school male athletes. This cluster RCT was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The unit of randomization was the school, and the unit of analysis was the athlete. Data were analyzed in 2012. Participants were male athletes in Grades 9-11 (N=1513) participating in athletics in 16 high schools. The intervention consisted of training athletic coaches to integrate violence prevention messages into coaching activities through brief, weekly, scripted discussions with athletes. Primary outcomes were intentions to intervene, recognition of abusive behaviors, and gender-equitable attitudes. Secondary outcomes included bystander behaviors and abuse perpetration. Intervention effects were expressed as adjusted mean between-arm differences in changes in outcomes over time, estimated via regression models for clustered, longitudinal data. Perpetration of dating violence in the past 3 months was less prevalent among intervention athletes relative to control athletes, resulting in an estimated intervention effect of -0.15 (95% CI=-0.27, -0.03). Intervention athletes also reported lower levels of negative bystander behaviors (i.e., laughing and going along with peers' abusive behaviors) compared to controls (-0.41, 95% CI=-0.72, -0.10). No differences were observed in intentions to intervene (0.04, 95% CI=-0.07, 0.16); gender-equitable attitudes (-0.04, 95% CI=-0.11, 0.04); recognition of abusive behaviors (-0.03, 95% CI=-0.15, 0.09); or positive bystander behaviors (0.04, 95% CI=-0.11, 0.19). This school athletics-based dating violence prevention program is a promising approach to reduce perpetration and negative bystander behaviors that condone dating violence among male athletes. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCTO1367704.
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Recent research documents the problem of sexual violence across communities, often finding its causes to be embedded in community and cultural norms, thus demonstrating the need for community-focused solutions. In this article we synthesize research from community psychology on community change and prevention with more individually focused studies of sexual violence prevention programs and bystander behavior in emergency and crime situations. The purpose of bringing together this research is to outline a new area of focus for sexual violence prevention: the mobilization of prosocial behavior on the part of potential bystanders. This approach has utility for increasing community receptivity to prevention messages, by decreasing resistance to them, and for increasing the likelihood of community members taking an active role in prevention and intervention. The specific case of sexual violence prevention on college campus communities illustrates this approach. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 32: 61–79, 2004.
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Contrary to the image of college campuses as “ivory towers,” the victimization of college students recently has been portrayed as a serious problem deserving policy intervention. Based on interviews designed after the National Crime Victimization Survey, which were conducted with 3,472 randomly selected students across 12 institutions, we examined both the level and sources of students'victimization. More than one-third of the sample reported being victims during the 1993–94 academic year. Informed by the lifestyle-routine activities approach, the analysis revealed that the risk of property victimization was increased by proximity to crime, target attractiveness, exposure, and lack of guardianship. The main predictor of violent victimization was a lifestyle that included high levels of partying on campus at night and the recreational use of drugs.
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The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as potential bystanders or witnesses to behaviors related to sexual violence. Three hundred and eighty-nine undergraduates participated and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a control group. Results from the research reveal that up to 2 months after participating in either a one- or three-session version of the program, participants in the treatment conditions showed improvements across measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behavior while the control group did not. Most program effects persisted at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. The program appeared to benefit both women and men. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 463–481, 2007.
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This pilot study describes an evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander (BITB) in-person program conducted with United States Army Europe personnel. The sample was comprised of 394 soldiers (29% participated in and 71% had not participated in the BITB program). Data were analyzed 4V2 months after the program was presented. Compared to the soldiers who did not participate in the program, soldiers who participated in the program were significantly more likely to report that they had engaged in one or more of the 117 behaviors, that they had helped an acquaintance or a stranger, and that they had taken action when they saw sexual assault or stalking occurring, about to occur or after it had occurred. The results indicate that with thoughtful and appropriate modifications, the BITB in-person prevention program, initially developed for a college audience, can be transferred to a military audience.
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Objective: the object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control group. All completed pretest, posttest, and 2-month follow-up surveys, including assessment of rape myth acceptance, intent to engage in bystander behaviors, bystander confidence, and bystander behaviors. the program worked overall and for both women and men, improved bystander confidence and intent to engage in bystander behaviors, and did not create significant backlash effects (ie, worsening of attitudes as a result of program). the program fits with the intent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association CHAMPS/Life Skills program regarding its focus on the overall development of student-athletes and demonstrates the promising bystander approach compatible with the 2007 American College Health Association toolkit, Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence.
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We investigated physical assault in dating relationships and its co-occurrence with sexual assault from high school through college. Two classes of university women (n = 1569) completed 5 surveys during their 4 years in college. Women who were physically assaulted as adolescents were at greater risk for revictimization during their freshman year (relative risk = 2.96); each subsequent year, women who have experienced violence remained at greater risk for revictimization than those who have not. Across all years, women who were physically assaulted in any year were significantly more likely to be sexually assaulted that same year. Adolescent victimization was a better predictor of college victimization than was childhood victimization. There is a need for dating violence prevention/intervention programs in high school and college and for research on factors that reduce revictimization.
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A series of community-level trials undertaken in the United States over the past 10 years established the effectiveness of an HIV prevention intervention that systematically identifies, recruits, trains, and engages the popular opinion leaders (POLs) of a population to serve as behaviour change endorsers. Recently, several investigators reported unsuccessful attempts to implement peer education programmes for men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom and raised questions about whether peer-based programmes are effective or feasible. However, POL is a theory-based and very specialized intervention, and the UK peer education programmes did not incorporate many of POL's core or essential elements. Consequently, they were not evaluations of POL. In this article, core elements of the popular opinion leader model are presented; interpretations are made of possible reasons for the discrepant findings of the UK peer education and US POL interventions; and practical issues for applied programme development are discussed.
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