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Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Treated Phenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) and 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) are phenol derivatives that are generally known for their antioxidant properties and depigmenting activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance in BHT and 4-MP using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BHT and 4-MP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained untreated while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM increased significantly in treated BHT and 4-MP (where PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and PM+2 is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP was increased up to 181.27% and 380.73% respectively as compared to their respective control. Moreover, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP increased up to 185.99% and 355.33% respectively. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield treatment significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 18O in the treated BHT and 4-MP as compared to the control.
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Special Issue 5 • 2015
J Chromatograph Separat Techniq
ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Trivedi et al., J Chromatograph Separat Techniq 2015, S6
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
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ISSN: 2157-7064
Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Trivedi MK1, Branton A1, Trivedi D1, Nayak G1, Saikia G2 and Jana S2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd.,
Bhopal-462 026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; Fax: +91-755-
6660006; E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received August 27, 2015; Accepted September 14, 2015; Published September
24, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015)
Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol Derivatives
Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat
Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) and 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) are phenol derivatives that are generally known
for their antioxidant properties and depigmenting activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of
bioeld energy treatment on the isotopic abundance in BHT and 4-MP using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
(GC-MS). BHT and 4-MP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained
untreated while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment. Control and treated samples
were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H
(PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM increased signicantly in treated BHT and 4-MP (where PM- primary molecule,
PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and PM+2 is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio
of (PM+1)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP was increased up to 181.27% and 380.73% respectively as compared
to their respective control. Moreover, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in the treated BHT and 4-MP
increased up to 185.99% and 355.33% respectively. GC-MS data suggests that the bioeld treatment signicantly
increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 18O in the treated BHT and 4-MP as compared to the control.
Keywords: Bioeld energy treatment; Butylatedhydroxytoluene;
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; 4-methoxyphenol; Isotopic
abundance
Abbreviations
GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry; PM: Primary
Molecule; PM+1: Isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C or 2H/1H; PM+2:
Isotopic molecule for 18O/16O; BHT: Butylatedhydroxytoluene; 4-MP:
4-methoxyphenol
Introduction
Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) is a crystalline stable solid, but it
is light-sensitive and reactive to acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, and
oxidizing agents. BHT is used as an antioxidant in many products
including food, pharmaceuticals, rubbers, paint, and petroleum
products [1]. Its antioxidant mechanism was well studied and divided
into two steps. In the rst step, it forms a stable phenoxyl radical,
which further forms the parent and a quinone methide (QM) [2].
QM is a reactive electrophilic species that easily forms adducts with
nucleophiles or polymerize in the next step. Adduct formation between
the nucleophilic groups of the active pharmaceutical ingredients with
QM in pharmaceutical formulations is very much possible [3]. In
food preservation, BHT reacts with atmospheric oxygen preferentially
rather than oxidizing food materials, thereby protecting them from
decomposition. It is used to preserve food odor, color, and avor [1].
4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) is a common active pharmaceutical
ingredient in topical drugs used for skin depigmentation.
4-hydroxyanisole and the retinoid tretinoin have been used individually
as depigmenting agents. 4-MP is oen mixed with tretinoin, a topical
retinoid [4]. A common formulation for this drug is an ethanolic
solution of 2% 4-MP and 0.01% tretinoin by mass. BHA is a commercial
mixture of mono- and di-tert-butylated products of 4-MP, which is an
eective anti-oxidant with maximum carry-through protection used in
foodstus [5] and pharmaceuticals [6]. Many polymerization inhibitors
(e.g., phenols) work best in the presence of oxygen because they
intercept peroxyl radicals and decelerate oxygen consumption while
stopping chain propagation. 4-MP is an inhibitor of this type. 4-MP
has tremendous ability to quench peroxyl radicals and alkyl radicals
via hydrogen abstraction mechanism, which leads to the formation of
a phenoxyl radical [7,8]. e phenoxyl radical is less reactive because
it is stabilized by the resonance eect. e antimicrobial activity of
phenolic compounds is highly dependent upon the chemical structure
of the molecules [9]. e bactericidal actions of substituted phenols
and the normal alkyl derivatives of p-chlorophenols were examined
against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria [10,11]. e
antibacterial potential of essential oils of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum
L. (Lamiaceae) containing 1.8% 4-MP and methanol extracts was
evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic
bacteria [12]. It was reported that BHT at high levels as well as at lower
levels found in foods might have anti-cancer properties, possibly by
damaging free radicals or by stimulating the production of enzymes
that detoxify carcinogens. On the other hand 4-MP is carcinogenic to
the fore-stomach [13,14].
e rate of chemical reaction depends on the mass of the nucleus
with dierent isotopic substitutions, which slightly aect the partitioning
of energy within molecules. ese deviations from perfect chemical
equivalence are termed as isotope eects. e isotopic abundance ratio
is commonly reported in terms of atom percent.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
Page 2 of 6
Special Issue 5 • 2015
J Chromatograph Separat Techniq
ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
For example, 13C, atom percent 13C=[13C/(12C+13C)] × 100
Various applications of the isotopic abundance study includes (a)
the distribution of contaminant sources of any molecule on a native,
regional, and global scale, (b) the identication and quantication of
alteration reactions, and (c) the characterization of elementary reaction
mechanisms that govern product formation [15].
Both of the phenol derivatives taken for this study, work via the
formation of free radicals. Free radicals are highly unstable species.
Due to their highly oxidative characteristics, these free radicals may
contribute to carcinogenicity or tumorigenicity; however the same
reactions may combat oxidative stress. Hence, the stability of phenol
derivatives is important to show enhanced antioxidant properties. is
could be enhanced by Mr. Trivedi’s unique bioeld energy treatment
which is already known to alter the physical and structural properties
of various living and non-living substances [16]. e National Center
for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) which is part
of the National Institute of Health (NIH), has recommended the use
of Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM therapies in the
healthcare sector and about 36% of Americans regularly use some form
of CAM [17]. CAM includes numerous energy-healing therapies, in
which bioeld therapy is a form of putative energy medicine that is being
widely used worldwide to improve the overall health and well-being of
human beings. When an electrical signal passes through any material, a
magnetic eld is generated in the surrounding space [18]. Humans have
the ability to harness energy from the environment/universe and can
then transmit in to any object (living or non-living) around the globe.
e object(s) always receive the energy and respond in a useful way.
is process is called bioeld energy treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique
bioeld energy treatment is also called e Trivedi Eect®, which is
known to alter the physical, structural and atomic properties in various
metals [19-21] and ceramics [22,23] in materials science. Additionally,
the impact of bioeld treatment has been studied in various elds
like microbiology research [16,24], biotechnology research [25,26],
and agriculture research [27,28]. Our group of scientists reported
that the bioeld treatment substantially altered the atomic, structural
and physical properties in silicon carbides [29] and carbon allotropes
[30]. Based on the outstanding results achieved by bioeld treatments
on metals and ceramics, an attempt was made to evaluate the eect of
bioeld treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H
(PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM in BHT and 4-MP.
Experimental
Both BHT and 4-MP were procured from SD Fine Chem. Ltd.,
India. Each of the samples i.e., BHT and 4-MP were distributed into
two parts, where one part of each sample was referred as control sample
and the other part was considered as treatment group. e treatment
group was handed over to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment in sealed
pack and under standard laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided
the treatment through his energy transmission process to the treated
group without touching the sample. e control and treated samples
were characterized using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
(GC-MS).
GC-MS method
e GC/MS was performed in a silica capillary column. It is
equipped with a quadrupole detector with pre-lter, one of the fastest,
widest mass ranges available for any GC/MS. e mass spectrometer
was operated in an electron ionization (EI) positive/negative, and
chemical ionization mode at the electron ionization energy of 70 eV.
Mass range: 20-620 Daltons (amu), stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy
over 48 hours. e identication of analytes were done by retention
time and by a comparison of the mass spectra of identied substances
with references. 2 µL was injected in splitless mode. e carry gas (N2)
ow-rate was kept constant during the run at 2 ml min-1. e stock
standard solution of BHT and 4-MP were prepared in methanol (HPLC
grade) to a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Working standard solutions
were prepared from the stock solutions.
Both the control and treated samples were injected following the
same experimental protocol. For GC-MS analysis the treated sample
was further divided into three parts as T1, T2, T3 and T4. e GC-MS
data was obtained in the form of % abundance vs. mass to charge ratio
(m/z), which is known as mass spectrum. e isotopic abundance ratio
13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM was expressed
by its deviation in treated samples as compared to the control. e
percentage change in isotopic ratio (PM+1/PM) and (PM+2/PM) were
calculated on a percentage scale from the following formula:
RR
treated control
Percent change in isotopic abundance ratio (PM 1/ PM) 100
Rcontrol
+= ×
Where, RTreat ed and RControl are the ratio of intensity at (PM+2)
and (PM+1) to PM in mass spectra of treated and control samples
respectively.
Solution preparation
Compounds were dissolved in methanol (HPLC grade) and ltered
with 0.2 micron lter tip tted with a syringe. Phenol derivatives were
polar molecule and, therefore, a polar solvent methanol was used as
the diluent. Minimum detection limit of the instrument is up to 1
picogram masses. Working standard solutions were prepared from the
stock solutions (concentration 100 µg/mL). e spectra was obtained
by injecting 2 µL standard solution of the phenol components in
methanol. A solvent delay of ~4 minutes eliminates the appearance of
the methanol solvent peak in this chromatogram.
Results and Discussion
GC-MS spectroscopy
GC-MS spectra of BHT: e GC-MS spectra of control, treated
samples (T1, T2), and (T3, T4) are presented in Figures 1, 2 and 3,
respectively. MS spectra showed PM peak at m/z = 220 and base peak
at m/z = 205 in all control and treated BHT samples (T1, T2, T3 and
T4). e intensity ratio of PM+1 (i.e., m/z=221) and PM (i.e., m/z=220)
peaks are presented in Table 1. Eight major peaks at m/z= 220, 205,
177, 145, 105, 91, 57, and 41 were observed in control sample due to
degradation of BHT, corresponded to the following ions respectively:
C15H24O+, C14H21O+, C12H17O+, C10H9O+, C8H9
+, C7H7
+, C4H9
+, and
C3H5
+. Peak at m/z=205 was observed due to C14H21O+ and a methyl
cation from BHT. While peaks at m/z= 41 and 177 were observed due
to the fragmentation of tertiary butyl group of BHT to propene and
C12H17O+, respectively. Peaks at m/z=145 and 57 were observed due to
the formation of an m-xylene derivative and butane. Finally m-xylene
was observed at m/z=105 in BHT fragmentation. More suggestively
the treated BHT samples (T1-T4) were fragmented in the same way
as compared to control and showed eight major peaks in the mass
spectrum with dierent intensities. All peaks (m/z =220, 205, 177, 145,
105, 91, 57, and 41) were same for both treated and control samples
[31].
However, a signicant alteration in isotopic abundance ratio of
(PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM was observed for treated samples of
BHT as compared to control. e isotopic abundance ratio in control
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
Page 3 of 6
Special Issue 5 • 2015
J Chromatograph Separat Techniq
ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
Figure 1: GC-MS spectrum of control butylatedhydroxytoluene sample.
Figure 2: GC-MS spectra of treated butylatedhydroxytoluene sample T1 and T2.
Figure 3: GC-MS spectra of treated butylatedhydroxytoluene sample T3 and
T4.
0.58 1.83
38.39
181.27
0
50
100
150
200
T1 T2 T3 T4
Percent change
Figure 4: Percent change in isotopic abundance (PM+1/PM) of
butylatedhydroxytoluene under bioeld treatment as compared to control.
and treated BHT was calculated and presented in the Figures 4 and
5 respectively. e isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM of BHT
treated sample was increased exponentially from T1 to T4 (T1=0.58%,
T2=1.83%, T3=38.39%, and T4=181.27%) as compared to control. In
case of (PM+2) isotope same trend was followed, isotopic abundance
ratio of (PM+2)/PM was slightly decreased by 0.65% for, T1 sample
and then increased up to 185.99% in case of T4 (T1=-0.65%, T2=2.81%,
T3=38.34% and T4=185.99%). e increased isotopic abundance ratio
of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in treated BHT may increase eective
mass (µ) and binding energy in this molecules with heavier isotopes.
GC-MS spectra of 4-MP: PM peak was observed at m/z=124 in
both control and treated samples with dierent intensity ratio (Figures
-0.65 2 .81
38.34
185.99
-50
0
50
100
150
200
T1 T2 T3 T4
Percent change
Figure 5: Percent change in isotopic abundance (PM+2/PM) of
butylatedhydroxytoluene under bioeld treatment as compared to control.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
Page 4 of 6
Special Issue 5 • 2015
J Chromatograph Separat Techniq
ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
Figure 6: GC-MS spectrum of control sample of 4-methoxyphenol.
Figure 8: GC-MS spectra of treated samples of 4-methoxyphenol (T3 and T4).
-8.07
380.73
104.28 103.9
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
T1 T2 T3 T4
Percent change
Figure 9: Percent change in isotopic abundance (PM+1/PM) of 4-methoxyphenol
under bioeld treatment as compared to control.
Figure 7: GC-MS spectra of treated samples of 4-methoxyphenol (T1 and T2).
-10.16
355.33
96.57 102.27
-100
0
100
200
300
400
T1 T2 T3 T4
Percent change
Figure 10: Percent change in isotopic abundance (PM+2/PM) of 4-methoxyphenol
under bioeld treatment as compared to control.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
Page 5 of 6
Special Issue 5 • 2015
J Chromatograph Separat Techniq
ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
6-8). e intensity ratio of PM peak and (PM+1) peak are given in Table
2. Total ve major peaks at m/z=124, 109, 81, 53, and 39 were observed
for both control and treated samples of 4-MP due to C7H8O2
+
, C6H5O2
+,
C6H9
+
, C4H5
+ and C3H3
+ ions, respectively. Peak at m/z=109 and 81 were
seen due to the initial fragmentation of 4-MP to hydroquinone (base
peak) and methyl radical where hydroquinone was further reduced
to cyclohexene (m/z=81). Peaks at 53 and 39 was observed due to the
formation of 1,3-butadiene and propa-1,2-diene from the ring opening
reaction of 4-MP. One low intensity peak at m/z=27 was observed in
all treated (T1-T4) 4-MP samples which was due to the formation of
ethene ion (C2H3
+). Fragmentation pattern of both control and treated
4-MP molecules were same, however number of fragmented peaks
were increased from control to treated samples [32].
Isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM of
control and treated 4-MP was calculated and presented in the Figures
9 and 10, respectively. e isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM of
treated 4-MP was increased signicantly up to 380.73% (T1=-8.07%,
T2=380.75% T3=104.28%, and T4=103.9%) under bioeld treatment.
e isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM was also increased in a
similar way up to 355.33% (T1=-10.16%, T2=355.33% T3=96.57%, and
T4=102.27%).
Atoms taking part in chemical bonds with higher isotopic number
might have higher binding energy with increased eective mass (µ)
and vice versa. us, the increased isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C
or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in both the compounds (BHT and 4-MP) might
increase the eective mass and binding energy aer bioeld treatment
that may enhance the stability of phenol derivatives signicantly. e
increased isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in
samples of BHT and 4-MP aer bioeld treatment, may result in chemical
stability. It could be due to nuclear level transformation of (PM+1) and
PM, which may induced through bioeld treatment. e observed
fragmentation pattern and number fragmented peaks were same for
control and treated samples of BHT and while number fragmented
peaks in treated samples of 4-MP were increased. e increased
isotopic abundance ratio may reasonably increase the no of heavier
isotopes (i.e., 2H, 13C and 18O) in the molecule aer bioeld treatment.
If a lighter nucleus is replaced by a heavier one then corresponding
eective mass (µ) of that particular bond could be changed accordingly.
We have presented some probable bonds that might present such as
12C-12C, 1H-12C, 13C-12C, 2H-12C, 1H-13C, 2H-13C,13C-13C, 12C-18O, 1H-18O,
13C-16O, and 2H-16O in the bioeld treated molecules. Eective mass is
calculated and presented in Table 3. e result showed that µ of normal
12C-12C and 1H-12C bond was 6 and 0.923, respectively. It showed that
reduced mass is increased in case of heavier isotope (i.e., 12C-13C=6.26,
and, 2H-12C=1.71). e increased µ was observed in case of 18O-12C and
1H-18O bonds also. From the Figures 4, 5, 9 and 10, it was observed
that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in treated samples
increased by 181.27% and 380.73% in BHT and 4-MP. So maximum
number of isotope replacement may occur in this process, which may
lead to signicant change in energy of the isotope substituted bonds. It
may enhance the bond strength, stability, and binding energy of BHT
and 4-MP molecules.
Conclusions
In summary, BHT and 4-MP were studied under the inuence of
bioeld energy treatment and observed signicant changes in isotopic
abundance compared to the control sample. e bioeld treatment
oers a remarkable means to alter the isotopic abundance ratio of
13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in BHT, as well
as 4-MP, which have a signicant impact on bond energies and the
chemical reactivity of the molecules. e percent change in the isotopic
abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in the treated BHT
was increased up to 181.27% and 185.99% respectively as compared
to the control. However, the percent change in the isotopic abundance
ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM in treated 4-MP was increased
up to 380.73% and 355.33%, respectively. GC-MS data suggests that
bioeld treatment has signicantly increased the isotopic abundance of
2H, 13C and 18O in treated BHT and 4-MP. Stability may be increased
by increasing the eective mass (µ), which consequently increases the
binding energy. e increased isotopic abundance ratio aer bioeld
treatment on BHT and 4-MP molecules may increase the bond stability,
which could result in reduce autocatalytic oxidation reactions and thus
prevent ageing and most common reactions initiated by heat, light and
molecular oxygen.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the whole team from the Sophisticated
Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF), Nagpur for providing the instrumental facility.
We are very grateful for the support from Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness
and Trivedi Testimonials in this research work.
References
1. Babich H (1982) Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review. Environ Res 29:
1-29.
2. Stebbins R, Sicilio F (1970) The kinetics of disproportionation of the 2,6-di-t-
butyl-4-methyl phenoxy radical. Tetrahedron 26: 291-297.
3. Zhang F, Nunes M (2004) Structure and generation mechanism of a novel
degradation product formed by oxidatively induced coupling of miconazole
nitrate with butylated hydroxytoluene in a topical ointment studied by HPLC-
ESI-MS and organic synthesis. J Pharm Sci 93: 300-309.
4. Fleischer AB Jr, Schwartzel EH, Colby SI, Altman DJ (2000) The combination
of 2% 4-hydroxyanisole (Mequinol) and 0.01% tretinoin is effective in improving
the appearance of solar lentigines and related hyperpigmented lesions in two
double-blind multicenter clinical studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 42: 459-467.
5. Mulky MJ (1976) Toxicology of oil seeds. J Oil Technol Assoc India 8: 106-111.
Parameters Control Treated
T1 T2 T3 T4
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM) 56.32 57.46 66.62 77.57 84.36
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM+1) 8.41 8.63 10.13 16.03 35.75
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM+2) 0.74 0.75 0.90 1.41 3.17
Table 1: GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of butylatedhydroxytoluene.
Parameters Control Treated
T1 T2 T3 T4
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM) 94.46 92.36 90.27 100 99.71
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM+1) 7.81 7.02 35.88 16.89 16.81
Peak Intensity at m/z=(PM+2) 0.74 0.65 3.22 1.54 1.58
Table 2: GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of 4-methoxyphenol.
Isotopes Bonds Isotope type Reduced mass [mAmB /(mA+mB)]
12C-12C Lighter 6.00
13C-12C Heavier 6.26
1H-12C Lighter 0.923
1H-13C Heavier 0.929
2H-12C Heavier 1.71
1H-18O Heavier 0.94
2H-16O Heavier 1.77
18O-12C Heavier 7.20
16O-13C Heavier 7.17
Table 3: Possible isotopic bonds in butylatedhydroxytoluene and 4-methoxyphenol.
mA: Mass of an atom A; mB: Mass of an atom B; A may be C or H and so on.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol
Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
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ISSN:2157-7064 JCGST, an open access journal
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16. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and
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characteristics at a PM plant. Future Control and Automation LNEE 173: 247-252.
20. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2015) Effect of bioeld treatment on the
physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. Ind Eng Manage
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21. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bioeld treatment on the
physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material
Sci Eng 2: 125.
22. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bioeld treatment on the
physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powder. J Material
Sci Eng S11: 001.
23. Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Studies of the
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eld treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161.
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015)
Investigation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Bioeld Treated Phenol Derivatives
Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat
Techniq S6:003. doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S6-003
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... The Trivedi Effect ®biofield energy healing has recently drawn attention in the various scientific fields, such as medical science [20], biotechnology [21,22], microbiology [23,24], organic chemistry [25,26], pharmaceutical [27], nutraceutical [28], materials science [29,30], and agricultural [31,32] due to its outstanding applicability to modify the characteristic properties of the living and non-living substances. Number of literatures [33][34][35][36] indicated that biofield energy treatment (also known as The Trivedi Effect ® ) might be a potential method for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds. An altered physicochemical and thermal properties such as increased crystallite size, enhanced thermal stability was observed in the biofield energy treated PTBP as compared to the control sample through the spectroscopic and thermal study [37]. ...
... C, 2 H, 15 N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1) + ]. P M+2 represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2) + ] expressed in the percentage = (no. of 18 O x 0.20%) + (no. of 37 Cl x 32.50%)i.e. the probability to have A + 2 elements having an isotope that has two mass unit heavier than the most abundant isotope (for e.g.18 O,37 Cl,34 S, etc.) contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular ion [(M+2) + ]. The value of the natural isotopic abundance of the some elements are obtained from several literatures and presented in theTable 1[13,[42][43][44].A represents element, n represents the number of the element (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3••+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
... Mr. Trivedi is one of the distinguished healing practitioners and has the astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [24][25][26], pharmaceuticals [27,28], nutraceuticals [29], metals and ceramic in materials science [30,31], culture medium [32,33] and improve the overall productivity of crops [34,35] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [36][37][38]. Literature demonstrated that biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [39][40][41][42]. Spectroscopic and thermal analysis of 3-CNB inferred that the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of 3-CNB, such as crystallite size, vaporization temperature and thermal stability were significantly changed due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
... Mass range: 10-650 Daltons (amu), stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy over 48 hours. The analytes were identified by retention time and by a comparison of the mass spectra of identified substances with references [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
... Biofield energy treatment (also known as The Trivedi Effect ® ) is now-a-days increased its scientific attention for its astounding capability to transform the physical, structural, and thermal properties of several pharmaceuticals [19,20], nutraceuticals [21], organic compounds [22][23][24], metals and ceramic in materials science [25,26], and improve the overall productivity of crops [27,28] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [29][30][31][32][33][34]. On the other hand, it has been found from the literatures that biofield energy treatment has notable capacity for altering the isotopic abundance ratio of the organic compounds [35][36][37][38]. Recently, spectroscopic and thermal analysis in resorcinol revealed that the physicochemical and thermal properties of resorcinol was significantly altered due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
... Biofield energy treatment (also known as The Trivedi Effect ? ) is now-a-days increased its scientific attention for its astounding capability to transform the physical, structural, and thermal properties of several pharmaceuticals [19,20], nutraceuticals [21], organic compounds [22][23][24], metals and ceramic in materials science [25,26], and improve the overall productivity of crops [27,28] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [29][30][31][32][33][34]. On the other hand, it has been found from the literatures that biofield energy treatment has notable capacity for altering the isotopic abundance ratio of the organic compounds [35][36][37][38]. Recently, spectroscopic and thermal analysis in resorcinol revealed that the physicochemical and thermal properties of resorcinol was significantly altered due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
... Mr. Trivedi is one of the eminent healing practitioners and has notable capability to alter the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [18][19][20], pharmaceuticals [21,22], nutraceuticals [23], metals and ceramic in materials science [24,25], culture medium [26,27] and improve the overall productivity of crops [28,29] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [30][31][32][33]. Literature demonstrated that biofield energy treatment (also called as The Trivedi Effect ® ) has the remarkable capability for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [34][35][36][37][38]. Spectroscopic and thermal analysis of thymol concluded that the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of thymol were significantly altered due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
... Perkin Elmer/Auto system XL with Turbo mass, USA was used here for GC-MS analysis. The GC-MS method was followed by previously published work [34]. It was done in a silica capillary column equipped with a quadrupole detector with pre-filter, one of the fastest, widest mass ranges. ...
Article
Full-text available
Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as CAM health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, Pilates, Rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [21]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Biofield Energy Consciousness Healing Treatment has astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [22][23][24][25], pharmaceuticals [26,27], nutraceuticals [28], metals and ceramic [29,30], culture medium [31,32] and improve the overall productivity of agricultural crops [33,34], skin health [35,36], modulation in the efficacy of various living cells [37][38][39], and alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [40][41][42][43]. Thus, this study was designed to analyses the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of copper chloride by using various analytical techniques such as, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, and FT-IR spectroscopy. ...
... The applications of The Trivedi Effect ? have gained significantly scientific attention in the field of materials science [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31], agriculture [32][33][34], biotechnology [35][36][37], pharmaceuticals [38][39][40], and medical sciences [41, 42]. The choice for the isotope ratio analysis is the mass spectrometry (MS) technique [43] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and m-nitrophenol (C6H5NO3+) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Article
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In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi's thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Article
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Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a Gram-negative microbe generally associated with community and hospital-acquired infections. Due to its clinical significance, we evaluated the effect of biofield treatment on phenotype and biotype characteristics of K. oxytoca (ATCC 43165). The study was performed into three groups i.e. C (control), T1 (treatment, revived); and T2 (treatment, lyophilized). Subsequently, groups T1 and T2 were received biofield treatment and control group was remained as untreated. The antimicrobial sensitivity results showed 3.33% and 6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility was observed in group T2 cells on day 10 as compared to control. The sensitivity patterns of cefazolin were changed from resistant (R) to intermediate (I) on day 5, and resistance (R) to susceptible (S) on day 10, in T1 cells of K. oxytoca. The MIC value of cefazolin was decreased by 2-fold in group T1 on day 10 as compared to control. The biofield treated K. oxytoca exhibited the changes in biochemical reactions about 3.03% and 15.15% of total tested biochemicals in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively as compared to control. The biotype number of K. oxytoca was altered in biofield treated group and organism identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica in T1 on day 10 as compared to control, which is the prominent finding of this study. These changes were found in treated bacteria that might be due to some alteration happened in metabolic/enzymatic pathway and/or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. Based on these data, it is speculated that biofiled treatment could be an alternative approach that can improve the effectiveness of the existing antimicrobials against the resistant pathogens.
Article
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Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
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Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biofield treatment significantly changed the lattice strain in unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities in ceramics oxide powders. The computed molecular weight of the treated samples exhibited significant variation. FT-IR spectra indicated that biofield treatment has altered the metal-oxygen bond strength. Since biofield treatment significantly altered the crystallite size, lattice strain and bond strength, we postulate that electrical and magnetic properties in TMOs (transition metal oxides) can be modulated by biofield treatment.
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