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Good relationships at work: The effects of Leader–Member Exchange and Team–Member Exchange on psychological empowerment, emotional exhaustion, and depression

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Abstract

Emotional exhaustion and depression pose a threat to employees' psychological health. Social relationships at work are important potential buffers against these threats, but the corresponding psychological processes are still unclear. We propose that the subjective experience of high-quality relationships with supervisors (i.e., Leader–Member Exchange [LMX]) is one of the protective factors against psychological health issues at work and that this effect is mediated by psychological empowerment. We tested these assumptions with two studies (one cross-sectional and one time lagged) on diverse samples of employees from different organizations. The first study employed emotional exhaustion as the outcome measure; the second used depression. Results from both studies support the proposed process by showing that LMX positively affects empowerment, which negatively affects emotional exhaustion (Study 1) and depression (Study 2). Additionally , Study 2 also showed that Team–Member Exchange is as important as LMX for preventing psychological health issues among employees.

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... This individual asset can be measured as the extent to which individuals have established connections with influential people and/or organizations (Baron and Markman, 2000;Barnes and Liao, 2012;Sohal, 2013). Such professional networking can enhance communication, motivate the discussion of ideas, and ultimately contribute to knowledge sharing and cocreation (Gomez and Sanchez, 2005;Wood et al., 2016;Schermuly et al., 2016). A stronger relationship network facilitates access to broader and better sources of knowledge, thus helping the individual growth and the improvement of specific skills (Seibert et al., 2001;Payne, 2005;Holtom et al., 2006;Ford and Mouzas, 2013;Wu et al., 2014). ...
... These professional relationships with people who hold relevant roles and/or qualifications for the employee's context are most valuable in encouraging knowledge acquisition and fostering individual skills development (Barnes and Liao, 2012;Schermuly and Meyer, 2016). Thus: ...
... Having a strong network of relationships allows SC professionals to create, through social interactions, a knowledge exchange process contributing to the individual's growth and development. This result is in line with previous SCM literature that highlights the role of external sources of knowledge within business-to-business (B2B) relationships (Huggins et al., 2012;Schoenherr et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2021), but also the HRM literature, that documented how professional networking at the individual level can contribute to knowledge co-creation (Gomez and Sanchez, 2005;Wood et al., 2016;Schermuly et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose In line with the knowledge-based view of organizations, this paper aims to analyze how supply chain (SC) employees contribute to the creation of competitive advantage through knowledge acquisition and utilization activities. The authors consider SC employees' skills and competencies, their external network of relationships, their job satisfaction and company investments in training and test how they relate to SC-level outcomes (i.e. SC growth). Design/methodology/approach The authors design a research model including the aforementioned variables, and the authors apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to survey data collected from 246 SC professionals in Latin America. The authors also use multi-group analysis to evaluate how the relationships between these variables change with different levels of company investment in training. Findings The results show that a broad professional network of relationships contributes to increasing the skills and competencies of SC professionals, which, in turn, impact job satisfaction and SC performance. This reinforces the value of investing in skilled human talent, who can contribute to knowledge acquisition, utilization, and, ultimately, to SC competitiveness. Companies that invest more in training to develop their SC employees benefit from stronger SC outcomes. Originality/value This study contributes to broadening the understanding of the impact of human resource management (HRM) on supply chain management (SCM). One of the added original foci of this research is the emphasis on developing countries where these HRM-to-SCM performance relationships have not been studied before.
... However, as the call center job is known to make workers feel socially isolated and the nature of leadership focuses more on control and monitoring to ensure productivity, it is unlikely that they get adequate social support at work. Social support from colleagues and supervisors is associated with various positive consequences, including reduced psychological strains (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016) and turnover intent (Kang et al., 2015); hence, its deficiency is problematic to call center workers. ...
... Various positive consequences are associated with supportive LMX, including increased perceived organizational support and more substantial organizational commitment (Eisenberger et al., 2010;Gerstner and Day, 1997). High-quality LMX also increases the likelihood of getting social support from the supervisors and serves as a protective factor against psychological strains (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Thomas and Lankau, 2009). On the other hand, a low-quality supervisor-subordinate relationship has been known to have numerous negative implications, such as higher levels of emotional strains and turnover intent (Gerstner and Day, 1997;Pradhan et al., 2020). ...
... Thus, they develop negative attitudes toward their leaders, which drive them to withdraw from a quality leader-supervisor relationship. High-quality LMX enhances the plausibility of getting social support from the leaders and serves as a protective factor against psychological strains (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Thomas and Lankau, 2009). Hence, we assumed that the more the workers withdraw from LMX, the less they get social support from their leaders, further increasing the effect of perceived customer unfriendliness on emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between perceived customer unfriendliness, emotional exhaustion, emotional dissonance and turnover intent using the stress–strain–outcome model in the call center industry in the Philippines. In addition, this paper also investigates the mediating effects of leader–member exchange (LMX) and emotional exhaustion. Design/methodology/approach This paper proposed a theoretical model hypothesizing the linkages between the abovementioned variables. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses using a data set from a sample of 605 Filipino call service representatives. Findings The results indicate that perceived customer unfriendliness as a stressor is a positive predictor of emotional exhaustion and emotional dissonance as strains. In turn, emotional exhaustion and emotional dissonance positively influence turnover intent. The results also reveal that LMX mediates the impact of perceived customer unfriendliness on emotional exhaustion. Further, the exhaustion variable mediates the effect of emotional dissonance on turnover intent. Practical implications The results suggest that contact with unfriendly customers has negative emotional implications and highlight the need for training or intervention programs to help service agents develop coping mechanisms. The results also imply that leader-initiated high-quality LMX could help attenuate perceived customer unfriendliness's impact on emotional exhaustion. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge,this paper is the first to examine and confirm the causal relationships of the proposed model’s variables using the stress–strain–outcome model.
... As noted above, emotional exhaustion is a central dimension of burnout, given its relevance to physical and psychological depletion (Shirom, 1989). Emotional exhaustion is a mental health issue, which can impose significant personal and financial burdens for individuals, organizations, and society (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016). Therefore, it is essential to identify the cause of these problems and possible remedies (Maslach and Leiter, 2008). ...
... This is a significant mechanism for reducing tension and stress (Spreitzer, 1997). In difficult and threatening situations, feelings of control offer employees positive, cognitive, affective, and motivational resources (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016), buffering against emotional exhaustion (Grandey et al., 2005). Maslach and Leiter (2008) found that participating in organizational decision making is negatively related to emotional exhaustion, which is one specific form of control. ...
... First, the paper provides new evidence of a negative relationship between psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion, focusing on study subjects in China. Previous studies show that psychological empowerment is negatively related to burnout symptoms (Spreitzer, 1997;Laschinger et al., 2003Laschinger et al., , 2004Hochwälder, 2007;Boudrias et al., 2010Boudrias et al., , 2012ÇAVUŞ and Demir, 2010;O'Brien, 2011;Tian et al., 2015;Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Liu et al., 2019;Gong et al., 2021). Consistent with previous studies, we focus on emotional exhaustion, the key component of burnout. ...
Article
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Emotional exhaustion in the workplace can cause employees psychological and physical health problems, affect work performance, and create burdens for the organization. Existing studies have demonstrated that psychological empowerment helps reduce emotional exhaustion. This study explores the internal mechanism of this relationship. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we advance a dual mediation model to explain how high psychological empowerment results in low emotional exhaustion, by increasing psychological safety and organizational embeddedness. Data were collected from 226 on-the-job MBA students at a university in western China. The results demonstrate that psychological safety and organizational embeddedness play mediating roles in the negative relationship between psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion. The study provides a systematic view of the negative effect that psychological empowerment has on emotional exhaustion. The paper also discusses theoretical contributions, practical implications, and future directions.
... PE is positively associated with employee performance and affective reactions (Maynard et al., 2012), such as, for example, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction (Seibert et al., 2011). Moreover, PE is negatively related to turnover intentions (Seibert et al., 2011), emotional exhaustion, and depression (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). ...
... Many scholars seem to agree that good relationships at workoperationalized as leader-member exchange (LMX) (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016) or perceived supervisor support (Jose & Mampilly, 2015) can be contextual antecedents of PE. However, few studies have addressed the role of trust in the emergence of PE. ...
Article
Because of its relevance for organizations and their employees, psychological empowerment (PE) has received a great deal of attention in research and practice. Supervisors play an important role in the promotion of subordinates’ PE. In the present article, and on the basis of social learning theory, we examine how the supervisor’s perceived and self-reported PE influence the subordinate’s PE. The results of two multi-wave studies involving more than 1,000 participants suggest that the supervisor’s perceived PE can predict the subordinate’s PE. The supervisor’s self-reported PE did not affect the subordinate’s PE: PE does not seem to trickle down from supervisor to subordinate. The relationship between the supervisor’s perceived PE and the subordinate’s PE was stronger when trust in the supervisor was higher. Supervisors who want to promote subordinates’ PE through modeling should therefore ensure that they are perceived as psychologically empowered and invest in relationships of trust with their subordinates.
... A meta-analysis shows that psychological empowerment has positive consequences for important variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation at work, strain, and fluctuation in organizations (Seibert et al., 2011). Further research shows effects on depression (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016), voice behavior (Hu et al., 2018), and retirement decisions (Schermuly et al., 2017). Because of these positive consequences, a growing number of practice initiatives have aimed to foster empowerment in organizations (Seibert et al., 2011). ...
... Furthermore, our model contained error covariances between the measurement errors of identical items that were used at both t 1 and t 2 . This is common practice in models with more than one measurement time point (Maruyama, 1998; see also Schermuly & Meyer, 2016 for a similar approach). ...
Article
Psychological empowerment – the experience of competence, meaning, self-determination and impact at work – has become very popular in organizational research. Meta-analytic results show many positive consequences of psychological empowerment and many different antecedents such as positive leadership, high performance practices, and work design characteristics. However, scarce research is available on how organizational culture influences psychological empowerment. We believe a missing instrument is one reason for the underdevelopment in this field. For this reason, we developed IMPEC (Instrument Measuring Psychological Empowerment Culture) for measuring specific cultural values for psychological empowerment. IMPEC was tested in four studies. In the first study ( n = 208 German employees), the reliability, factor structure, and its relationship with psychological empowerment and affective variables were analyzed. The second study had two waves ( n = 182 German employees) in which the predictive and incremental value of the IMPEC for performance-oriented variables were evaluated. In the third study, the instrument was translated into English and validated in a US sample ( n = 346). Finally, a multi-wave study was conducted in a German setting ( n = 210) to test if the IMPEC could predict critical constructs better than the empowerment climate questionnaire.
... Exhaustion is however more strongly related to psychological health impairments than the other two facets and also precedes them (Bakker et al., 2014). Exhaustion and burnout are psychological health issues in their own right and are linked to severe consequences such as depression and suicide (see Schermuly & Meyer, 2016, for a review). Whenever research focuses on psychological health in general and psychological exhaustion in particular, researchers typically take study participants' gender into account, as the levels of self-reported psychological health issues differ between men and women such that, on average, women tend to report higher levels than men (e.g., Houkes et al., 2011;Innstrand et al., 2011;Maslach et al., 2001;Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998; see Purvanova & Muros, 2010, for a meta-analysis). ...
... Job autonomy, that is, the sense of having the choice to initiate and regulate actions at work, is a central job-related resource because it allows employees to react to specific work situations in idiosyncratic ways (Spreitzer, 1995). Especially, during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic that entails abrupt challenges and requires flexible reactions, autonomy can be an important resource for employees' well-being (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). ...
Article
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Many governments react to the current Coronavirus/COVID-19 pandemic by restricting daily (work) life. On the basis of theories from occupational health, we propose that the duration of the pandemic, its demands (e.g., having to work from home, closing of childcare facilities, job insecurity, work-privacy conflicts, privacy-work conflicts) and personal- and job-related resources (coworker social support, job autonomy, partner support, and Corona self-efficacy) interact in their effect on employee exhaustion. We investigate our hypotheses with a three-wave sample of German employees during the pandemic from April to June 2020 (Nw1 = 2900, Nw12 = 1237 Nw123 = 789). Our findings show a curvilinear effect of pandemic duration on working women’s exhaustion. Findings also show that the introduction and the easing of lockdown measures affect exhaustion, and that women with children who work from home while childcare is unavailable are especially exhausted. Job autonomy and partner support mitigated some of these effects. In sum, women’s psychological health was more strongly affected by the pandemic than men’s. We discuss implications for occupational health theories and that interventions targeted at mitigating the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic should target women specifically.
... The four components of PE are a proximal cause of intrinsic task motivation and satisfaction [31]. Schermuly and Meyer showed that PE leads to less emotional fatigue and depression [32]. It also strongly influences the degree of work stress experienced by workers [33]. ...
... These collaborative crafting behaviors have proven to be important predictors of PE. Other authors have shown that PE leads to less emotional fatigue and depression [32]. In this study, we highlight the importance of PE as a mediator in the relationship between collaborative crafting and emotional disorders. ...
Article
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The global emergency produced by COVID-19 has been a turning point for health organizations. Healthcare professionals have been exposed to high levels of stress and workload. Close contact with infected patients and the infectious capacity of COVID-19 mean that this group is especially vulnerable to contagion. In various countries, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale has been shown to be a fast and reliable tool. Early detection of fear complements clinical efforts to prevent emotional disorders. Thus, concepts focused on positive occupational health, such as Job Crafting or psychological empowerment (PE), have been examined as a tool to prevent mental health problems at work. In this work, we intended to adapt and validate the 7-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale in health workers (N = 194). The interpretation of the measurement model indicates adequate values of internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. The overall goodness of fit of the model was also adequate. The structural model indicates that the implementation of job crafting measures in health services leads to workers’ greater PE. High levels of anxiety and depression prevent health professionals from psychologically detaching from work. In turn, PE can reduce the emotional disorders caused by the fear of COVID-19.
... Good line management and positive employee-leader relationships can create a positive and empowering work environment, which can counteract some of the negative impacts employees encounter from high job demands (Bakker and Demerouti 2007). Good relationships between employees and their leaders have been found to be associated with greater reported control and autonomy, environmental clarity, opportunities for development and progression, and occupational self-efficacy or feelings of competence (Schermuly and Meyer 2016;Syrek et al 2013). ...
... Given that management quality has been shown to have several potential impacts on the working lives and wellbeing of workers (Bakker and Demerouti 2007;Schermuly and Meyer 2016;Syrek et al 2013), we gather further insight by comparing mean scores for both the work-life balance index and the health and wellbeing index relative to reported management quality in each of our 11 measures. ...
Technical Report
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The CIPD Good Work Index is an annual benchmark of good work or job quality in the UK. It measures a wide range of aspects of job quality, including employment essentials, such as contractual arrangements, the day-to-day realities of work as experienced by workers themselves, and the impacts on people’s health and wellbeing. This survey report is based on the fifth annual UK Working Lives survey conducted in 2022, which draws on a representative sample of UK workers. The CIPD Good Work Index measures a wide range of aspects of job quality, including employment essentials, such as pay and contracts, the day-to-day realities of work as experienced by workers themselves, and the impacts on people’s health and wellbeing. This report is also accompanied by appendices of data tables and methods. These resources and past reports covering the data collected in previous rounds of the survey can be found at www.cipd.co.uk/goodwork. The CIPD is the professional body for HR and people development. The registered charity champions better work and working lives and has been setting the benchmark for excellence in people and organisation development for more than 100 years. It has more than 160,000 members across the world, provides thought leadership through independent research on the world of work, and offers professional training and accreditation for those working in HR and learning and development.
... LMX focuses on the individualized and dyadic relationship leaders develop with their followers (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). As high quality exchange relationships are conceptualized as being tailored to the followers' needs (Hooper & Martin, 2008), LMX should affect positive mental health outcomes by providing, for instance, an empowering work environment for followers (Schermuly & Meyer, 2015). Thus, followers should feel respected and supported (Sparr & Sonnentag, 2008) and report more resources, such as autonomy or trust (Gregersen et al., 2014). ...
... Due to central characteristics of both leadership stylessuch as individualized consideration and inspirational motivation for transformational leadership (Avolio & Bass, 1995) or high quality exchange relationships tailored to the followers' needs for LMX (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) transformational leadership and LMX can be hypothesized to increase follower resources, such as empowerment or motivation (Schermuly & Meyer, 2015). Hence, they should both be associated with overall mental health, as well as positive mental health outcomes (Epitropaki & Martin, 2005;Hobfoll, 1989Hobfoll, , 2011. ...
Article
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It is well-established that different leadership styles are associated with followers’ mental health. However, little is known about the relative strength of the relationship of different leadership styles with followers’ mental health. So far, there is no meta-analysis comparing the incremental contribution of different leadership styles to mental health and studying potentially problematic construct proliferation. We included studies that compared at least two leadership styles in view of their relationships with followers’ mental health and directly estimated the relative contribution of seven leadership styles (i.e., transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and destructive leadership, as well as leader-member exchange) to followers’ mental health. Using meta-analytical regression models, we compared the strength of the relationships between these leadership styles and followers’ overall mental health as well as positive (well-being and psychological functioning) and negative aspects of their mental health (affective symptoms, stress, and health complaints). Fifty-three studies with 217 effect sizes comprising 93,470 participants met the inclusion criteria. Transformational and destructive leadership were the strongest predictors of overall and negative aspects of mental health among followers. In contrast, the strongest predictors of positive mental health outcomes among followers were relations-oriented and task-oriented leadership, followed by transformational leadership. In sum, our results suggest that various leadership styles make unique contributions to explaining followers’ mental health and thus construct proliferation mostly does not pose a major problem when predicting relevant outcomes in this domain of leadership research. Our results are relevant for leadership development programs and for future organizational leadership models.
... When individuals interact with people at work, they are given too much emotional demand but are unable to bear it, which leads to emotional exhaustion due to excessive emotional extension and exhaustion of emotional or psychological resources, which leads to increased withdrawal behaviors, lack of energy, and reduced productivity. When employees in new ventures experience severe emotional exhaustion, their commitment to the organization can be reduced (Li et al., 2016) and their cognitive thinking can deteriorate (Schermuly and Meyer, 2015), resulting in poor work performance. If employees' emotional exhaustion does not receive appropriate concern from leaders, the firms can suffer from bad emotions and turnover of the employees (Ladebo, 2009;Van Laethem et al., 2015). ...
... Besides, an empathic entrepreneur takes perspective to make the employees understand the importance and significance of how they approach their work, which encourages employees to behave properly and effectively to show their values to the organization (Van Laethem et al., 2015). When entrepreneurs convey empathic concern to employees' work context, emotional swings, and even their work role, employees can sense respect and appreciation and believe that they are an inseparable part of the organization (Avolio et al., 2004), which strengthens their understanding of the impact on the work and reinforce their flexible regulation of work activities (Schermuly and Meyer, 2015). What's more, employees voice or speak up for themselves bravely when they hold that entrepreneurs show perspective-taking to consider their negative emotions, thus receiving credit for sharing information with leaders, improving their self-efficacy and confidence in their ability to successfully perform a task, and, in turn, causing effectiveness (Avolio et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Drawing upon upper echelons and self-determination theories, we hypothesize and test a mediating process linking entrepreneurs’ empathy to employees‘ emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of psychological empowerment. Based on a dyadic-survey study of entrepreneurs and their employees in high-tech new ventures in China, we conducted the empirical test by using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and found that entrepreneurs’ empathy has a negative effect on employees‘ emotional exhaustion, and psychological empowerment not only partially mediates the relationship between entrepreneurs’ empathy and employees‘ emotional exhaustion but also positively moderates the above relationship. This study frames an integrative perspective of emotions and psychologies and sheds a nuanced understanding of the mechanisms linking empathy with emotional exhaustion. Limitations and future directions are addressed.
... Team members perceiving high-quality TMX tend to think that the relationship among team members is harmonious which can lead to knowledge sharing (Banks et al., 2013;Barron and Chou, 2016). In other words, employees perceiving high-quality TMX own more reliable colleague relationships, which helps to deeper trust and demonstrate close psychological connections (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Wu et al., 2018). Thus, in the situation of work-related TSMU, team members with highquality TMX are more willing to share knowledge to promote the completion of team tasks. ...
Article
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Given that work teams have been widely used in a variety of organizations to complete critical tasks and that the use of social media in work teams has been growing, investigating whether and how team social media usage (TSMU) affects team creativity is imperative. However, little research has empirically explored how TSMU affects team creativity. This study divides TSMU into two categories, namely, work-related TSMU and relationship-related TSMU. Basing on communication visibility theory and social exchange theory, this study constructs a moderating mediation model to understand how TSMU affects team creativity. In this model, team knowledge sharing is used as mediating role and team-member exchange (TMX) is used as moderating role. Two-wave research data collected from 641 employees in 102 work teams in Chinese organizations are used for regression analysis. Results show that (1) Work-related TSMU and relationship-related TSMU are positively affect team creativity. (2) Team knowledge sharing plays a partly mediating effect on the relationship between work-related TSMU and team creativity and that between relationship-related TSMU and team creativity. (3) TMX not only positively moderates the indirect effect of work-related TSMU and relationship-related TSMU on team creativity through team knowledge sharing. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
... Future research could investigate whether psychological empowerment serves as a resource for mental-health resilience in these populations. Previous research showed that psychological empowerment was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depression in employees (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). ...
... Psychological health impairment was captured by emotional exhaustion as the primary indicator of burnout [30], which is linked to severe psychological illnesses such as depression and suicide [31]. We assessed emotional exhaustion using seven items of the German version [32] of the emotional exhaustion scale taken from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), 2nd Edition [33]. ...
Article
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Psychosocial risk questionnaires are common instruments in occupational safety and health promotion. Organizations use psychosocial risk questionnaires to obtain an economic overview of psychological job stressors and job resources. However, the procedures to assess if a result for a given workplace group is critical and calls for further action differ significantly and are often based on an arbitrary rule of thumb instead of empirically based evaluations. This article presents a method to translate questionnaire results into risk values for the occurrence of health impairment. We test this method on a dataset including the job stressors, job resources, and emotional exhaustion of 4210 employees from different industries. We applied logistic regression analysis to calculate the risks for impaired psychological health, indicated by high values of the burnout indicator emotional exhaustion. The results indicate significantly different health impairment risks (probabilities) for different scores on the job stressors and job resources scales as well as for scale score combinations. The risk values can be used to define cutoff values between high- and low-risk workplaces that are empirically based on stressor–strain relationships and are easily understandable by all stakeholders in the psychosocial risk assessment process, including laypersons.
... That is, and in line with its conceptual definition, when an employee forgives it means that the employee needs to regulate negative feelings, thoughts, and behaviors he or she may have toward an offender, and transform them into more positive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Through forgiveness, employees are able to get rid of negativity following from an offense, and to restore and reestablish those relationships that are so crucial for their satisfaction and engagement at work (e.g., Banks et al., 2014;Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). The major purpose of the present research, therefore, is to examine whether and when employees' forgiveness is associated with better work outcomes. ...
Article
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Although the topic of forgiveness has received abundant attention in research on close relationships, little is known about the benefits of forgiveness in work relationships. This is unfortunate because research suggests that forgiveness is associated with numerous beneficial outcomes, such as improved social relationships and psychological well-being. The present research addresses the question whether and when forgiveness is associated with enhanced work outcomes. It was expected that forgiveness is associated with better work outcomes, especially when perceived work relationship quality between victim and offender is strong rather than weak. Study 1 (n = 472 MTurk participants) revealed that trait forgiveness was strongly associated with a broad range of work outcomes. Study 2 (n = 216 Dutch working employees) showed that state forgiveness was negatively associated with burnout. Study 3 (n = 370 Prolific participants) replicated the positive association between forgiveness (both trait and state) and work outcomes (especially well-being- related work outcomes, that is, job satisfaction, work engagement, and less burnout). Moreover, the associations between state forgiveness and work outcomes were stronger when the quality of work relationships (i.e., exchange quality) was high rather than low. Furthermore, only in cases of high exchange quality, the positive association between trait forgiveness and work outcomes could be explained by higher levels of state forgiveness. These findings suggest that levels of work relationship quality are of great importance to better understand forgiveness in the work context. Implications of these findings for the role of interpersonal forgiveness in the work context are discussed.
... In order to solve a problem, employees must be self-determined, know the importance of work, be competitive, and be impactful (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Sun et al., 2012;Amundsen and Martinsen, 2015). Psychological empowerment resulting in high-quality LMX (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Audenaert et al., 2017) is a consequence of LH (Yam et al., 2018), ensuring that employees show activism to solve problems. Additionally, from a theoretical perspective, as described above, the amalgamation of BVT and SIPT indicates that when a leader uses humor to violate norms, it signals what attitude is required. ...
Article
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Although we use humor in our daily communication, there still needs to cognize its effects on the attitudes and behavior of the employees. Based on benign violation theory (BVT), the study proposes that leader's humor (LH) conveys social information about counter norms. The BVT has been amalgamated with social information processing theory (SIPT) to develop hypotheses assuming the consequences of LH on the attitude and behavior of the employees. This study hypothesizes that even though LH is linked positively with employee creativity via leader-member exchange and psychological empowerment in sequence (blessing path), it may also send information to the employees about the acceptability of norm violation. This perception ultimately leads to power perception and, causes unethical behavior in the series (curse path). Moreover, this study also postulates that leader's self-deprecating humor (LSDH) moderates these indirect effects by enhancing the blessing and reducing the curse, which emerged from LH. Quantitative data of 630 software engineers from software houses based in Pakistan provided support to test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that LH is a double-edge sword that enhances blessing (creativity) as well as curse (employee unethical behavior), whereas LSDH augments the blessing and throttles back the curse. Theoretical and managerial implications have also been discussed.
... Previous research has generally linked psychological empowerment to significant employee outcomes in the team (Hartmann et al., 2018;Garcia-Juan et al., 2020). Schermuly and Meyer (2016) proposed that there was a negative correlation between psychological empowerment and feelings of depression. They also mentioned that accepting positive feedback stimulated the competence dimension of psychological empowerment, thereby allowing individuals to gain more resources to feel more impactful. ...
Article
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Employees’ creative idea enactment is critical for organizational creativity assessment and innovation implementation. In the paper, we want to develop and verify a moderated chain mediation model to explore the impact of supervisor developmental feedback on the enactment of employees’ creative ideas, and to investigate the moderating role of psychological empowerment further. Hierarchical regression analyses of the multi-time data from 375 employees in China indicate that positive emotions and work engagement, respectively mediate the relationship between supervisor developmental feedback and employees’ creative idea enactment. Simultaneously, positive emotions and work engagement form chain mediation between supervisor developmental feedback and creative idea enactment. Besides, we find that psychological empowerment negatively moderates the relationship between supervisor developmental feedback and employees’ positive emotions, as well as moderates the chain mediating effect of this paper. The present study not only contributes to the literature on feedback and innovation, but also provides practical guidance on how to seek remedies to facilitate employees’ creative idea enactment from the perspective of human resource management.
... Leader Member Exchange (LMX) is based on the premise that leaders shape specific types of relationships with individual subordinates, which was first suggested by Graen and colleagues (Graen & Scandura, 1987). Organisational researchers are particularly involved in investigating the effect of LMX on various work-related outcomes (Dulebohn et al., 2012;Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). According to Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995), the LMX philosophy is a relationship-based approach to leadership. ...
Article
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The relationship between leadership-members exchange and organisational commitment has caught attention from human resource management and organisational behaviour scholars in recent years. According to recent management and psychological science literature, leadership is a term with several characteristics and a wide range of applications. This analysis aims to examine the impact of leadership-member exchange types on employee organisational commitment in Saudi Arabia's healthcare sector. This research focuses on the importance of self-enhancement as a mediating factor in the partnership between leadership-participant sharing and organisational engagement. This study employs a theoretically built model To observe and describe the interaction between variables. As a result, the leadership-members exchange theory and the Social Identity Theory is used in this analysis to address the relationship as mentioned earlier. Theoretical and observational experiments have been analysed and summarised in this paper to further investigate the connection. The thesis comes to a close with a drawback and a suggestion for potential studies.
... Ironically, many employees work in a team. Moreover, relationships and interactions between leaders and employees usually take place in team settings as well as on an individual level (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). Teams have a particularly important role in creating a psychologically safe environment (Edmondson & Mogelof, 2006). ...
Article
en The R.I.G.H.T. leadership model prescribes five specific behaviours for leaders in organizations to create psychologically healthy workplaces. The aim of this paper was to develop and validate a scale to measure the R.I.G.H.T. leadership behaviours. Collecting data from three samples across two studies (N = 108, N = 233, N = 420), we examined the factor structure and tested the validity of the R.I.G.H.T. leadership scale. We found support for the five-factor structure of R.I.G.H.T. leadership. Moreover, we observed a positive association between R.I.G.H.T. leadership and mental health mediated by psychological safety at work. The scale developed in this study can be used in future research involving leadership and mental health. Résumé fr Selon le modèle de leadership R.I.G.H.T., les dirigeants des organisations doivent adopter cinq comportements précis pour créer des milieux de travail psychologiquement sains. L'objectif de cet article est de concevoir et de valider une échelle permettant de mesurer les comportements de leadership R.I.G.H.T. À l'aide de données recueillies auprès de trois échantillons dans deux études (N = 108, N = 233, N = 420), les auteurs examinent la structure factorielle et testent la validité de l'échelle de leadership R.I.G.H.T. Ils trouvent que la structure à cinq facteurs du leadership R.I.G.H.T. est bien étayée. De plus, ils constatent une association positive entre le leadership R.I.G.H.T. et la santé mentale, médiée par la sécurité psychologique au travail. L'échelle élaborée dans cette étude peut être utilisée dans de futures recherches portant sur le leadership et sur la santé mentale.
... Zukünftige Studien könnten das psychologische Empowerment der Studierenden näher untersuchen. Zum Beispiel legen Befunde aus der Organisationspsychologie nahe, dass psychologisches Empowerment negativ mit emotionaler Erschöpfung assoziiert ist (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016); vielleicht zeigt sich dieser Zusammenhang auch bei Studierenden. Eine signifikante zeitliche Veränderung im psychologischen Empowerment konnten wir weder im Verlauf des ersten Semesters noch über die ersten beiden Semester hinweg feststellen. ...
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The annual issue of 'die hochschullehre' 2021 contains all publications of this year. Downloadable versions of single papers can also be found on the homepage https://www.wbv.de/die-hochschullehre/beitraege/special/jahrgang/2021.html#cc14230
... Objektif uygulama yönetiminin çalışanların yenilikçi davranışları üzerindeki karmaşık etkisini tartışanBruccoleri ve Riccobono (2018), bilinçsiz teşvik yolunun, uygun performans değerlendirme stratejileri aracılığıyla çalışanların yenilikçi davranışları ile lider takipçi ilişkisinin kalitesini ilişkilendirdiğini bulgulamışlardır. LÜE ve yenilikçi davranışlar ilişkilendiren araştırma modeli çerçevesinde H2 hipotezi oluşturulmuştur.H2: Lider-üye etkileşimi yenilikçi davranışları pozitif yönde etkiler.Lider-üye etkileşimi ile çalışanların güçlendirilmesi arasındaki anlamlı ve pozitif ilişkiyi ortaya koyan araştırmacılar, çalışanların güçlendirilmesinin LÜE ile işe bağlılık, çalışan memnuniyeti, iş performansı ve yenilikçi davranış gibi iş çıktısı olan değişkenleri arasında bir aracı değişken olabileceğini açıklamaktadırlar(Dulebohn vd., 2012; Zhou vd., 2012;Schermuly ve Meyer, 2016;Ciftci, 2019).Schermuly, Meyer ve Dämmer (2013), 225 çalışandan oluşan bir örneklem üzerinde yapmış oldukları ve kavramlar arası ilişkileri yapısal eşitlik modeli ile test ettikleri çalışmada, LÜE teorisinden ve psikolojik güçlendirme üzerine yapılan araştırmalardan elde edilen bulguları birleştirerek, güçlendirmenin LÜE'ün yenilikçi davranış üzerindeki etkilerine aracılık ettiğini belirtmişlerdir. Diğer bir çalışmada; Tsai, Chen ve Shen (2015) Tayvan'da faaliyet gösteren 46 işletmedeki toplamda 359 personel ve amir örneklemi üzerinde, çalışanların psikolojik güçlenmesinin LÜE ile yenilikçi davranışlar arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık etkisinin, motivasyonel yönelimlerle yönetilip yönetilmediğini incelemişlerdir. ...
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Purpose – The main purpose of this study which deals with the concepts of leader-member exchange (LMX), innovative behavior and empowerment in a triple relationship; to examine whether there is a statistically significant mediating variable in the relationship between LMX and innovative behavior, considering the effects of empowerment on employees' innovative behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – Conducted within the scope of quantitative research model and relational research design, simple sampling method and questionnaire technique were used in this study. Relationships between variables were tried to be tested by performing correlation and bootstrap regression analysis of the data procured from 257 contributors working in the iron-steel and finance industries. Findings – Correlation analysis results revealed that all sub-dimensions of LMX have statistically positive and significant relationships with innovative behaviors and empowerment. A positive correlation was also observed between empowerment and innovative behaviors. The most important finding for the purpose of the study is the effect of LMX on innovative behaviors decreases in the triple relationship formed by the involvement of empowerment. The findings show that the relationship between LMX and empowerment weakens the impact of LMX on employees' innovative behaviors. Discussion – The level and quality of the interaction that occurs depending on the relationships with the managers will be able to create highly motivated, satisfied and happy employees. It is an expected result that LMX at high quality level will create positive effects on the innovative behaviors of the employees. However, as supported by the results of this research, it is a fact that it should be taken into consideration that employees with high self-confidence, who can take initiative and make decisions behave more innovative despite their high quality level LMXs in organizations where effective empowerment policies are implemented.
... Many investigations studying workplace bullying or emotional exhaustion in social workers have focused on the effects of a lack of social support from coworkers and supervisors. Previous research has shown that coworker support reduces emotional exhaustion (Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). Conversely, a lack of social support from friends and family has rarely been studied (Sánchez-Moreno et al., 2015). ...
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Emotional exhaustion is relatively widespread among social workers but lack of research explored its relationship with social supports and workplace bullying. The aim of the study was to examine the mediating role of workplace bullying in the relationship between social support (family and friends; coworkers and supervisors) and emotional exhaustion. Using a sample of 369 French social workers, the hypothesised model was tested utilising structural equation modelling. Our results showed that the social support from family and friends and the social support from coworkers and supervisor contribute in distinct ways to reduce emotional exhaustion in social workers. Social support from coworkers and supervisors was directly related to emotional exhaustion. Moreover, it was indirectly related to emotional exhaustion via workplace bullying. Family and friends’ support was only directly related to emotional exhaustion. Workplace bullying was strongly and positively associated with emotional exhaustion. Workplace policies and practices in social work institutions must encourage all kinds of social supports and increase the informal exchange spaces.
... Following review studies on LMX [38,39] and TMX [43], as well as a range of studies targeting both constructs [121][122][123][124][125], these variables are defined and measured in this study at an individual level, with follower rather than leader perceptions. ...
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Are psychologically healthy employees more proactive at work? Surprisingly, responses to this question are lacking as empirical research has overlooked the wellbeing–proactive performance relationship. Drawing insights from the conservation of resources theory and the motivational fit perspective, this study proposes that leader-member exchange and team-member exchange act as social resources that convey the benefits of psychological wellbeing to subsequent proactive performance. Moreover, job complexity and task interdependence—two job characteristics that enhance the motivational potential of social resources—are expected to amplify these positive indirect relationships. Data from a three-wave, time-lagged study conducted among employees (N = 318) from French-Canadian organizations were used to test our hypothesized model. The results indicated that leader-member exchange mediated a positive relationship between wellbeing and proactive performance and that the contribution of wellbeing to proactive performance via leader-member exchange was increased when job complexity was higher. We also found a negative indirect relationship between wellbeing and proactive performance via team-member exchange when team interdependence was lower. Theoretical and practical implications of this research are discussed.
... For example, one-third of PhD students have developed or are at risk of developing psychological distress, with an especially high risk of depression (Levecque, Anseel, De Beuckelaer, Van der Heyden, & Gisle, 2017). Depression and struggling to cope are costly expenses for individuals (e.g., students) both emotionally and intellectually, and they are costly for organizations and societies (e.g., Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008;Schermuly & Meyer, 2016). Therefore, we see efficacy as a crucial element in doctoral supervision. ...
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In this article, we describe Leadership Self-Efficacy (LSE) in doctoral programs by examining the lived experiences and perspectives of doctoral supervisors. A phenomenological research design was used to interview 16 supervisors from Canadian universities across all disciplines, social sciences and humanities, the natural sciences and engineering, and health sciences. The findings revealed the interplay of five types of efficacy in this context: research-self-efficacy (RSE) that is related to supervisors; research-self-efficacy (RSE) that is related to students; leadership self-efficacy (LSE) that is related to supervisors’ roles; student self-efficacy (SSE) that is related to students’ role; and, collective efficacy (CE). The main type of efficacy that made the difference in the doctoral studies context and allowed supervisors to help their students achieve their milestones, while maintaining their mental health, was the supervisors’ Leadership Self-Efficacy (LSE). Effective supervisors found techniques to enhance the level of their LSE, and to support their students and enhance their students’ sense of efficacy. However, the findings also suggest that supervisors experienced challenges in their roles and were not sufficiently supported, which may adversely influence their LSE and, in turn, affect doctoral students’ performance and wellbeing. Implications include addressing the LSE in the doctoral supervision context at the individual level, group level, and departmental/institutional level.
... Nonetheless, mental health issues such as depression disorders remain one of the major causes of disability worldwide (James et al., 2018;World Health Organization2017, 2013a, affecting the ability to work of nearly one in six employees (American Psychological Association, 2016). Furthermore, these health issues generate enormous individual, organizational, and societal costs (Burke & Page, 2017;Dimoff & Kelloway, 2013;Schermuly & Meyer, 2016), estimated to reach hundreds of billions each year (Dimoff & Kelloway, 2017;Gangan & Yang, 2018). Thus, understanding how to enhance employee psychological well-being is crucial. ...
... Competence indicates the level of confidence which an individual feels as he/she accomplishes the work successfully (Shogren & Shaw, 2016). The individual flexibility is referred by self-determination to perform his/her tasks with comfort and impact refers to the extent to which an individual believes that his or her work contribute significantly (Schermuly, 2016). In addition, the impact also makes the individual employee believes that organizational outcomes are influenced by him/her (Islam, 2016). ...
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The current study examined the effect of the style of transformational leadership on innovative work behavior as well as the internal locus of control’s moderating role and psychological empowerment between the relationships of them. We collected data from 422 respondents who are related to family business in Malaysia. Path coefficient analysis was employed to test the hypotheses and SPSS software was used for analyzing descriptive data. The results showed that transformational leadership style, psychological empowerment and internal locus of control have affirmative relationship and significant impact on innovative work behavior. Finally, psychological empowerment and internal locus of control were not found to have moderating effect between innovative work behavior and the style of transformational leadership.
... The theoretical contributions of this research are threefold. First and foremost, most scholars (e.g., Schermuly and Meyer, 2016;Farh et al., 2017;Lee, 2020) have focused on the effectiveness of TMX at the individual level until now. Considering individual embeds within the broader social context of teams, this research found out the positive linkage between RTMX and innovative behavior. ...
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Based upon social comparison theory, a multilevel moderated-mediation theoretical model was built up to explore the influence mechanism of relative team-member exchange (RTMX) on innovative behavior. We tested the proposed hypotheses using a sample of 260 individual members within 51 teams in a two-wave survey study. Controlling for team-member exchange (TMX), results showed that RTMX was positively related to innovative behavior, and the relationship above was mediated by affective organizational commitment. Moreover, team-level TMX differentiation played a moderating role in the mediated relationship between RTMX and innovative behavior through affective organizational commitment. This study also emphasizes the significance of conceptualizing TMX as concurrently implementing at multiple levels.
... It may improve the quality of communication among team members who play different roles in labor division, encourage members to pay attention to the value of others in the process of mutual cooperation, bring interpersonal distance closer, and deepen mutual trust (Carmeli and Gittell, 2009); mutual trust among virtual team members may promote virtual team performance (Jarvenpaa et al., 1998). High-quality relationships act as important potential buffers against threats to improve virtual team performance (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016). Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed: ...
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Based on the social interdependence theory, we proposed that the distributive justice climate affects virtual team performance via high-quality relationships, and then we investigated the boundary effect of team proactive personality. The data used in this study were collected in China, including 327 virtual team members that belonged to 75 teams. The following results are obtained: (1) Distributive justice climate and high-quality relationships have significant positive effects on virtual team performance. (2) High-quality relationships mediate the relationship between the distributive justice climate and virtual team performance. (3) Team proactive personality strengthens the direct effect of the distributive justice climate on high-quality relationships. (4) Team proactive personality strengthens the indirect effect of the distributive justice climate on virtual team performance through high-quality relationships. These empirical results have important theoretical significance for team climate construction, personnel selection, and team performance promotion.
... Thus, the theory suggests that leaders set an example for their employees by developing an attitude of service towards their organisation and the larger society (Winston and Fields, 2015). This attitude of service is also manifested through the various interactions between leaders and their followers (Schermuly and Meyer, 2016). Thus, servant leadership leads to a better exchange between leaders and members (Keskes et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung am Arbeitsplatz sind die zentralen Gegenstände der betrieblichen Gesundheitsförderung (BGF) und des betrieblichen Gesundheitsmanagements (BGM). BGF-Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung von Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden am Arbeitsplatz lassen sich danach kategorisieren, ob sie für Arbeitgeber gesetzlich vorgeschrieben (z. B. Arbeitsschutz, Betriebliches Eingliederungsmanagement) oder freiwillig sind (z. B. Gesundheitskurse). BGF-Maßnahmen können auf Verbesserung der Arbeitsverhältnisse (Verhältnisprävention) oder auf eine Veränderung des Verhaltens der Mitarbeiter abzielen (Verhaltensprävention); ersteres ist leider eher selten. Wenn das BGF in die Prozesse und Strategie des Unternehmens integriert ist, kann man von BGM sprechen. Im Zeitalter ansteigender psychischer Erkrankungen und des Fachkräftemangels werden BGF und BGM für Unternehmen immer wichtiger.
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During COVID-19 pandemic, physicians are being exposed to unprecedented adverse working conditions that lead to increased occurrence of burnout. While supportive leadership is considered effective in preventing burnout, little is known about the role of leadership in extreme situations. Drawing on leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, we hypothesize that high-LMX relationships lead to lower levels of burnout, as they shape physicians’ perceptions of psychosocial job demands and resources. We also contend that this effect will be stronger for frontline physicians, as they are more exposed to job stressors. In a field study with 2,708 Brazilian physicians, we found support to the alleviating role of LMX, but contrary to what we predicted, we found that this effect is weaker for frontline physicians. Overall, our findings reinforce the importance of establishing high-quality relationships between supervisors and medical staff to mitigate the experience of burnout, however, they also highlight that extreme conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, might constrain the beneficial effects of leadership behaviors.
Chapter
The natural extension of leader–member and peer relationships is considering how they individually and collectively impact workgroup functioning. Leaders may not be aware of how their communication tendencies may impact the culture and output of their workgroup as a whole. This chapter reviews and summarizes scholarly literature at the intersection of leader, peer, and team relationships and functioning. Addressing potential best-case and worst-case scenarios, this chapter shows leaders and members how individual relationships can propel workgroups to greater success or on the other hand, tamper with their accomplishments. This chapter also leans into the potential downfalls of LMX theory—the potential for leaders to assemble a special inner circle of trusted employees who are demographically similar to themselves. Considering this, this chapter addresses some of the natural communication challenges that arise when attempting to communicate across differences and among a group and how to be successful in these potentially trying scenarios. Traditional face-to-face workgroups, virtual teams, self- and co-lead teams, and teams with an ambiguous leadership structure are also considered.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, otantik liderliğin işe yabancılaşmaya olan etkisini ve lider-üye etkileşimin bu ilişkideki düzenleyici rolünün incelenmesidir. İşe yabancılaşma sorunu uzun yıllardır düşünürlerin ve araştırmacıların kafa yorduğu ve çözmeye çalıştığı bir olgudur. Bazı çalışmalar iş yabancılaşmanın sebep ve sonuçlarını incelerken, bazıları da aracı ve düzenleyici rollerini araştırmışlar. Bu çalışma açıklık, şeffaflık ve dürüstlüğü önceleyen liderlik teorilerinden otantik liderliğin işe yabancılaşmadaki etkisini anlayamaya çalışmaktadır. Bu ilişki incelenirken, lider ile üyelerin ilişkisinin niteliğini tarif eden lider-üye etkileşiminin düzenleyici rolüne bakılmaktadır. Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesinden 394 çalışan ile yürütülen bu çalışmada nicel araştırma yaklaşımı benimsenmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda otantik liderliğin alt boyutlarının tümünün işe yabancılaşma üzerinde negatif yönlü bir etkiye sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca lider üye etkileşiminin otantik liderliğin alt boyutlarından ilişkilerde şeffaflık ile öz farkındalığın işe yabancılaşma üzerindeki etkisini düzenlediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Article
Purpose Pressure to achieve or exceed performance goals accompanies many sales positions in business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Sales supervisors experience pressure from executives to hit sales targets, exceed quotas, and increase market share. Such pressures may result in supervisor adoption of a bottom-line mentality (SBLM). When this occurs, supervisors tend to focus solely on achieving bottom-line results. When supervisors manage the sales force with this mentality, it may cause their salespeople to experience mental and emotional stress. Individual salespeople are likely to cope with the stress induced by SBLM by employing dysfunctional decision-making behaviors. Ironically, the dysfunctional decision-making techniques used to alleviate the stress engendered by SBLM may actually increase salesperson emotional exhaustion. In this stressful and results-driven environment, salespeople may direct their efforts toward obtaining certain goals at the expense of other priorities, such as their emotional well-being. When salespeople experience emotional exhaustion, various negative outcomes may result. In the present study, we investigate whether emotional exhaustion affects salesperson cognitive and emotional engagement and intentions to seek alternative employment opportunities. Essentially, this study assesses the potential trickle-down effect of performance pressure from organizational executives down organizational channels to sales supervisors and the sales force. Empirically, we examine how SBLM affects salesperson decision making, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, and turnover intention. Methodology A theoretical model of our hypothesized relationships is presented and tested using a sample of 274 business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. The sample was obtained through Qualtrics Panels, and a project manager was utilized to conduct an initial cleaning of the data to improve objectivity during data collection and analysis. Survey respondents were subjected to multiple screening questions and attention checks to enhance data quality. All constructs used in the survey were adapted from previous research and were measured using 7-point likert scales. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the measurement properties of all constructs, and structural equation modeling (i.e. AMOS 26) was utilized to test the hypothesized relationships in our model. Findings The results highlight multiple negative repercussions of the hypothesized trickle-down effect of organizational performance pressure on sales supervisors and the sales force. Specifically, our findings show that (1) performance pressure from organizational executives incites SBLM, (2) SBLM encourages hypervigilant decision making in salespeople, (3) hypervigilant decision making is a strong predictor of emotional exhaustion, and (4) emotionally exhausted salespeople have lower levels of both cognitive and emotional job engagement and higher intentions to seek alternative employment. Interestingly, while salespeople with lower levels of emotional engagement tend to have greater turnover intentions, salesperson cognitive engagement is not significantly related to turnover intentions. Practical Implications The findings from this study have important implications for B2B sales organizations. Sales executives and supervisors need to understand how the “sell, sell, sell” mentality may harm the overall emotional well-being of their salespeople. The present research highlights how the organizational environment influences the behaviors and emotional welfare of the sales force and provides empirical evidence showing that the organizational context has the potential to influence salesperson behaviors and organizational outcomes. Persistently emphasizing bottom-line goals may put the long-term vitality of the sales force at risk. Therefore, organizational executives and sales supervisors should be mindful of how they communicate desirable performance outcomes to avoid SBLM and overwhelming individual salespeople. Essentially, organizational executives must be careful not to overemphasize the desire for increased performance goals to sales supervisors, and sales supervisors must avoid continuously highlighting the attainment of bottom-line outcomes when communicating with individual salespeople. Instead, sales managers should consider reducing outcome-based measures (e.g. sales volume) and using behavior-based measures (e.g. effectively communicating with and servicing customers) to assess salesperson performance. Additionally, sales managers should strive to create an authentic, open partnership with individual salespeople and avoid a paternalistic management style. Establishing professional relationships characterized by mutual respect may enable managers to achieve an appropriate balance between attaining bottom-line results and building a mature, confident, and competitive salesforce. Originality/Contribution To our knowledge, this is the first article to introduce a form of dysfunctional decision-making (i.e. hypervigilant decision making) to the sales literature. This research is also one of the first to examine SBLM in a sales context. Understanding the impact of SBLM is an emerging research interest in the management literature but considering it through a sales lens is unique. Our findings emphasize the importance of SBLM in B2B organizational environments and provide fruitful avenues for future research in this area. The present study contributes to the sales literature by examining the impact of SBLM on salesperson hypervigilant decision making and the impact of hypervigilant decision making on emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, this study adds to existing research on salesperson engagement and emotional exhaustion by showing how emotional exhaustion negatively affects both the emotional and cognitive engagement of B2B salespeople. Our findings also reinforce previous research by corroborating the inverse relationship between salesperson engagement and turnover intentions.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this research is to understand why and under what conditions employees are likely to partake in a particular type of silence, known as the Hierarchical MUM Effect (HME). This phenomenon occurs when subordinates are reluctant to share bad news with their supervisors, which can lead to deleterious outcomes in organizations due to a lack of communication. The authors also seek to find which conditions minimize HME. Design/methodology/approach The authors surveyed employees in a large healthcare organization across three weeks. The authors analyzed their results using the SPSS PROCESS macro. Findings The authors’ findings suggest one way to minimize a lack of upward communication is to empower employees, via a high-quality LMX relationship, and move away from a bottom-line mentality focus. Employees who are empowered show lower instances of withholding information via HME. A low bottom-line mentality enhanced this relationship. Originality/value The authors expand understanding of antecedents to a particular type of silence, the HME, defined as purposefully withholding information from a supervisor or sharing information in a way that silences the dirty details of a situation (i.e. equivocating). Although a wealth of research examines the deleterious consequences of a high BLM, the authors highlight the positive work outcomes associated with a low BLM.
Article
Purpose Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on TMX and the team context have been largely ignored. For filling these gaps, this study explores the effect of employee EI on employee TMX and introduces EI-based leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation as a team context to moderate the EI-TMX relationship. Design/methodology/approach Data were drawn from 51 teams (consisting of 293 followers and 51 team leaders) selected from 30 companies (across the industries of technology, real estate, commerce and manufacturing). Findings Results revealed that employee EI was positively related to employee TMX. EI acted as the basis of LMX differentiation (EI was positively related to LMX, EI variety was positively associated with LMX differentiation), and EI-based LMX differentiation acted as a favorable context for high-EI employees to develop high-quality TMX. Originality/value This study contributes to the understanding of EI’s significant and complex influence on interpersonal exchange relationships between leaders, followers and coworkers.
Thesis
Human connection is an innate human need. More than that, it is a rich source of life satisfaction, the purest expression of our humanity, and only in moments of human connection do we fully come into being. Such moments of connection are acutely familiar and recognizable, and yet profoundly mysterious and inarticulable. Increasingly, organizational scholars are recognizing the benefits associated with human connection. Jane Dutton and colleagues developed a conceptualization of moments of human connection, termed high quality connections (HQCs), which are characterized by the experience of positive regard, vitality, and mutuality. As research increasingly demonstrates the value of HQCs at work, my aims are twofold: 1) understanding the conditions and practices that cultivate HQCs, and 2) gain a deeper understanding of the nature of human connection, examining and perhaps refining the HQC depiction of human connection. To achieve this, I conducted two inductive, qualitative studies of a university lacrosse team and a set of six community theatre productions. I chose sports and theatre because in those contexts moments of human connection are prevalent, intense, and central to the purpose of the activity. I draw on ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews to observe and hear accounts of moments of human connection. In Chapter 1, I start by describing the importance of human connection. I adopt the HQC conceptualization as a theoretical starting point, and review the literature on the value of HQCs at work. I then describe some of the challenges organizations face in cultivating HQCs, such as competitive dynamics and depersonalizing role structures. This theoretically and practically motivates my overarching research question: how do people achieve HQCs? In Chapter 2, I present my study of the lacrosse team. In this study, I observe how competition among teammates is a source of HQCs on the team. I identify mutuality as the central mechanism by which moments of competition become HQCs, which fosters positive regard. I also present conditions that enable players to achieve mutuality in competition. From these findings, I develop a view of competition as a form of mutuality-inducing play. I draw on philosophy of sport to conceptualize competition as a cooperative relational process. In Chapter 3, I present my study of six community theatre productions. Because study 1 revealed mutuality as the driving mechanism for HQC in competition, I turn my focus to how mutuality is achieved. I specifically examine the influence of roles, which have long been thought to inhibit human connection in organizations. I find instead that roles enable authenticity and responsiveness, which lead to mutuality. I also find, as in the lacrosse paper, that moments of play are when mutuality is achieved. After two studies pointed me toward play, Chapter 4 examines more deeply the concept of play—what it is, why it is central to sports and theatre, and whether it can similarly be integrated with work. Chapter 5 concludes the dissertation by developing a theoretical model of mutuality that connects mutuality to several related concepts in other fields. My primary conclusions are that mutuality is the driving mechanism of moments of human connection (the other two aspects of HQC are outpourings from mutuality), and that play enables mutuality. Bringing the focus to mutuality provides a clearer understanding of the nature of these moments of connection, as well as how they can be cultivated.
Article
Purpose Based on path–goal theory and social learning theory, this research is aimed at investigating how authentic leadership can influence team performance in virtual teams, specifically the mechanisms through the mediator of high-quality interpersonal relationships and the moderator of task interdependence. Design/methodology/approach The valid data of this research were collected from 90 virtual teams including 388 team members and their 90 leaders with a time-lag in China, and then the data were mainly analyzed by the hierarchical multiple regression and bootstrapping method to test the hypotheses. Findings The research results reveal that authentic leadership can positively influence virtual team performance. High-quality interpersonal relationships mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and virtual team performance. Furthermore, the indirect relationship between authentic leadership and virtual team performance via high-quality interpersonal relationships is moderated by task interdependence. Originality/value Team performance as an important kind of team effectiveness is crucial to the virtual team's advantage and success. This research enriches the knowledge on the relationship between authentic leadership and virtual team performance, which contributes to the virtual leadership effectiveness and virtual team management.
Article
While there is no shortage of calls for research to study management concepts within organizations, there is far too little guidance on how to accomplish this feat. Conducting research in the field is especially important within the domain of organizational team research. Accordingly, we seek to provide an understanding of the current state of the organizational team field research literature and highlight recommendations and best practices. As such, we identified 10 recommendations and 10 best practices through three methods: (1) a literature review, (2) a survey of individuals who have published team field research, as well as some of the most impactful scholars investigating organizational team phenomenon, and (3) a set of interviews with practitioners in positions that can grant field access to researchers. By implementing this multi-pronged approach, we were able to incorporate multiple stakeholder voices so as to fully understand the value and ideal process for scientist-practitioner endeavors.
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Human resource (HR) practices are potent in shaping workplace social relationships, which play a crucial role in employees' well-being. While the role of formal relationships (i.e., relationships based on prescribed work roles) has received relatively more research attention, little is known about the nexus between HR practices, informal relationships at work and employee well-being. Drawing on social interdependence theory, we conducted two studies to investigate how high commitment work systems (HCWS) affect employee well-being through workplace friendship, beyond the effects of formal interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, using time-lagged data from a sample of 253 full-time employees, we found that workplace friendship, a type of informal relationship at work, mediated the relationship between HCWS and employee well-being. In addition, task interdependence strengthened the relationship between HCWS and workplace friendship as well as the indirect effect of HCWS on employee well-being. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and extended them to multiple forms of well-being using multilevel data collected at three time points from 310 employees in 61 organizations. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings as well as future research directions are discussed.
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A field investigation of 337 employees and their immediate superiors tested the mediating role of empowerment in relations between job characteristics, leader-member exchange (LMX), team-member exchange (TMX), and work outcomes. The meaning and competence dimensions of empowerment mediated the relation between job characteristics and work satisfaction. The meaning dimension also mediated the relation between job characteristics and organizational commitment. Contrary to prediction, empowerment did not mediate relations between LMX, TMX, and the outcome variables. Rather, LMX and TMX were directly related to organizational commitment. In addition,TMX was directly related to job performance. These findings suggest that work satisfaction is explained largely by job characteristics (through empowerment) but that LMX and TMX combine with job characteristics and empowerment to explain variation in organizational commitment and job performance.
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Halbesleben and Buckley's (2004) review of burnout research stressed the need to continue investigating the relationship between social support and burnout. We address that need by investigating Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and mentoring as sources of social support that decrease burnout through influences on organizational socialization and role stress. Using structural equation modeling we tested a network of relationships that showed LMX and mentoring have significant direct and indirect effects on reports of burnout. Data from 428 hospital employees indicated LMX and mentoring were positively associated with organizational socialization. Socialization then was negatively related to role stress which had a strong, positive influence on burnout. LMX displayed a direct negative relationship with role stress, while mentoring had a direct negative relationship with burnout. This study advances burnout theory by further clarifying the role of social support in reducing burnout. Additionally, the results provide a foundation for healthcare professionals, and organizations in general, to design workplace interventions intended to prevent or reduce burnout.
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This longitudinal study examines the development of leader-member-exchange (LMX) relationships via a model that extends and tests ideas presented but not yet fully tested in past theoretical models. New subordinates (n = 205) and their supervisors (n = 112) provided data that were used to test hypotheses stating that dyadic gender and personality similarity, member performance, and leader delegation would be incrementally and cumulatively related to LMX development. Support was found for relationships between the quality of leader-member exchange and positive affectivity similarity, performance, and delegation, but not for a relationship with gender similarity. In addition, it appears that good member performance may precede leader delegation.
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This study investigates the process underlying the relationship between leadership and employees’ innovative workplace behavior. By combining findings from leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and from research on psychological empowerment, we propose that empowerment mediates the effects of LMX on innovative behavior. We tested the proposed process model with a structural equation model based on a time-lagged questionnaire study with a sample of 225 employees. This design allowed us to investigate the proposed effects under control of the temporal stability of innovative behavior. In partial support of the hypotheses, the model revealed a full mediation of LMX on subsequent innovation behavior via psychological empowerment. The indirect effect was significant even when controlling for the stability of innovative behavior over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a vast field and widely used by many applied researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. Over the years, many software pack-ages for structural equation modeling have been developed, both free and commercial. However, perhaps the best state-of-the-art software packages in this field are still closed-source and/or commercial. The R package lavaan has been developed to provide applied researchers, teachers, and statisticians, a free, fully open-source, but commercial-quality package for latent variable modeling. This paper explains the aims behind the develop-ment of the package, gives an overview of its most important features, and provides some examples to illustrate how lavaan works in practice.
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Although leader-member exchange (LMX) was identified in the literature nearly 40 years ago, a comprehensive empirical examination of its antecedents and consequences has not been conducted. The authors’ examination included 247 studies, containing 290 samples, and 21 antecedents and 16 consequences of LMX quality. Results indicated that while leader behaviors and perceptions, follower characteristics, interpersonal relationship characteristics, and contextual variables represent significant groups of LMX antecedents, leader variables explained the most variance in LMX quality. Moderator analyses revealed that the particular LMX scale, country of participants, and work setting studied did not produce meaningful influences on the relationships in the meta-analysis. However, power distance and individualism did moderate some of these relationships. To provide continuity with the LMX meta-analyses and conceptual reviews that have focused on LMX consequences, the authors tested a number of mediation models. The results demonstrated that LMX frequently plays a mediating role in the relationships where mediation could be tested.
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Using meta-analysis and structural equation modeling, we examine the unique and combined relationships between team psychological empowerment, its antecedents, and outcomes. First, we seek to extend the team psychological empowerment nomological network by including team members’ affective reactions as an outcome. In addition, we consider the moderating influence of team type, how empowerment was measured, and team size on the relationships between team psychological empowerment, its antecedents, and outcomes. Second, we use our analytical results to clarify a number of theoretical perspectives, but more importantly to offer suggestions regarding where research in the area of team psychological empowerment should proceed. Finally, in keeping with the broader team effectiveness framework, we present our recommendations for future research using the following categories: (a) antecedents, (b) outcomes, (c) moderators, (d) mediators, and (e) additional directions for future research.
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For structural equation models, a huge variety of fit indices has been developed. These indices, however, can point to conflicting conclusions about the extent to which a model actually matches the observed data. The present article provides some guide-lines that should help applied researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a given struc-tural equation model. First, as goodness-of-fit measures depend on the method used for parameter estimation, maximum likelihood (ML) and weighted least squares (WLS) methods are introduced in the context of structural equation modeling. Then, the most common goodness-of-fit indices are discussed and some recommendations for practitioners given. Finally, we generated an artificial data set according to a "true" model and analyzed two misspecified and two correctly specified models as examples of poor model fit, adequate fit, and good fit. In structural equation modeling (SEM), a model is said to fit the observed data to the extent that the model-implied covariance matrix is equivalent to the empirical co-variance matrix. Once a model has been specified and the empirical covariance matrix is given, a method has to be selected for parameter estimation. Different estimation meth-ods have different distributional assumptions and have different discrepancy functions to be minimized. When the estimation procedure has converged to a reasonable
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This research investigates the interactive effects of the psychological empowerment dimensions on job satisfaction. Using data collected from employees of multiple organizations, the authors find intriguing three-way interactions among the dimensions. Choice has a weak but negative effect on job satisfaction when both competence and impact are high or low but has a strong positive effect when one of the two dimensions is low and the other is high. Impact has no effect on job satisfaction when choice and competence are both high or both low. The effect of impact is positive only when one of the two dimensions is high and the other is low. In addition, high levels of choice and competence reinforce the positive effect of meaning on job satisfaction. The results offer important insights for future theory development on psychological empowerment.
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We proposed that the social exchange relationships individuals form in the workplace would mediate the relation between perceptions of interactional and distributive justice and social loafing. Specifically, we argued that both leader-member exchanges (LMX) and team-member exchanges (TMX) would mediate the relation between interactional justice and social loafing, and that LMX would mediate the relation between distributive justice and social loafing. In a field study, 124 manufacturing employees responded to questionnaires and their immediate supervisors were interviewed. The results indicated significant relationships between interactional justice and LMX, and between interactional justice and TMX. LMX, but not TMX, was negatively related to social loafing. Distributive justice was not significantly related to LMX. Thus no support was found for LMX as a mediator of the relationship between distributive justice and social loafing.
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Health care workers (N=307) completed measures of burnout and depression as part of a study of personal and occupational sources of distress. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for differentiating burnout and depression. The analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and s multiple factor structure for depression measures. The analysis also provided support for the existence of second-order factors of burnout and depression that accounted for the correlations among the primary factors within each syndrome. The implications of study for the construct validity of burnout and depression are discussed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of the relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and span of control. The paper argues that depending on their extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness, some leaders will find it easier to establish and maintain LMX relationships with their followers in larger groups. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted among 52 leaders and 389 followers. As matched data were used, the final sample consisted of 244 individual employees who worked in 41 different groups. Findings – Results show that extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness moderate the relationship between span of control and various dimensions of LMX. The results for agreeableness, however, were in the opposite direction than expected. Research limitations/implications – The moderation effects that were found for leader personality indicate that organizations could foster LMX relationships by selecting leaders with certain personality patterns for larger groups or taking care to train leaders who do not show this pattern to overcome possible problems of low LMX relationships in large groups. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first to address the relationship between span of control and LMX dimensions, and the first to examine the effects of leader personality on that relationship.
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During a 1-yr period, 20 of 48 systems analysts and computer programmers of the information systems department of a large public utility terminated their employment. As hypothesized, leader–member exchange was an effective predictor of employee turnover. However, the overall style of a leader (i.e., average leadership style) was no more helpful than the base rate in predicting turnover. Implications for the role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process are discussed. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a field experiment involving 83 computer-processing employees of a large service organization, a leadership intervention based on the leader–member exchange (LMX) model was tested against a control condition. It was hypothesized that Ss having initially low LMX would respond more positively (after adjusting for regression effects) to the leadership intervention than those having higher quality relationships. Dependent measures included scores on the Job Diagnostic Survey and Role Orientation Index and work productivity. Analysis of interaction effects indicated that comparing the leadership intervention condition to the control condition, the initially low-LMX group showed significant gains in productivity, job satisfaction, and supervisor satisfaction compared to the initially high-LMX group. The initially low-LMX group also perceived significantly higher gains in member availability and support from their supervisors than the initially high-LMX group. The initial quality of LMX appears to moderate the leadership intervention effect in the hypothesized direction. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
In this chapter I attempt to integrate the ideas presented in previous chapters into a coping conceptualization of human LH. First I elaborate on the coping process that underlies LH effects, the direct and indirect antecedents of these effects, and the mediational sequences that go from helplessness training to performance changes. Then I deal with the psychological meanings of reactance and LH deficits and elaborate on their functional and dysfunctional aspects as well as on their generalization over time and across situations.
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Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders, affecting 14% of all people at some point in their lifetime. Women are twice as likely to become depressed as men, but beyond gender there are a variety of risk factors that influence the prevalence and likelihood of experiencing depression. Risk Factors in Depression consolidates research findings on risk factors into one source, for ease of reference for both researchers and clinicians in practice. The book divides risk factors into biological, cognitive, and social risk factors. This provides researchers with the opportunity to examine the interface among different theoretical perspectives and variables, and to look for the opportunity for more complex and explanatory models of depression. * Allows reader to compare and contrast the relative states of development of different models and their databases * Examines the predictive power of these models related to various phases of clinical depression, including onset, maintenance, and relapse * Provides an examination of the therapeutic implications of comprehensive and integrative models of depression.
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Ein beim Design von Erhebungsstudien zu beachtender Aspekt ist die Vermeidung von systematischen Messfehlern, insbesondere der Common Method Variance (Ernst 2003, S. 1250, Podsakoffet al. 2003). Es ist weitestgehend akzeptiert, dass Korrelationen zwischen mit der gleichen Methode gemessenen Variablen durch Common Method Variance aufgebläht werden können. (2003, S. 879) schreiben: „Most researchers agree that common method variance [⋯] is a potential problem in behavioral research“. (1991, S. 422) führen dies noch weiter aus: „A hypothesis might be rejected or accepted because of excessive error in measurement, not necessarily because of inadequacy or adequacy of theory“.
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http://www.amazon.com/Mediation-Analysis-Quantitative-Applications-Sciences/dp/141292569X/ref=sr_1_5?ie=UTF8&qid=1442314837&sr=8-5&keywords=dawn+iacobucci
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Human physiological systems are highly responsive to positive social interactions, but the organizational importance of this finding largely has been unexplored. After reviewing extant research, we illustrate how consideration of the physiology of positive social interactions at work opens new research questions about how positive social interactions affect human capacity and how organizational contexts affect employee health and physiological resourcefulness. We also address the practical implications of integrating physiological data into organizational research. Our paper invites a fuller consideration of how employees' bodies are affected by everyday work interactions and, in so doing, encourages a stronger tie between human physiology and organizational research.
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Reports an error in "Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model" by Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben ( Journal of Applied Psychology , 2006[Sep], Vol 91[5], 1134-1145). There were errors in transcribing the ρ values from Table 2 to the results section. In the second paragraph of page 1138, the second and third sentences should read “In the present study, work-related support was more strongly related to exhaustion (ρ = -.26) than depersonalization (ρ = -.23) and personal accomplishment (ρ = .24; F (2, 111) = 24.13, p > .01). On the other hand, non-work support was more strongly related to depersonalization (ρ = -.16) and personal accomplishment (ρ = .19) than exhaustion (ρ = -.12; F(2, 38) = 3.83, p > .05).” The values in Table 2 are correct and the substantive conclusions have not changed. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-11397-012 .) The Conservation of Resources (COR) model of burnout (Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993) suggests that resources are differentially related to burnout dimensions. In this paper, I provide a meta-analysis of the social support and burnout literature, finding that social support, as a resource, did not yield different relationships across the 3 burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), challenging the COR model. However, when considering the source of the social support (work vs. nonwork) as a moderator, I found that work-related sources of social support, because of their more direct relationship to work demands, were more closely associated with exhaustion than depersonalization or personal accomplishment; the opposite pattern was found with nonwork sources of support. I discuss the implications of this finding in relation to the COR model and suggest future research directions to clarify the relationship between resources and burnout dimensions.
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We propose a cross-level contingent process model based on social cognitive theory to explain how and when the quality of social exchange relationships with a supervisor (leader-member exchange; LMX) and fellow team members (team-member exchange; TMX) affect individual creativity in work teams. Using longitudinal, multisource data for 828 employees on 116 teams, we found LMX and TMX had unique indirect effects on employee creativity via self-efficacy. Further, moderated path analysis revealed LMX differentiation attenuated LMX quality's direct effect on self-efficacy and indirect effect on creativity, whereas TMX differentiation augmented TMX quality's direct effect on self-efficacy and indirect effect on creativity.
The construct validity of scores on Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment scale was examined. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from a sample of 160 nurses showed substantial support for Spreitzer's four empowerment dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. In contrast to Spreitzer's findings, the results of this study indicated that self-determination is a precursor of impact. This finding was cross-validated with data from a subset of the same sample 1 year later, after implementation of a job redesign program. In addition, results from structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated job characteristics to relate differentially to the empowerment dimensions, providing evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the four empowerment dimensions. Finally, this study found that the four empowerment dimensions differentially related to organizational commitment and career intentions, providing evidence for the predictive validity of the Empowerment scale scores.
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This article develops the argument that team-member exchange (TMX) relationships operate at both between- and within-group levels of analysis to influence an employee's sense of identification with coworkers in the group and their helping organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directed at coworkers. Specifically, we propose that relatively higher quality TMX relationships of an employee as compared with other members of the group influence an employee's sense of positive uniqueness, whereas higher average level of TMX quality in the group creates a greater sense of belonging. Multilevel modeling analysis of field data from 236 bank managers and their subordinates supports the hypotheses and demonstrates 3 key findings. First, team members identify more with their coworkers when they have high relative TMX quality compared with other group members and are also embedded in groups with higher average TMX. Second, identification with coworkers is positively related to helping OCB directed toward team members. Finally, identification with coworkers mediates the interactive effect of relative TMX quality and group average TMX quality on helping. When TMX group relations allow individuals to feel a valued part of the group, but still unique, they engage in higher levels of helping. Overall moderated mediation analysis demonstrates that the mediated relationship linking relative TMX quality with helping OCB via identification with coworkers is stronger when group average TMX is high, but not present when group average TMX is low. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and recommend future research on multilevel conceptualizations of TMX. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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While the focus on constructive leadership still dominates leadership research, an increasing number of studies investigate different forms of destructive leadership. This meta-analysis integrates different conceptualizations of destructive leadership and analyzes the relationship between destructive leadership and outcome variables. The search for articles yielded more than 200 studies of which 57 could be included in the meta-analysis. Results indicate the expected negative correlations with positive followers' outcomes and behaviors (e.g., attitudes towards the leader, well-being, and individual performance) and positive correlations with negative outcomes (e.g., turnover intention, resistance towards the leader, counterproductive work behavior). As expected, the highest correlation arises between destructive leadership and attitudes towards the leader. Surprisingly, the next highest correlation was found between destructive leadership and counterproductive work behavior. After discussing the results, an agenda for future research is proposed. Given the negative impact of destructive leadership, more knowledge is especially necessary regarding what triggers destructive leadership.
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در مقالات دیگر اشاره شده که در این مقاله در مورد ارتباط متغیرهای دموگرافیک با توانمندسازی روانی صحبت شده است.
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After summarizing the literature on the various models for the role of social support in the process of work stress, two studies are reported. In the first study, correlations between (1) social support and workplace stressors and (2) between social support and strains as well as (3) incrementalR2s across 68 studies, when the interaction term of stressors and support was added to the regression of strain on stressors and support, were meta-analytically cumulated. Potential moderators of these relationships were weak, suggesting the presence of three general constructs of stressors, strains, and social support. In the second study, the various models for the role of social support in the process of workplace stress were tested for the general constructs identified in the first study. Results indicated that social support had a threefold effect on work stressor–strain relations. Social support reduced the strains experienced, social support mitigated perceived stressors, and social support moderated the stressor–strain relationship. Evidence for mediational and suppressor effects of social support on the process of work stress was weak. In addition, the argument that social support is mobilized when stressors are encountered was not consistent with the available empirical evidence. A similar lack of support was found for the arguments that support is mobilized when strains are encountered and that support is provided when individuals are afflicted with strains.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model Design/methodology/approach – The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises. Findings – The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large. Originality/value – This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.
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