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Does Sexting Improve Adult Sexual Relationships?

Authors:
  • Virtual Reality Medical Center
EDITORIAL
Does Sexting Improve Adult Sexual Relationships?
Brenda K. Wiederhold, PhD, MBA, BCB, BCN
Ina2011 editorial,
1
we asked if adult sexting should be
considered a deviant behavior eligible for inclusion in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders.
This was prompted by Rep. Weiner’s fall from grace after he
was caught sexting both lewd photos of himself and messages
to various women while he was married. At that time, we
called for more research on adult sexting.
Now, 4 years later, sexting has gone mainstream. Indeed, a
study of 870 U.S. adults aged 18–72 years showed that 88%
had sexted in their lifetime.
2
Findings indicate ‘‘a robust
relationship between sexting and sexual satisfaction,’’ while
the relationship between sexting and relationship satisfaction
requires further study. Past experiences appear to influence a
person’s attitude about sexting. Someone is more likely to
have sexted in the past if the individual perceives it as fun
and carefree and has a higher relational expectation about
sexting while perceiving it as low risk.
Certainly, issues related to risk have prompted researchers
to focus most studies on negative consequences, especially in
younger populations. To date, the majority of adult studies
have been conducted with college undergraduates. In one
study of 160 men and 320 women, more than one-fifth felt
coerced into sexting, and sexting coercion was related to
physical sex coercion and intimate partner violence.
3
An-
other study of 88 undergraduates created a predictive risk
model for sexting, finding that those who engaged in un-
protected sex, viewed adult pornography, and engaged in
web-based video chatting with strangers were more likely to
sext.
4
A third study in CYBER of 278 undergraduates was
designed to identify common expectations about sexting, and
found both negative expectations as well as positive expec-
tations related to the fun and sexually related aspects.
5
Is there a certain type of person who is inclined to perceive
sexting as fun and carefree? A recent review of the literature
concluded that there is a paucity of research in this area, as
the majority of research has related sexting to a health risk
behavior.
6
‘‘In terms of personality traits, sexting is generally
related with those subjects who score high in a search for
sensation, impulsiveness, and who are prone to risk activities
(p119).’’ The review indicated that there may be some re-
lationship between sexting and attachment, as sexting could
be a new expression of anxious or insecure attachment.
Another study involved two different groups of mostly
women undergraduates—135 in 2009 and 145 in 2011.
7
While this study of communication technology did not ask
these people specifically about sexting their romantic part-
ners, researchers postulated that it is ‘‘possible that individ-
uals higher in attachment avoidance may find it easier to
meet their intimacy and/or sexual needs via texting than
other methods of communication (p1776).’’
A recent study of undergraduates indicates that sexting
may be more acceptable in same-sex relationships as op-
posed to heterosexual relationships, perhaps because gays
and lesbians need to manage to whom they come out and
when. Sexting allows connection with others while not
compromising the level of ‘‘outness.’
8
Finally, a large study (n=3,447) of 18–24 year olds sug-
gests that there is no relationship between sexting and sexual
risk behavior or psychological well-being, specifically no
relationship to mental health issues such as depression,
anxiety, or low self-esteem.
9
Certainly, as we said 4 years
ago, more research is needed. However, perhaps for the
better, it appears that adult sexting is here to stay.
References
1. Wiederhold BK. Should adult sexting be considered for the DSM?
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, & Social Networking 2011; 14:481.
2. Stasko EC, Geller PA. Reframing sexting as a positive re-
lationship behavior. Paper presented at American Psycho-
logical Association 2015 Convention, August 6–9, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada. www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/08/
reframing-sexting.pdf (accessed Sept. 30, 2015).
3. Drouin M, Ross J, Tobin E. Sexting: a new, digital vehicle
for intimate partner aggression? Computers in Human Be-
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4. Crimmins DM, Siegfried-Spellar KC. Peer attachment, sex-
ual experiences, and risky online behaviors as predictors of
sexting behaviors among undergraduate students. Computers
in Human Behavior 2014; 32:268–275.
5. Dir AL, Coskunpinar A, Steiner JL, et al. Understanding differ-
ences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and
sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting. Cyber-
psychology, Behavior, & Social Networking 2013; 16:568–574.
6. Go
´mez LC, Ayala ES. Psychological aspects, attitudes and
behaviour related to the practice of sexting: a systematic
review of the existent literature. Procedia—Social & Beha-
vioral Sciences 2014; 132:114–120.
7. Morey JN, Gentzler AL, Creasy B, et al. Young adults’ use
of communication technology within their romantic rela-
tionships and associations with attachment style. Computers
in Human Behavior 2013; 29:1771–1778.
8. Hertlein KM, Shadid C, Steelman SM. Exploring percep-
tions of acceptability of sexting in same-sex, bisexual, het-
erosexual relationships and communities. Journal of Couple
& Relationship Therapy 2015; 14:342–357.
9. Gordon-Messer D, Bauermeister JA, Grodzinski A, et al. Sexting
among young adults. Adolescent Health 2013; 52:301–306.
Brenda K. Wiederhold
Editor-in-Chief
CYBERPSYCHOLOGY,BEHAVIOR,AND SOCIAL NETWORKING
Volume 18, Number 11, 2015
ªMary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015.29014.bkw
627
... Se ha evidenciado que la práctica de sexting está vinculada a personas que poseen rasgos de personalidad extrovertidos, que poseen un importante deseo por buscar nuevas sensaciones y que evitan el tedio de la vida (McDaniel, & Drouin, 2015;Wiederhold, 2015). Aunque las personas practicantes se definan como extrovertidas, esto no quiere decir que la práctica se limite solo a individuos abiertos socialmente. ...
... Para Valdivieso, Maya & Solórzano (2017), a más de lo expuesto, se identificó que que hay más aceptación a la hora de tener relaciones íntimas e interés en concretar una cita con el remitente de los mensajes eróticos.Otro de los beneficios informados fue el de liberar las preocupaciones por fallar en el uso de los métodos anticonceptivos entre los hallazgos de la investigación de determinó que encontró que algunos jóvenes ven que a este método como un medio seguro para coquetear y puede ser usado por los jóvenes como una alternativa segura en relación a la actividad sexual de la vida real. Siguiendo esta línea de la investigación, las parejas que lo practican, afirman no correr el riesgo de consecuencias negativas como embarazos no deseados o contraer enfermedades de transmisión sexual (Wiederhold, 2015). Otra de las ventajas asociadas con la práctica de sexting es la de mantener y promover la comunicación, sentirse bien sexualmente y experimentar sensaciones de seguridad y bienestar emocionales (Burkett, 2015). ...
... Si se percibe a la práctica como divertida y sensual genera mejores expectativas y conlleva una menor percepción de riesgo. Para muchas parejas resulta más fácil satisfacer sus necesidades de intimidad, por medio de mensajes de texto que otras formas de comunicación (Wiederhold, 2015). ...
... With research exploring both the negative and positive aspects to sexting [2,10], understanding the motivations and the expectancies associated with sexting are important nuances for clinicians and others working with individuals who participate in sexting. Individuals who engage in sexting behaviors may view the behavior as fun and exciting [1] or even as a confidential way to express their sexuality [11,12], and thus report the behavior as beneficial or enhancing their romantic/sex lives. ...
... Individuals who sext for the purpose of engaging in sexual behaviors with the target of their sexting behavior have positive sexting expectancies. This both supports the assertions that sexting can be beneficial to an individual's sex life [1,6,9] and useful for relationship therapists to consider as an intervention for individuals in relationships who are wanting to explore ways to increase sexual intimacy with their partner(s) [10,35,36]. ...
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While many researchers have explored the impact sexting may have on relationships and mental health, few have explored the motivations and expectancies as to why individuals engage in sexting. By understanding why individuals sext their partners, we can learn more about what drives the behavior. Therefore, the current study sought to determine if sexting for sexual purposes (SP) or body image reinforcement (BIR) would predict positive sext expectancies. There was no prediction for instrumental/aggravated reasons (IAR). The online questionnaire had 348 participants, and based on regression analysis, positive sext expectancies while sending a sext message predicted sex-ting for sexual purposes. Somewhat surprisingly, sexting for instrumental/aggravated reasons was predicted by negative sext expectancies (both sending and receiving). These findings demonstrate individuals who sext for sexual purposes, and have positive sext expectancies, appear to enjoy the consequences of that behavior. Individuals who sext for instrumental/aggravated reasons may be uncomfortable with the outcome of their sexting behavior. This result highlights an area where cli-nicians could help clients explore the true reinforcements behind IAR.
... For example, research has suggested that how "fun" sexting is perceived to be related to engagement (e.g. Rodríguez-Castro et al, 2017;Wiederhold, 2015). This work tends to show that individuals sext for the fun of it. ...
... In contrast to previous work (e.g. Rodríguez-Castro et al., 2017;Wiederhold, 2015), our findings suggest that such beliefs are not associated with intending to or engaging in sexting behavior. The perceived benefits of the behavior appear to be more important than viewing the behavior as fun. ...
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Technology has given rise to online behaviors such as sexting. It is important that we examine predictors of such behavior in order to understand who is more likely to sext and thus inform intervention aimed at sexting awareness. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine sexting beliefs and behavior. Participants (n = 418; 70.3% women) completed questionnaires assessing attitudes (instrumental and affective), subjective norms (injunctive and descriptive), control perceptions (self-efficacy and controllability) and intentions toward sexting. Specific sexting beliefs (fun/carefree beliefs, perceived risks and relational expectations) were also measured and sexting behavior reported. Relationship status, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, descriptive norm and self-efficacy were associated with sexting intentions. Relationship status, intentions and self-efficacy related to sexting behavior. Results provide insight into the social-cognitive factors related to individuals’ sexting behavior and bring us closer to understanding what beliefs predict the behavior.
... Some researchers have questioned whether sexting has become normative as empirical findings suggest that this practice is quite prevalent among today's emerging adults (Mori et al., 2020). This prevalence is surprising as sexting does not merely have positive consequences (e.g., Wiederhold, 2015); in some contexts, sexting has been linked to various emotional and physical risks (e.g., Benotsch, Snipes, Martin, & Bull, 2013;Dake, Price, Mariarz, & Ward, 2012). One of the most salient sexting risks is the forwarding of compromising images by the receiver without consent. ...
... Current research estimates that 38% of emerging adults send sexts, 42% receive sexts and 48% engage in reciprocal sexting (for an overview, see Mori et al., 2020). Research showed that such sexting practices among emerging adults could trigger positive consequences such as sexual satisfaction (Wiederhold, 2015). Yet, at the same time, sexting among emerging adults has been associated with a wide range of risk behaviors, such as unprotected sex and substance use (Benotsch et al., 2013;Dake et al., 2012). ...
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Despite voiced concerns about sexual online risk behaviors related to mobile dating, little is known about the relation between mobile dating and sexting. The current cross-sectional study (N = 286) examined the relations between the use of geo-social dating apps and emerging adults’ willingness to sext with a dating app match. By drawing on the prototype willingness model, both a reasoned path and a social reaction path are proposed to explain this link. As for the reasoned path, a structural equation model showed that more frequent dating app usage is positively related to norm beliefs about peers’ sexting behaviors with unknown dating app matches (i.e., descriptive norms), norm beliefs about peers’ approval of sexting with matches (i.e., subjective norms), and negatively related to perceptions of danger to sext with matches (i.e., risk attitude). In turn, descriptive norms were positively and risk attitudes were negatively associated with individuals’ own willingness to sext with someone they had met through a dating app. As for the social reaction path, it was found that more frequent dating app usage was positively related to emerging adults’ favorable evaluations of a prototype person who sexts with unknown dating app matches (i.e., prototype perceptions). The analyses further revealed that such prototype perceptions positively linked with emerging adults’ own willingness to sext with a match. These results were similar among women and men and help explain why individuals may be willing to engage in sexting behavior with unknown others.
... The results of this study indicate that, contrary to popular belief, sexting may not be a useful tool for improving relationship satisfaction. Moreover, popular media articles may be exaggerating the potential relationship benefits associated with sexting (Roth, 2015;Aubrey, 2016;Fox, 2016;Weisskirch, 2016;Green, 2013) whilst disregarding the potential risks associated with the engagement in sexting behaviour (Roth, 2015;Chalfen, 2009;Weisskirch & Delevi, 2011;Wiederhold, 2015). As there are no improvements to relationship satisfaction due to sexting, sending one's naked images to a partner or love interest may not be worth the risk of potential serious negative consequences such as sexual coercion, dissemination of personal photos, blackmail, or legal consequences (Roth, 2015;Chalfen, 2009;Weisskirch & Delevi, 2011;Sumter et al., 2013). ...
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Pressure to send sexually explicit messages, or ‘sexting coercion’ is associated with adverse mental health outcomes and sexual risk behaviors. This study explores Differentiation of Self (DoS) as a potential protective factor to reduce susceptibility to sexting coercion. A convenience sample of 399 Australian participants, aged 18 to 21 years (Mage = 19.63; SD = 1.14, 68.2% women) completed an online survey measuring sexting behaviors and DoS. Women were four times more likely to send willing unwanted sexts, and seven times more likely to engage in coerced unwanted sexting than men. Participants with low DoS were four times more likely to engage in coerced unwanted sexting. DoS significantly mediated the relationship between gender and coerced unwanted sexting. Results support the proposal of a sexting coercion typology encompassing discrete sub-types of sexting coercion. Results also indicate DoS may operate as a protective factor for young people in Australia, reducing compliance with sexting when coerced.
... The results of this study indicate that, contrary to popular belief, sexting may not be a useful tool for improving relationship satisfaction. Moreover, popular media articles may be exaggerating the potential relationship benefits associated with sexting (Roth, 2015;Aubrey, 2016;Fox, 2016;Weisskirch, 2016;Green, 2013) whilst disregarding the potential risks associated with the engagement in sexting behaviour (Roth, 2015;Chalfen, 2009;Weisskirch & Delevi, 2011;Wiederhold, 2015). As there are no improvements to relationship satisfaction due to sexting, sending one's naked images to a partner or love interest may not be worth the risk of potential serious negative consequences such as sexual coercion, dissemination of personal photos, blackmail, or legal consequences (Roth, 2015;Chalfen, 2009;Weisskirch & Delevi, 2011;Sumter et al., 2013). ...
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Despite suggestions that sexting could be used to enhance relationship satisfaction, there is limited research exploring the impact of sexting on improving relationship satisfaction among emerging adults. This study included 348 Australian adults aged 18 to 25 years (M = 19.84, SD = 1.45, 14.1% men, 85.9% women), who reported being in a relationship, and completed an online questionnaire measuring general sexting behaviours, relationship satisfaction, and level of commitment. A strong positive correlation was found between level of commitment and relationship satisfaction. However, participants who sent image-based sexts to their partners were no more satisfied in or committed to their relationships than those who did not send their partners sexts. Participants who were younger and more committed to their relationship tended to express greater relationship satisfaction, with sexting making no significant contribution to the model. This study confirms that commitment is an important factor in relationship satisfaction among emerging adults, whilst partner-sexting is not associated with relationship quality. As such, media reports may overestimate potential benefits of sexting, with no support in empirical findings.
... Research examining risk behaviors has predominated the literature in sexting; considerably less research has focused on the potential consequential benefits of sexting [39]. Some data suggest that individuals perceive sexting as a way to continue to connect in a relationship, particularly during college when partners may be separated [10,40,41]. ...
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Recent empirical data suggests that the majority of adolescents and emerging adults utilize digital technology to engage with texting and social media on a daily basis, with many using these mediums to engage in sexting (sending sexual texts, pictures, or videos via digital mediums). While research in the last decade has disproportionately focused on the potential risk factors and negative consequences associated with sexting, the data are limited by failing to differentiate consensual from non-consensual sexting and account for potential influences of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and sexting coercion in these contexts. In the current study, we assessed the positive and negative consequences associated with sexting, using behavioral theory as a framework, to determine the relationship between an individual's personal history of IPA victimization and the perceived consequences. Undergraduate students (N = 536) who reported consensual sexting completed a series of measures examining their most recent sexting experience, including perceived sexting consequences, and their history of sexting coercion and IPA. Results suggested that those reporting a history of any type of IPA victimization endorsed more negative reinforcing consequences after sending a sext, and those with a history of physical or sexual IPA victimization endorsed more punishing consequences after sending a sext than those without such history. Additionally, experience with IPA was found to be positively correlated with perceived pressure/coercion to send a sext. The implications of these data for research, policy, prevention, and intervention are explored.
... The public has shown great interest in the phenomenon of teen and young adult sexting (Hasinoff, 2012). In fact, researchers have argued that sexting for teens and young adults is not a phenomenon that will be leaving society soon (Wiederhold, 2015). However, the general public and researchers alike are divided about the level of risk, danger, and negative consequences of sexting for these populations (e.g., Albury & Crawford, 2012;Hasinoff, 2015;Jenkins & Stamp, 2018;Perkins, Becker, Tehee & Mackerprang, 2014). ...
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There has been little research on the impact of media on sexting behaviors in adolescence, and none regarding the influence of musical lyrics. The goal of the current study was to explore these associations in a longitudinal investigation. Participants were 278 fourteen-year-old adolescents (all cisgender, 49.46% female) who were assessed at three different time points. Participants completed several questionnaires (including music preferences) and were given BlackBerry devices through which frequency of textual sext message utterances were obtained. Sexual content in music preferences was then quantitatively analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) software. Data was analyzed for Time 1 and Time 3 and results indicated that boys were more likely to participate in sexting in the future when exposed to sexual music lyrics, though there was no association for girls. These and other results are discussed as well as implications for parents and the need for further research on sexting and the behavioral influence of musical lyrics.
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There are few studies about the sexting phenomenon, and most of them are of a descriptive nature. However, not many of them relate this practice with psychological or social constructs. Our aim is to explore what psychological aspects, attitudes and behaviour have been associated with the practice of sexting. To achieve this, we have made a systematic review of the existent literature. One remarkable evolution in these studies is that their amount has grown, and more attention has been paid to the above mentioned issues. If we take a general view to the results, we can distinguish a clear 'criminalizing' tendency, since most of the investigation lines have been oriented to relate sexting with health risk behaviour. One of the main conclusions to emphasize is that despite the risks of this practice, young people continue doing it. We find it convenient to look closer at this psychological framework to obtain relevant data for the future. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
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Communication over the Internet is helpful for marginalized individuals in their efforts to feel a part of the collective whole and gain personal empowerment. For individuals who identify as part of the LGB community, the Internet can be seen as a tool to take control of their lives, may promote self-esteem, and foster a sense of belongingness. The purpose of the study was about sexting practices on college campuses in general. It builds on the existing body of knowledge by attending specifically to sexting rather than the previous literature about engagement in sexual behavior online. Participants responded to a survey on sexting and technology use as well as questions from the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R) and the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). Findings indicated that sexting is viewed as more acceptable in same-sex relationships compared with heterosexual relationships. Implications for future research include exploring how greater degrees of perceived acceptability manifests in both problematic and advantageous ways in relationships. Implications for practice include being able to identify how same sex couples reporting higher degrees of acceptability with sexting in their relationship can translate to heterosexual relationships.
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In this study, we examined the relationships between sexting coercion, physical sex coercion, intimate partner violence, and mental health and trauma symptoms within a sample of 480 young adult undergraduates (160 men and 320 women). Approximately one fifth of the sample indicated that they had engaged in sexting when they did not want to. Those who had been coerced into sexting had usually been coerced by subtler tactics (e.g., repeated asking and being made to feel obligated) than more severe forms of coercion (e.g., physical threats). Nevertheless, the trauma related to these acts of coercion both at the time they occurred and now (looking back) were greater for sexting coercion than for physical sex coercion. Moreover, women noted significantly more trauma now (looking back) than at the time the events occurred for sexting coercion. Additionally, those who experienced more instances of sexting coercion also endorsed more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and generalized trauma. Finally, sexting coercion was related to both physical sex coercion and intimate partner violence, which suggests that sexting coercion may be a form of intimate partner violence, providing perpetrators with a new, digital route for physical and sexual covictimization.
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In an online survey with two cohorts (2009 and 2011) of undergraduates in dating relationships, we examined how attachment was related to communication technology use within romantic relationships. Participants reported on their attachment style and frequency of in-person communication as well as phone, text messaging, social network site (SNS), and electronic mail usage with partners. Texting and SNS communication were more frequent in 2011 than 2009. Attachment avoidance was related to less frequent phone use and texting, and greater email usage. Electronic communication channels (phone and texting) were related to positive relationship qualities, however, once accounting for attachment, only moderated effects were found. Interactions indicated texting was linked to more positive relationships for highly avoidant (but not less avoidant) participants. Additionally, email use was linked to more conflict for highly avoidant (but not less avoidant) participants. Finally, greater use of a SNS was positively associated with intimacy/support for those higher (but not lower) on attachment anxiety. This study illustrates how attachment can help to explain why the use of specific technology-based communication channels within romantic relationships may mean different things to different people, and that certain channels may be especially relevant in meeting insecurely attached individuals’ needs.
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Abstract Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Article
Purpose: Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods: Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. Results: More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting.
Reframing sexting as a positive relationship behavior. Paper presented at American Psychological Association 2015 Convention
  • E C Stasko
  • P A Geller
Stasko EC, Geller PA. Reframing sexting as a positive relationship behavior. Paper presented at American Psychological Association 2015 Convention, August 6-9, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/08/ reframing-sexting.pdf (accessed Sept. 30, 2015).
  • Brenda K Wiederhold
  • Editor
Brenda K. Wiederhold Editor-in-Chief CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING Volume 18, Number 11, 2015