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Assessment of perfume ingredients with aphrodisiac potential by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

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Abstract

In the present study the composition of some of the best-selling perfumes of recent years has been evaluated, focusing on the quantitative assessment of potential aphrodisiac ingredients of these fragrances, such as vanillin, ethylvanillin, trans- and cismethyl dihydrojasmonate, muskolactone and muscone. Seven samples of different brands (three women’s and four men’s fragrances) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the other major and minor constituents were assigned based on MS spectra library (Wiley) matching, followed by pattern analysis using chemometric data-mining (PCA). Trans-methyl dihydrojasmonate was found in all analyzed fragrances, with the highest concentration found in a perfume for women. Based on the obtained data, it seems that a common pattern of “most wanted recipe” among both men and women consumers is to be observed, based on some of the classical scents of vanilla, jasmine and musk. © 2015, Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
ASSESSMENT OF PERFUME INGREDIENTS WITH APHRODISIAC
POTENTIAL BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY
IOANA GAVRIȘ1, EDE BODOKI1*, PHILIPPE VERITE2, RADU OPREAN1
1Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 4, Louis Pasteur St.,
Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Department of Analytical Chemistry, EA 4651 ABTE Aliments Bioprocédés, Toxicologie Environnement, Faculty of
Pharmacy, Université de Rouen, 22, Gambetta St., Rouen, France
*corresponding author: bodokie@umfcluj.ro
Manuscript received: July 2015
Abstract
In the present study the composition of some of the best-selling perfumes of recent years has been evaluated, focusing on the
quantitative assessment of potential aphrodisiac ingredients of these fragrances, such as vanillin, ethylvanillin, trans- and cis-
methyl dihydrojasmonate, muskolactone and muscone. Seven samples of different brands (three women’s and four men’s
fragrances) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the other major and minor constituents were
assigned based on MS spectra library (Wiley) matching, followed by pattern analysis using chemometric data-mining (PCA).
Trans-methyl dihydrojasmonate was found in all analyzed fragrances, with the highest concentration found in a perfume for
women. Based on the obtained data, it seems that a common pattern of “most wanted recipe” among both men and women
consumers is to be observed, based on some of the classical scents of vanilla, jasmine and musk.
Rezumat
În studiul de faţă, a fost evaluată compoziţia unora dintre cele mai bine vândute parfumuri în ultimii ani, axându-ne pe
analiza cantitativă a ingredientelor cu potenţial afrodisiac cum ar fi vanilina, etilvanilina, trans-metildihidroiasomia, cis-
metildihidroiasomia, muscona şi muscolactona. Au fost analizate şapte parfumuri (trei pentru femei şi patru pentru bărbaţi)
prin cromatografie de gaze cuplată cu spectrometria de masă. Toţi compuşii au fost identificaţi, comparându-se spectrele de
masă înregistrate cu cele din baza de date Wiley. De asemenea, s-a studiat și comparat profilul complet de ingrediente al
probelor de parfum analizate prin analiză multivariată a datelor (PCA). Trans-metildihidroiasomia a fost găsită în toate
parfumurile analizate, având cea mai mare concentraţie într-un parfum pentru femei, sugerând faptul că dintre aromele
clasice de vanilie, iasomie şi mosc analizate, cea de iasomie este preferată atât de bărbați, cât și de femei.
Keywords: perfume, gas-chromatography, multivariate analysis, quantitative analysis
Introduction
Studies performed in the last years have been
focused mainly on the analysis of perfumes in
terms of potentially allergenic substances and in a
lesser extent in terms of flavours that can attract
consumers [1-4].
The scent marketing industry is an industry of
millions of dollars and still under a continuous
growth. Companies are interested in using those
flavours which consumers like and make them buy
the perfume [5]. Nowadays it is a huge competition
among perfume producing companies and it is very
difficult to find the perfect formula to attract
consumers. Therefore a potential common aroma
pattern in their composition is sought, which could
assure the “winning” blend for men and women.
Moreover, a special attention was dedicated to
perfume ingredients with aphrodisiac potential,
because they could play a key role in the fragrance
choice and buying decision process. It is a well-
known fact that aphrodisiacs may influence your
mood, increase your sexual desire and attract the
opposite sex [6].
The aim of the present study was to analyse the
composition of some of the best-selling perfumes of
recent years, focusing on the quantitative
assessment by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry of potential aphrodisiac compounds,
such as vanillin, ethylvanillin, trans- and cis-methyl
dihydrojasmonate, muskolactone and muscone,
being frequently used as perfume ingredients for
base and middle notes in perfumery such as
jasmine, vanilla and musk [7, 8].
Materials and Methods
Materials, reagents and chemicals
Seven samples of the best-selling perfumes of the
global market reported for the timeframe of 2010-
2014 by several beauty market research companies
[9-12], from different brands (three women “eau de
perfume” and four men “eau de toilette”) were
obtained from local perfumeries and stored at room
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temperature until analysis. For reasons of
confidentiality, the brand names and manufacturers
are not shown. They are noted as follows: no.1w,
no.2w and no.3w for women fragrances and no.4m,
no.5m, no.6m and no.7m for men fragrances.
Vanillin (99%), mixture of cis- and trans- methyl
dihydrojasmonate (96%) were obtained from
Sigma Aldrich (Germany), ethyl vanillin (98%),
muskolactone (98%) were obtained from Alfa
Aesar (USA) and muscone from Santa Cruz
Biotechnology (USA). HPLC grade methanol was
used as solvent throughout the analyses. The
internal standard 6-methoxy-8-nitroquinoline (99%)
was purchased from Acros Organics (Belgium).
Perfume solutions
Perfumes were diluted with methanol in a ratio of
1:5, 1:50, 1:200 and stored at room temperature
until analysis.
Standard solutions
Individual stock solutions of each compound were
prepared in methanol at a concentration of 1
mg/mL. The internal standard solution (0.5 mg/mL)
was also prepared in methanol.
GS-MS analysis
The GCMS analysis was performed using an
Agilent 7890A (GC system), Agilent 5975C inert
XL EI/CI MSD with triple axis detector and an
Agilent 7693 autosampler from Agilent
Technologies. Separation was carried out on a
Macherey-Nagel Optima 5 MS capillary column
(60 m × 250 µm, 0.25 µm film thickness). Helium
(purity 99.999%) was employed as carrier gas at a
constant column flow of 1.0 mL/min. The GC oven
temperature was programmed from 60ºC to 280ºC
at 3ºC/min, and held 20 min at 280ºC. Splitless
mode of 1 µL sample volume was used for
injection. Electronic impact at 70 eV was used as
ionization mode. The MS spectra were recorded in
scan mode on the range of 50 to 800 a.m.u.
Qualitative analysis
The analytes were identified by comparison of their
retention times and mass spectra with those of
authentic standards. The identification was also
performed by comparing the obtained mass spectra
of relevant chromatographic peaks with
corresponding spectra from the Wiley MS library.
Multivariate data analysis was performed by using
Simca v.13.0.3 (Umetrics, Sweden).
Quantitative analysis
The internal standard method was used for the
quantitative analysis.
Calibration samples
From stock standard solutions, calibration solutions
were prepared in methanol at individual
concentrations of 0.1, 0.075, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125,
0.005, 0.0025 and 0.0005 mg/mL of each
compound. To each of them 0.25 mg/ml internal
standard was added.
Perfume samples
To each analysed perfume sample 0.25 mg/mL
internal standard was added.
Results and Discussion
Qualitative analysis
The identification of the perfume ingredients
(Figure 1 A,B) was performed by comparing the
obtained electron ionization mass spectra of
relevant chromatographic peaks (Figure 1 C) with
corresponding spectra from the Wiley MS library.
The high amount of data obtained in the perfume
profiling required specific data mining tools,
successfully applied in solving various basic
analytical problems such as data overview,
classification and/or discrimination and
multivariate regression modelling [13, 14].
Therefore, multivariate data analysis based on
projection methods was performed involving the
entire set of compounds identified by MS library
matching. Considering the nature of the available
data (compounds as variables, relative peak area
fractions as X-data) principal component analysis
(PCA) was employed to identify any grouping or
trends with respect of perfume composition. PCA,
besides providing a first overview of the entire
dataset allows extracting and displaying the
systematic variation in the data matrix X. No
outliers were detected in the obtained models.
PCA performed on the available observations (N =
7, seven perfume samples) considering all the
variables (K = 294) with the unit variance scaled
and mean centred X-data gave a two-component
model (Figure 2A), which explained 47.9% of the
variation (R2X = 0.479). Based on the numerous
unique components identified in each of the
analysed perfumes, this PCA-X model
distinguishes a certain grouping of the samples (2w,
3w, 4w, 6m and 7m), whereas samples 1w and 5m
seem to possess a more distinctive ingredient
pattern.
Loading scatter plot of PCA-X model without
single value variables, coloured according to
relative peak area fractions of ingredients of sample
1w (C.), coloured according to relative peak area
fractions of ingredients of sample 4m (D.).
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Figure 1.
Gas chromatograms of perfume samples: no.1w (A.), no.4m (B.), quantified components - (1) vanillin, (2) trans-
methyldihydrojasmonate, (3) cis-methyldihydrojasmonate, (4) muskolactone, (5) muscone. Electron ionization
mass spectra of muskolactone (C.)
Figure 2.
Score scatter 3D plots using principal component analysis considering all variables (scaling base weight:
centring and scaled to unit variance) (A.), excluding single value variables (scaling base weight: no centring,
scaled to pareto variance)
A.
B.
C.
!
!
!
4!
!
2!
!
3!
!
5!
!
2!
!
A.
B.
C.
D.
!
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As expected, by excluding the single value
variables (the unique components of the analysed
samples) the resulting PCA-X two-component
model (K = 81, with scaling base weight - no
centring, scaled to pareto variance) accounted for
almost 65% of the variation in the X-matrix (R2X =
0.646). In this case a tighter sample grouping was
observed (except sample 1w), indicating certain
similarities based on the shared fragrance
ingredients and their relative ratio (Figure 2 B). The
first component, accounting for almost 50%,
captures the overall variation within the entire
dataset. The loadings scatter plot (Figure 2 C and
D), expressing the dominating correlation structure
of the X-matrix, indicates how the X-variables vary
in relation to each other, which one provide similar
information, but also which ones are not well
explained by the model. As it can be seen, the
variables bearing the highest loadings in component
one are trans- methyl dihydrojasmonate and 6-
methoxy 8-nitroquinoline (internal standard),
whereas linalool holds the highest loading in
component two. The sample 1w seems to be
somewhat different in composition compared to the
other samples, and by comparing the loadings plot
coloured according to the relative peak area
fractions of ingredients for sample 1w (Figure 2 C)
and 4m (Figure 2 D) the variables responsible for
this distinction may be pointed out. Therefore,
some of the compounds bearing higher loadings
(e.g. linalool, dihydromethyljasmonate, 6-methyl γ-
ionone) significantly differ in relative content for
sample 1w in comparison with the other analysed
perfumes.
Even if at a first organoleptic evaluation of
perfumes considerable differences may be noted,
the performed multivariate analysis indicates that
the analysed perfume samples, based on a
qualitative and quantitative level, tend to share a
common pattern of ingredients (except samples 1w
and 5m), whereas considering the relative content
of the common ingredients through the exclusion of
the unique fragrance constituents (X = 213), only
sample 1w continues to differ somewhat from the
other perfumes. Therefore, even though perfumes
of completely different origin were considered, in
principle they tend to own considerable similitudes
in terms of the nature and relative percent of
constituents. Of course, more relevant conclusions
may be drawn by performing similar data mining
on a more extensive set of observations (perfume
samples).
Quantitative analysis
Seven samples of different brands (three women’s
and four men’s fragrance) were analysed by gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry using internal
standard calibration.
The chromatographic conditions were optimized to
achieve the most efficient separation of the samples,
with a special attention for the six reference compounds.
The content of vanillin, ethylvanillin, trans- and cis-
methyl dihydrojasmonate, muskolactone and
muscone in the analysed samples are shown in
Table I.
Table I
Quantitative evaluation of selected perfume ingredients
Regression
parameters
Vanillin
Ethyl vanillin
trans Methyl
dihydrojasmonate
cis Methyl
dihydrojasmonate
Muskolactone
Muscone
Slope
(± SD)
5.07
0.110)
6.40
0.0821)
17.4
0.648)
18.7
0.724)
13.9
0.509)
16.3
0.601)
Intercept
(± SD)
0.031
0.0053)
0.018
0.0067)
0.0010
0.020)
0.0040
0.0032)
0.022
0.017)
0.028
0.019)
R²
0.998
0.927
0.990
0.981
0.993
0.993
Perfume sample
Content
[mg/mL]
Content
[mg/mL]
Content
[mg/mL]
Content
[mg/mL]
Content
[mg/mL]
Content
[mg/mL]
1w*
0.79
1.54
0.78
0.41
0.09
2w
6.57
3w
16.09
14.71
4m**
5.85
1.52
5m
7.76
6m
5.45
7m
0.94
3.28
0.78
*w- women’s perfume; **m- men’s perfume
Perfume no.3w is the sweetest perfume amongst the
investigated samples; most probably because it has the
highest concentration of ethylvanillin responsible
for the vanilla scent as a base note.
Trans-methyl dihydrojasmonate was found in the
majority of analysed fragrances, based on which
perfume no.3w is distinguished with a very high
concentration of this ingredient. It is also interesting
to note that ingredients defining the jasmine scent
are also present in men’s fragrance, although being
considered a feminine scent.
As expected, the sweet and animal-based fragrance
of musk is to be found in highest concentrations in
men’s fragrances.
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The small concentration of muskolactone and
muscone could be explained by the fact that they
are used as base notes for the musk flavour but also
as fixatives increasing the effectiveness of other
ingredients being called “exalting fixatives” [7, 13].
Conclusions
In the present study the composition of some of the
best-selling perfumes has been evaluated, focusing
on the quantitative assessment of potential
aphrodisiac ingredients in these fragrances, such as
vanillin, ethylvanillin, trans- and cis-methyl
dihydrojasmonate, muskolactone and muscone.
Trans-methyl dihydrojasmonate was found in all
analysed fragrances, with the highest concentration
in a perfume for women, suggesting in a way that
the “winning” blend is the classic aroma of jasmine,
both for men and women.
Even though perfumes of completely different
origin were considered, in principle they tend to
own considerable similitudes in terms of the nature
and relative percent of constituents.
Acknowledgements
All the calculations were performed in the
DataCenter of the INCDTIM. Authors are sincerely
thankful to Dr. Cristian Morari for the helpful
discussions. This paper was published under the
frame of European Social Found, Human Resources
Development Operational Programme 2007-2013,
project no. POSDRU/159/1.5/S/136893.
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... The GC-MS of the essential oils obtained from the flowers (0.17 g) of K.balansae is shown in Fig. 4 jasmonate occurs as cis and trans isomers and the trans isomer existed at higher concentrations reported by Gavris et al., 14 . However, 9,10dihydromethyljasmonate were detected for the first time in potato tissue as endogenous compounds, Jasmonates are a relatively new class of plant hormones 15 . ...
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Essential oils and many components from medicinal plant extracts have been long known for their antimicrobial activity. Essential oils are natural products that are synthesized by the plant and stored in their cells. Essential oils or many of their constituents are in fact effective against a large variety of organisms they can be very well used as alternatives to synthetic chemicals. Kitaibelia balansae Boiss is the only Turkish representative of the genus Kitaibelia that is regularly used as cataplasm herb in traditionally Turkish medicine. In this work the essential oil of the flowers, stems and leaves of K.balansae species, collected from Konya (Turkey) were extracted both by hydro-distillation and Soxhlet and were investigated for their anti-microbial activity. The results showed good activity on the pathogenic microorganisms used. All extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial activities of all the extracts were examined against five Gram-negative, one Gram-positive bacteria and one pathogenic yeast by using disc diffusion method. The results showed the presence of manool, 8, 13-epoxy, 15, 16-dinorlab-12-ene, 8a; 13, 13; 17 depoxy-14, 15-bisnorlabdane and tetrahydroactinidiolide, labda-7,13,14-triene, cis and trans-methyldihydrojasmonate as well as other compounds.
... The influence of pheromones on human sociosexual behaviour represent a great interest for the scientific world and remains a subject of debate because of the lack of persuading and indisputable experimental evidences which make some authors to be sceptical regarding their action. Additionally, up to now only few well-controlled studies regarding the physiological properties of pheromones in humans have been conducted [1,2]. Pheromones in humans are mainly produced by apocrine glands and they can induce a behavioural response or physiological change [2,6,7]. ...
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Currently there are many pheromone containing perfumes aggressively promoted by various websites. Because these products usually elude the control of any national or international authorities or regulating bodies they expose consumers to many potential frauds, and more importantly, to various health associated risks. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of pheromones, identify their nature and assess their relative concentration. Twelve commercially available perfumes claiming to contain human pheromones have been evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synthetic human pheromones were identified only in seven perfume samples. Considering the obtained results and taking into account the numerous knowledge gaps regarding the effects of synthetic pheromones on human behaviour, potential gender-based effects and the absence of any quantitative study correlating hormone exposure and observed effect, the perfume manufacturers do not seem to follow any scientific protocol in the design and fabrication of these products.
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Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is frequently used in personal care products (PCPs). In the gas phase, D5 is oxidized to form 1-hydroxynonamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D4TOH), which can partition to the particle phase. Numerous studies have reported secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated oxidation of D5. It is expected that PCPs have a significant impact on SOA, but the extent has not yet been investigated. To date, no studies have reported the occurrence of PCP-derived SOA in ambient particulate matter. This study examined fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Atlanta, GA and Houston, TX and determined D4TOH was present in 28 of 29 and 33 of 46 ambient PM2.5 samples, respectively. Gas chromatographic retention data in the form of the Kováts index is reported for the first time to aid others in identifying this compound in order to assess the impact of PCPs on SOA formation. The estimated concentration of D4TOH ranged from 16 to 185 pg m⁻³ in Atlanta and 19–206 pg m⁻³ in Houston. Synthetic musks were also detected in Atlanta and Houston PM2.5 samples, which is consistent with PCPs impacting urban air quality. Because of its specificity and demonstrated detectability, D4TOH may be useful as a tracer of PCP-derived secondary organic aerosol.
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A QuEChERS sample preparation, for a broad‐range of cosmetic products, followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the simultaneous determination of 30 fragrance substances. The sample preparation step was optimized for different leave‐on and rinse‐off cosmetic products. A small amount of sample (1 g) was extracted with acetonitrile, the extract was subject to a rapid QuEChERS clean up followed by centrifugation and the organic layer was collected for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method was developed on a mid‐polarity GC capillary column (30 m, ZB‐35HT) to obtain maximum separation of the targeted compounds in less than 60 min. Using this method, the method limit of detection and the method limit of quantitation for the 30 fragrance substances, were determined as 0.1–1.2 µg/g and 0.33–4.0 µg/g, respectively. For most of the fragrance substances, the spike recovery values were 80–120% with a relative standard deviation < 10% for all fragrance substances in three tested matrices (shampoo, lotion, and deodorant). This method was applied to evaluate 42 commercial cosmetic products purchased from nine different countries. Of the 30 leave‐on products, 18 products measured at least one fragrance above 10 µg/g and 5 of the 12 rinse‐off products measured at least one fragrance above 100 µg/g. According to the European regulation (EC, No 1223/2009, ANNEX III), 24 of these fragrance substances are subject to specific labeling requirements if any individual concentration exceeds 10 µg/g for leave‐on and 100 µg/g for rinse‐off products. Our results show that this method can be applied to various cosmetic products for determination of fragrance substances designated “allergens” in the European Union.
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The main drawback of the conventional chiral separations techniques is the long method development, analysis and separation times, so there is a need of a new alternative. The key to the present issue is offered by the chemometric interpretation of spectroscopic data (FT-IR, NIR, UV-VIS, Fluorescence, etc.) without the need of a prior sample pretreatment and/or separation. The potential and performances of the above mentioned method is presented in a rapid chiral analysis of propranolol using β-cyclodextin as chiral selector with the data mining of UV absorbance spectra (185-400nm). For regression model building and crossvalidation, the spectra of calibration samples containing different propranolol enantiomeric ratios at 0.147mM total molar concentration and a fixed concentration of chiral selector (7.51mM β-cyclodextrin) in 100mM formate buffer (pH=3.00) were recorded with the aid of the DAD (diode array) detector of an Agilent G1600 capillary electrophoresis system. The good results obtained on synthetic samples reconfirmed the high analytical value of multivariate data analysis in general, and regression modeling in particular.
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An efficient, fast and cost-effective method for detecting adulteration in perfumes by UV spectroscopy and multivariate analysis is proposed. Classification of perfumes, either as original or fake, was accomplished with the spectroscopic data using chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA).
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Perfume Engineering is a must-have reference for engineers who design any products that require fragrances, such as perfumes, cosmetics, healthcare and cleaning products. This book provides the reader with practical guidance on perfume design, performance and classification, from its beginnings as a liquid mixture to the vapour phase, by way of odorant dispersion and olfactory perception. It does this through the application of development and validation models to account for fragrance evaporation, propagation and perception.
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The present study investigated capillary electrophoretic detection of vanillin in vanilla perfume and air. An UV-absorbance detector was used in a home-made capillary electrophoretic instrument. A fused silica capillary (outer diameter: 364 μm, inner diameter: 50 μm) was used as a separation capillary, and a high electric voltage (20 kV) was applied across the two ends of the capillary. Total length of the capillary was 70 cm, and the effective length was 55 cm. Experimental results showed that the vanillin peak was detected at about 600, 450, and 500 seconds when pH of running buffers in CE were 7.2, 9.3, and 11.5, respectively. The peak area of vanillin was proportional to its concentration in the range of 0-10(-2) mol/L. The detection limit was about 10(-5) mol/L. Vanillin concentration in a 1% vanilla perfume sample was determined to be about 3×10(-4) mol/L, agreed well with that obtained by a HPLC method. Furthermore, determination of vanillin in air by combination of CE and active carbon adsorption method was investigated.
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A new CE method has been developed for the simultaneous separation of a group of parent phthalates. Due to the neutral character of these compounds, the addition of several bile salts as surfactants (sodium cholate (SC), sodium deoxycholate (SDC), sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC), sodium taurocholate (STC)) to the separation buffer was explored showing the high potential of SDC as pseudostationary phase. However, the resolution of all the phthalates was not achieved when employing only this bile salt as additive, being necessary the addition of neutral cyclodextrins (CD) and organic modifiers to the separation media. The optimized cyclodextrin modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) method consisted of the employ of a background electrolyte (BGE) containing 25mM β-CD-100mM SDC in a 100mM borate buffer (pH 8.5) with a 10% (v/v) of acetonitrile, employing a voltage of 30kV and a temperature of 25°C. This separation medium enabled the total resolution of eight compounds and the partial resolution of two of the analytes, di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Rs~0.8), in only 12min. The analytical characteristics of the developed method were studied showing their suitability for the determination of these compounds in commercial perfumes. In all the analyzed perfumes the most common phthalate was diethyl phthalate (DEP) that appeared in ten of the fifteen analyzed products. Also dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), and di-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP) were found in some of the analyzed samples.
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Single column gas chromatography (GC) in combination with a flame ionization detector (FID) and/or a mass spectrometer is routinely employed in the determination of perfume profiles. The latter are to be considered medium to highly complex matrices and, as such, can only be partially separated even on long capillaries. Inevitably, several monodimensional peaks are the result of two or more overlapping components, often hindering reliable identification and quantitation. The present investigation is based on the use of a comprehensive GC (GC × GC) method, in vacuum outlet conditions, for the near to complete resolution of a complex perfume sample. A rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) system, employed for the assignment of GC × GC peaks, supplied high quality mass spectra. The validity of the three-dimensional (3D) GC × GC–qMS application was measured and compared to that of GC–qMS analysis on the same matrix. Peak identification, in all applications, was achieved through MS spectra library matching and the interactive use of linear retention indices (LRI).
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The use of aphrodisiacs dates back thousands of years in Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, Roman, and Greek cultures. Although the scientific basis of these substances was not understood, aphrodisiacs were valued for their ability to enhance the sexual experience. Their use allowed for human procreation and the ability to obtain a sexually fulfilling relationship. Aphrodisiacs used historically include ambrein, Bufo toad, Spanish fly, yohimbine, Tribulus terrestris, horny goat weed, muira puama, MACA root, Panax ginseng, nutmeg, saffron, and cacao. Previous studies on these substances have shown potential aphrodisiac properties using animal models and in human clinical trials. Aphrodisiacs were shown to relax corpus cavernosum smooth muscle tissue in animals, improve erection quality in humans and animals, or increase sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals. Although most studies showed positive effects of aphrodisiacs on sexual enhancement, more studies are needed to understand their mechanism of action. The need for clinical trials using larger populations is also evident to prove the effectiveness of aphrodisiacs for human use. This paper will review recent scientific studies conducted on these commonly used aphrodisiacs, and determine whether the results support or refute their use for human sexual enhancement.
The Magical and Ritual use of Perfumes
  • R Miller
  • I Miller
Miller R., Miller I., The Magical and Ritual use of Perfumes, Destiny Books, Vermont, 1990.
Perfumery: Practice and Principles
  • R R Calkin
  • J S Jellinek
Calkin R.R., Jellinek J.S., Perfumery: Practice and Principles, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 1994.