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The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain–brain and brain–machine interfaces

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Great advances have been made in signaling information on brain activity in individuals, or passing between an individual and a computer or robot. These include recording of natural activity using implants under the scalp or by external means or the reverse feeding of such data into the brain. In one recent example, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allowed feeding of digitalized information into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of motor signals at the scalp, representing speci¯c motor intention of hand moving in individual humans, were fed as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a maximum intensity of 2.0 T through a circular magnetic coil placed °ush on each of the heads of subjects present at a di®erent location. The TMS was said to induce an electric current in°uencing axons of the motor cortex causing the intended hand movement: the ¯rst example of the transfer of motor intention and its expression , between the brains of two remote humans. However, to date the mechanisms involved , not least that relating to the participation of magnetic induction, remain unclear. In general, in animal biology, magnetic ¯elds are usually the poor relation of neuronal current: generally \unseen" and if apparent, disregarded or just given a nod. Niels Bohr searched for a biological parallel to complementary phenomena of physics. Pertinently, the two-brains hypothesis (TBH) proposed recently that advanced animals, especially man, have two brains i.e., the animal CNS evolved as two fundamentally di®erent though interdependent, complementary organs: one electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and di±cult to access) À À À a stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting electromagnetic (EM) ¯elds. Research on the CNS in health and disease progresses including that on brain–brain, brain–computer and brain–robot engineering. As they grow even closer, these disciplines involve their own unique complexities, including direction by the laws of inductive physics. So the novel TBH hypothesis has wide fundamental implications, including those related to TMS. These require rethinking and renewed research engaging the fully complementary equivalence of mutual magnetic and electric ¯eld induction in the CNS and, within this context, a new mathematics
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The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide
for brainbrain and brainmachine interfaces
G. Goodman
*
, R. R. Poznanski
,
, L. Cacha
and D. Bercovich
§
,
*
Galil Genetic Analysis, Katzrin 12900 Israel
Department of Clinical Sciences
Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Laboratory of Biological Modeling
The Rockefeller University, 10065 New York, USA
§
Department of Molecular Genetics
Faculty of Life Sciences
Tel-Hai Academic College Galilee, 12110 Israel
dannyb@telhai.ac.il
[Received 13 July 2015; Accepted 3 August 2015; Published ]
Great advances have been made in signaling information on brain activity in individuals, or
passing between an individual and a computer or robot. These include recording of natural
activity using implants under the scalp or by external means or the reverse feeding of such data
into the brain. In one recent example, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
allowed feeding of digitalized information into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus,
noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of motor signals at the scalp, repre-
senting speci¯c motor intention of hand moving in individual humans, were fed as repetitive
magnetic pulses repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a maximum intensity
of 2.0 T through a circular magnetic coil placed °ush on each of the heads of subjects present at
a di®erent location. The TMS was said to induce an electric current in°uencing axons of the
motor cortex causing the intended hand movement: the ¯rst example of the transfer of motor
intention and its expression, between the brains of two remote humans. However, to date the
mechanisms involved, not least that relating to the participation of magnetic induction, re-
main unclear. In general, in animal biology, magnetic ¯elds are usually the poor relation of
neuronal current: generally \unseen" and if apparent, disregarded or just given a nod. Niels
Bohr searched for a biological parallel to complementary phenomena of physics. Pertinently,
the two-brains hypothesis (TBH) proposed recently that advanced animals, especially man,
have two brains i.e., the animal CNS evolved as two fundamentally di®erent though inter-
dependent, complementary organs: one electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the
other, electromagnetic (intangible and di±cult to access) a stable, structured and func-
tional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting electro-magnetic (EM) ¯elds. Research
on the CNS in health and disease progresses including that on brainbrain, braincomputer
and brainrobot engineering. As they grow even closer, these disciplines involve their own
unique complexities, including direction by the laws of inductive physics. So the novel TBH
hypothesis has wide fundamental implications, including those related to TMS. These require
rethinking and renewed research engaging the fully complementary equivalence of mutual
magnetic and electric ¯eld induction in the CNS and, within this context, a new mathematics
October 12, 2015 4:21:10pm WSPC/179-JIN 1550023 ISSN: 0219-6352 2nd Reading
Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, Vol. 14, No. 3 (2015) 113
°
cImperial College Press
DOI: 10.1142/S0219635215500235
1
of the brain to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with current brainbrain and
brainmachine interfaces. Bohr may now rest.
Keywords: Transcranial magnetic stimulation; two-brains hypothesis; Bohr biological com-
plementarity; Faraday induction; brainbrain, machine, computer therapies and engineering.
1. Introduction
While internal images obtained externally, using computer tomography (CT), mag-
netic resonance imaging (MRI) or proton emission tomography (PET) have long
provided valuable indirect information on physiological parameters such as tissue
condition, blood °ow, oxygen use and metabolism, they say little on central sensing,
motor control or cognition. However, remarkable results have been achieved in reading
and understanding the meaning of electrical activity obtained from electrode implan-
tation in the brains ¯rst of animals and later humans (Hallett, 2007). Though im-
plantation has disadvantages, it provides some spatial information. This has enabled
progress in understanding brain function and provided therapeutic opportunities for
some disabilities. However, in recent decades, a widening range of noninvasive tech-
niques recording neural activity has come to fruition, including electroencephalography
(EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) without implants.
Each noninvasive technique available these days gives a di®erent view of brain
function, each possibly preferable in a given situation, while often multiple views
a®ord fuller understanding. Thus, such EEG and MEG give direct measures of
neuronal activity with excellent time information, but unlike with implantation,
spatial information is uncertain because sources of waves from scalp recordings are
often indeterminate, and sometimes ambiguous. From various sites on the scalp,
EEG measures voltage di®erences that derive from transmembrane currents, mainly
postsynaptic potentials of apical dendrites of large pyramidal cells. MEG measures
similarly to EEG, but more the intracellular currents and its sources may be more
localized than those of EEG because it is not distorted by the skull and scalp (Hallett,
2007). In just one example of current progress, information obtained from those
techniques can now be fed into neural activity as digitally encoded impulses via
focused ultrasound (FUS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS is
now used widely in brain research but ¯nds limited use clinically, including in
treating depression. However, it has great potential for therapies.
Remarkably, the technologies above have also enabled linking of brains of pri-
mates and humans to devices enabling their direct operation by thought, and to
computers, allowing downstream exploitation known as the braincomputer inter-
face (BCI). Following successful direct transfer of information between humans and
rats via a brainbrain interface (BBI) (Yoo et al., 2004) a ¯ctional dream has now
been accomplished: direct brain-to-brain communication of information on neural ac-
tivity between remote humans has bypassed language (Rao et al.,2014).Thiswas
achieved noninvasively by recording of EEG brain signals from the scalp of one indi-
vidual and transferring them via TMS to another; this in three pairs of senderreceivers.
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2 G. GOODMAN ET AL.
Thus, brainbrain communication is possible, but elucidation of the relevant
mechanisms at work, in the ultra-complex human brain in particular, remains not a
little like looking for a needle in a darkened room.
2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Some of the Problems
Decades ago, it was already known that a brief high-voltage electric shock over the
primary motor cortex produced a muscle response, the motor-evoked potential
(MEP). Though useful for some purposes, this transcranial electric stimulation
(TES) was painful. However, later it was shown that TMS applied to the brain could
achieve the same objective with little or no pain (Hallett, 2007). In this, a brief, high-
current pulse in a wire coil produces a magnetic ¯eld with lines of °ux perpendicular
to the plane of the coil, which is generally tangential to the scalp. The ¯eld can reach
2 Tesla and lasts generally for about 100 ms. The electric ¯eld so induced is per-
pendicular to the magnetic ¯eld, so also tangential to the scalp. However, the in-
duction is straightforward, its e®ects not so.
A review on TMS suggested that the ¯eld voltage may itself excite neurons, \but
likely more important are the induced currents". This demotes the magnetic ¯eld, as
if of secondary importance. Problematic too is a remark that the induction occurs \in
a homogeneous medium" (Hallett, 2007). Is brain tissue really \homogenous" enough
to justify this assumption? A general, common supposition is that it is likely that the
mechanism of transcranial stimulation is similar in many parts of the brain. However,
only detailed information from the cortex is to hand. It is also not clear why the
activation of neuronal elements by the induced electric ¯eld is regarded as due to two
mechanisms: when the ¯eld is parallel to the neurons, it will be most e®ective where
intensity changes with distance and when not \completely parallel", activation will
occur at bends in the neural element (Hallett, 2007). How many neurons are likely to
be so completely parallel as not to be activated at their bends and what is the
signi¯cance of that activation? Similarly without explanation, is the slight di®erence
in latency of the waves resulting from TMS as compared to TES. Notable too is that
using TMS, the brain can be brie°y activated or brie°y inhibited. This is thought to
likely occur because \each stimulus [can be] in di®ering amounts and with di®erent
time courses"; a description, not an explanation.
Evidence too on TMS of occipital cortex is also somewhat confusing. It can pro-
duce both phosphenes and a brief scotoma. Subjects were shown brie°y, randomly
generated letters on a visual monitor and TMS applied after the visual stimulus
(Amassian et al., 1989). Delivered at an interval less than 4060 ms or more than
120140 ms, letters were correctly reported; but at intervals of 80100 ms, a blur or
nothing was seen. The assumption is that it probably indicates important visual
processing during that time interval. Subsequent studies with more sensitive tech-
niques indicate also an earlier period of suppression at about 30 ms; also supposedly
\likely", indicating initial arrival of visual information to occipital cortex. Perhaps
only \likely" too, was consolidation of a simple motor skill, phasic pinch force, when
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THE TWO-BRAINS HYPOTHESIS 3
disrupted by stimulation selectively over the cortex, without disruption of other
aspects of motor function (Muellbacher et al., 2000). However, though another study
con¯rmed this ¯nding, it failed to ¯nd a similar disruption of learning of movement
dynamics in a force ¯eld, suggesting that only some types of motor consolidation
occur in motor cortex (Baraduc et al., 2004). On the other hand, rTMS of primary
motor cortex prior to learning of movement dynamics, did interfere with consolida-
tion without interfering with the learning itself (Richardson et al., 2006).
Uncertain too is the growth of MEP size as a function of TMS stimulus intensity
and background contraction force. This must involve neurons in addition to the core
region activated at the threshold. There are two alternatives: a higher activation
threshold because it is intrinsically less excitable, or further from the center of ac-
tivation by the magnetic stimulus (Hallett, 2007). Perhaps not one but both of these
basically di®erent presumptions are way o® mark. Similarly problematic, in a test of
brain plasticity, rTMS at slow rates, approximately between 0.2 and 1 Hz, causes
decrease in brain excitability (Chen et al., 1997), rTMS at faster rates, 5 Hz or more,
causes an increase in brain excitability (Pascual-Leone et al., 1994). However, overall
TMS e®ects are notable for nonlinearity and contrasting results from di®erent
combinations of frequency levels and timing. Overall, it is clear that noninvasive
technologies currently do not permit the spatial resolution and availability of a
considerable number of intracranial locations for stimulation, as invasive sites do.
A simple, sensormotor relationship will be relatively easy to be read in one brain
and fed into the second brain. However, transfers of abstract information involving a
complex of multiple locations in one brain to another, is liable to be exceedingly
di±cult. Moreover, though single impulse TMS, even of a relatively high frequency, is
safe and useful in the study of human physiology and for therapy, the risk, including
of causing seizures, from repetitive pulses (rTMS) was described long ago by Was-
serman (1996). \May", \likely" and \probably" still dominate. The persistent, often
negative or contradictory quali¯cations ascribed to progress in TMS research, sug-
gest that much is way o® the mark and the main value of any review remains even
today: reminding of the need for careful avoidance of experimental risk to humans,
except where special conditions may allow. Little is known of mechanisms and this is
so particularly with increased distance from the scalp of locations of interest, the
number of which is growing as is knowledge of the complexity of interactions between
them. How much do we really know about the brain? Much of TMS and resultant
intra-cranial data, deep-seated and not so, are no less a shot in the dark than the
novel hypothesis below. Is it possible that a very fundamental element in brain
physiology is not yet recognized?
3. Brain, Biology and Complementarity
The human brain, as all else, is a product of gravitation, quantum mechanics and
evolution by survival. Quantum and gravitation remain not united, particle-wave
duality is unexplained and life science research generally is wary of the apparent
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4 G. GOODMAN ET AL.
quantum denial of the objectivity of natural physical laws. Understanding of complex
biological systems and organs, such as the brain, still rests mainly on classical physics
and chemistry. The possible nature of quantum analysis in biology was tackled by the
same principle of complementarity he applied to particles and waves: mutual ex-
clusivity in the means of their measurement, but both essential for understanding of
their interdependence. He hoped to ascribe that principle to biological phenomena.
However, in face of traditional biological reductionism breaking down life to the
simplest molecular level, and of the di±culties for most biologists in math, many
decades of complementarity has as yet done nothing for understanding of the brain.
This often °ounders together with the mysteries of consciousness and the universe.
4. Brain and Consciousness
Consciousness is a conundrum. Like many others, Chalmers asks why and how widely
distributed detectors in the awake brain, constantly sense di®erent features such as
size, color, tone, shape, sound and motion and bind them together with associated
thoughts and memories into innumerable conscious experiences uniquely personal to
the individual (\qaulia"). Though he roots these in information that emerges in a
stream of thought and awareness, in the end he also shifts toward the mysteries of
universal consciousness (Chalmers, 1995). The PenroseHamero® model based con-
sciousness on quantum gravity and collapse of the wave function; however, they too
¯nd it necessary to predicate a universal consciousness (Hamero® & Penrose, 1996,
2014). Nearer the quantum mark, Crick and Koch (1990) suggested that 3574 Hz
neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex are the basis of consciousness and Jackendo®
(1987) described underlying computational processes as its basis. However, all in all,
subjective thought and consciousness seem extrinsic to brain neural circuitry, are
intertwined, remain unexplained by current science and require new thinking and
perhaps new mathematics of the brain (Cacha & Poznanski, 2014; Poznanski, 2009).
5. Natural Selection of Induction
Against the backdrop of currents of ionic charge, membranes, neurons and electric
¯elds bound up with the mysteries of consciousness, universal or not, it is easy to
lose sight of the fact that in nature (apart from in special situations such as animal
navigation) biological magnetic ¯elds, very minute, unseen, relatively inaccessible
and \masked" by the earth's ¯eld (unlike neural \cables"), seem to have been
mainly disregarded as bye products of ionic chemical activity or are just its
servant as seen above in the case of applied transcranial magnetic ¯elds. This is
despite the work of Faraday and Maxwell which showed that varying currents or
¯elds of magnetism, each inducing the other, are inseparable. Is it not likely that
natural selection preceded man in full exploitation of the laws of mutual induction a
good while before MRI?
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THE TWO-BRAINS HYPOTHESIS 5
Magnetic ¯elds are not totally o®-stage. Synchronized ¯ring patterns in large
numbers of brain neurons, fed back to the neuron groups which are their source
(Smith, 2009). Adventurously and controversially, it was even suggested that oscil-
lations at certain frequencies in the ¯ring neurons perturb a global EM ¯eld external
to them, creating in it a pattern representing neuronal information fed back to the
neurons as consciousness (McFadden, 2013). This feedback is regarded as modifying
electric charges across neural membranes toward the probability that speci¯c neu-
rons will ¯re. Thus, the EM \pattern" is a fundamentally non-independent, loop
essentially dependent on neurons and membranes.
The two-brains hypothesis (TBH) however, recently postulated that the animal
\brain" evolved as two separate, fundamentally di®erent, interdependent organs,
complementary in the Bohr sense: one, electro-ionic, tangible, known and accessible,
the other, the electro-magnetic (EM) brain, intangible, di±cult to access, but a
relatively stable, structurally and functionally integrated 3D compendium of
Fig. 1. (Color online) A schematic expression of the TBH according to which an electro-ionic and an
EM brain interact together as functionally separate, and independent yet complementary organs,
thereby enhancing higher processes of recall, perception, thought, judgment and decision in a process
also engendering a uniquely individual consciousness.
Source: Goodman et al., 2014.
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6 G. GOODMAN ET AL.
variously induced magnetic ¯elds arising from and interacting closely with speci¯c
counterpart regions of the electro-ionic brain (Goodman et al., 2014). Natural se-
lection ensures a normally e±cient, anatomic and metabolic working relationship of
the two brains. The implications of the possible existence of these complementary
organs are wide.
6. The EM Brain
The electro-ionic brain is well-known; not so as the EM brain. One source of magnetic
induction in the brain, would be similar to that suggested recently as a magnetic ¯eld
induced, not by the electric ¯eld of a peripheral neuron but separately, by the myelin-
protein membrane of Schwann cells wrapping neurons (Goodman & Bercovich,
2013). However, brain axons are much shorter and a brain oligodendrocyte may wrap
a number of axons, partly re°ecting exceptional crowding in the brain. Signi¯cantly,
it is not clear that increased axonal signaling speed due to satellite-supported,
\jumping" of action potentials as in the periphery, is justi¯ed in the brain. Indeed, it
was reported recently that energy for myelin sheath production, maintenance and
operation in CNS white matter, costs more than the energy saved by \jumping" of
potential (Harris & Attwell, 2012). Though that cost may be justi¯ed by increased
signaling speed, it may also be warranted for inductive functions di®erent to any in
the periphery, and with origin not only in axons.
The proposed stable, integrated and fundamental 3D grid of EM brain ¯elds would
have evolved (in parallel with the electro-ionic brain), as a self-organized, EM small-
world network of the type modeled in 1998 as dynamic constructs, arti¯cial and
neural (in Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode) (Watts & Strogatz, 1998). Notably,
that model exhibited enhanced signal-propagation speed, computational power and
synchronizability. Thus, the EM brain structure evolved with time as an independent
integration of magnetic ¯elds arising from brain dendritic, axonal and oligodendro-
cyte structure and activity. The manner of the integral operation of the grid is
unknown, though dynamic continuity rather than neuronal \all-or-nothing" could be
expected and a mathematical basis will be elucidated.
Further knowledge will come with methodology and anatomical details di®erent to
that which over a century has described the much more accessible electro-ionic brain.
For example, the magnetic ¯elds of the neuronal dendrites massively present in the
brain were once thought to be inconsequentially minute. Recent model simulation
suggests otherwise. This was demonstrated as 3D magnetic ¯elds represented by
vortex-like clouds of vectors (see Fig. 2) corresponding to the simulated electrical
activity of the dendrites of a monkey brain pyramidal cell (Blagoev et al., 2007).
Remarkably too, the cerebral white matter now studied by di®usion MRI in
humans and four primate species, was shown to be not just a chaotic mass of brain
axons as usually thought. Rather, it is an orderly, dense, crisscrossing at 90 to each
other, of parallel layers of axons, set side by side with some intertwined (Wedeen Van
et al., 2012). In the deep white matter of the occipital lobe of the rhesus monkey, the
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THE TWO-BRAINS HYPOTHESIS 7
parallel grid structure was not limited to particular 2D surfaces but extended
throughout entire 3D volumes, no diagonal paths were observed and no brain
pathways were observed without sheet structure. The grid structure was found in all
orientations and anatomic curvatures, moreover coherency and continuity with the
three principal axes of development of the grid was maintained at all scales from
single small voxel to hemisphere: a telling ubiquity (Fig. 3).
It is proposed that at the points at which cerebral axons cross, electron vortices
may be engendered with spin direction and core polarity (Lloyd et al., 2012),
switchable by the very low levels of ¯eld and frequency changes that have been
Fig. 2. (Color online) Reconstructed pyramidal neuron from macaque monkey with the simulated
electrical activity and corresponding magnetic ¯eld at 30 ms after start of the simulation. The neuron is
viewed from a point in the þzdirection looking down on an xyplane. In our coordinate system, the
soma is at (0, 0, 0). Dimensions of the box that contains the neuron are 480 micron in xby 350 micron in
y, by 180 micron in z. The potential in the dendrites is color coded. The two axes are labeled in microns,
whereas the color scale represents millivolts (mV). The 3D magnetic ¯eld is represented by vortex-like
clouds of vectors whose colors represent direction and whose lengths represent relative magnitude.
Source: Blagoev et al., 2007.
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8 G. GOODMAN ET AL.
associated naturally with the nervous system, or by external application (Kammerer
et al., 2011). Appropriate to the CNS scale, the vortices involved in the latter work
(experimental and simulated) ranged from 10 to 300 nm. A brain 3D EM matrix of
such vortices may enable natural digital mechanisms analogous to magneto-elec-
tronic random access memories and processors. Evolution of such induction con-
comitant with that of the layered, wired architecture of the electro-ionic brain would
have increased brain exploitation and space use, without relative increase in gaseous
and thermal exchange. It is notable too, that the brain dendritic masses mentioned
above as having active magnetic ¯elds, were thought to be involved in data storage,
because of their sub-unitary nature (Blagoev et al., 2007). An induction-based pro-
cess may be more energy e±cient than membrane-based nervous activity and much
faster, a plus in evolution of the EM brain, perhaps related to development of long-
term memory. What is quite clear: such induction would require revision of data on
the energetics of brain white and gray matter (Harris & Attwell, 2012).
7. Recall and Action
Speed of access to memory storage must increase rapidly, as data quantity increases
in line with evolution of human intellectual capacity. Moreover, the accuracy of recall
is increasingly vital for performance and in preventing energy waste by mistakes. For
this and for structural stability, the EM brain may have an advantage over one
engaging genetic, molecular pathways. Though interacting with the latter, the EM
organ may also be less prone to attrition by random problems, than the labile,
chemical-based processes on which short-term memory may solely depend. However,
di®erences in function between the two brains, does not necessarily exclude overlap
or similar activity when advantageous. Generally, an EM brain may be more sensi-
tive to recall, analysis and formulation at the root of human consciousness and
creativity, the electro-ionic brain may be sensitive to the demands of the internal
environment and action.
Fig. 3. Continuous grid structure of rhesus frontal lobes. All cortico-cortical pathways show highly
curved elements in a continuous sheet of interwoven paths in two nearly perpendicular orientations
aligned with gyral topography in the arcuate sulcus and callosum, but oblique in central sulcus.
Source: Wedeen Van et al., 2012.
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THE TWO-BRAINS HYPOTHESIS 9
The speed adequate for human motor actions is less than in the processes from
which long-term memories, mentality and psyche emerge. It is suggested that in the
electro-ionic brain, even its rapid electric synapses through CNS gap junctions, or
tuned up speed as between neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite (Watts &
Strogatz, 1998), could not provide the transmission speeds required for EM brain
recall, abstraction and permutation. Nevertheless, in their complementarity, the two
brains may be an evolutionary peak involving a non-mystical human self-awareness
expressed by an intra-human subconscious \conversation" between the two organs.
However in humans alone, the conscious thought processes of individuals and com-
munication between them, involves complex language and symbolism. That evolu-
tion may have discouraged development of direct, though remote inter-personal
communication between humans through the agency of the EM brain, unlike in avian
(see Fig. 4) and some marine creatures in which brain to brain communication may
be possible, over great distances or during close assembly (Gauger et al., 2011). Thus,
mass avian assembly especially, may for example, now be directed by radio-masts.
Has mankind been deprived by language of all potential for remote inter human
contact via their EM brains? In search of consciousness, is it necessary to go beyond
physical theory? The answer to both questions is probably not.
8. Conclusion
Understanding of mind, consciousness, aging and pathologies is a major human
challenge. Research on this now progress side by side with that on brain-to-brain,
braincomputer and brainrobot engineering to which EEG and now increasingly,
Fig. 4. Birds swarm close to high voltage electric pylon.
Source: Neels Castillon.
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10 G. GOODMAN ET AL.
though problematically, TMS for example, are both contributing. However, inte-
grative mechanisms linking cognition and consciousness in the CNS remain undis-
covered. Both approaches, biological and engineering, involve problems unique
in their separate complexities but united in the human being as directed jointly
by the inseparable laws of induction of current and magnetism. The two funda-
mentally separate, but interdependent, complementary organs in the CNS em-
bodying the proposed GGB TBH (Goodman et al., 2014), have considerable
implications for that research and suggest a need for rethinking and research under a
novel light, on much of currently accepted concepts and data on some apparently
intractable problems. Fortunately, newer techniques for adequate study of biological
induction of magnetic as well as electrical ¯elds (Blagoev et al., 2007; Lloyd et al.,
2012; Kammerer et al., 2011; Frohlich & McCormick, 2010; Anastassiou et al., 2011;
Gross et al., 2013; Sudre et al., 2011; Ozen et al., 2010) are available. Indeed, Bohr
(1933) may not have worried in vain.
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THE TWO-BRAINS HYPOTHESIS 13
... Recently, based on the Faraday laws accounting for mutual induction of electric current and magnetism, the Two-Brains Hypothesis (TBH) has argued that in animals, including man, the CNS evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs [13][14][15]. One is electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other is electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access). ...
... In contrast, the evolution of TBH in the central nervous system has wide implications for many aspects of animal physiology. Thus, it has been considered for relevance to subjects as disparate as two-way induction between peripheral Schwann cells and and their axon hosts [18], life, if any, elsewhere in the universe [13], intra-and trans-cranial effects in bioengineering, such as in human robotics [14], avian directional behavior in migration, homing and navigation [19][20][21][22] and the nature of consciousness from a biophysical point of view [15]. 1. ...
... TBH may provide a non-philosophical approach to what, for the human, Chalmers called the 'hard problem': why and how widely distributed detectors in the awake brain constantly sense different features It was suggested that interaction between the relatively slow sensory system responded to by the electro-ionic brain and the incomparable speed of the EM brain in recall, abstraction, permutation and judgment is analogous to human conversational intimacy between two individuals, each perceiving the other's subjective outlook, allowing the emergence of a synthesis objective to both [14,15]. Would this also apply to the bird and its psyche? ...
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The relevance of the Two-Brains Hypothesis for induction between peripheral Schwann cells and their axon hosts and for intra-and trans-cranial bioengineering at the human-robotics interface is accompanied by particular attention to its significance for a biological wonder: the involvement of geomagnetism in avian directional behavior in migration, homing and navigation. Two sources of magnetism are considered here. The simpler is the polar (compass) direction, long reported as resulting in some birds in a manner unknown from the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) in the avian ethmoid region. The second is certain chemical reactions that respond to applied magnetic fields. These usually involve radicals, molecules with unpaired electrons that spin in one of two possible states. A radical-pair mechanism, a light-dependent, chemical initiation of magnetic orientation, has been considered responsive to the axial inclination of the field in relation to Earth's field, but not to its polarity. The initiation is by optic but non-visually responsive cellular absorption of a photon of a specific wavelength. Radical pairs are short-lived and must be correctly aligned in the host receptors for directional sensitivity. The firmest evidence for the radical-pair theory of magneto-reception in birds remains the cryptochromes, the blue-light absorbing flavoproteins, but the receptor molecule has not been identified yet. Subjective thought and consciousness are also unexplained in birds, as in humans and animals. However, the novel, structured dichotomy of the Two-Brains Hypothesis may provide a fresh, biophysical approach to the connection between geomagnetism, life and the evolution of vertebrate translocation without recourse to philosophy or a universe expanding beyond imagination.
... Recently, based on the Faraday laws accounting for mutual induction of electric current and magnetism, the Two-Brains Hypothesis (TBH) has argued that in animals, including man, the CNS evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs [13,14,15]. One is electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other is electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access). ...
... In contrast, the evolution of TBH in the central nervous system has wide implications for many aspects of animal physiology. Thus, it has been considered for relevance to subjects as disparate as two-way induction between peripheral Schwann cells and and their axon hosts [18], life, if any, elsewhere in the universe [13], intra-and trans-cranial effects in bioengineering, such as in human robotics [14], avian directional behavior in migration, homing and navigation [19][20][21][22] and the nature of consciousness from a biophysical point of view [15]. Fig. 1. ...
... It was suggested that interaction between the relatively slow sensory system responded to by the electro-ionic brain and the incomparable speed of the EM brain in recall, abstraction, permutation and judgment is analogous to human conversational intimacy between two individuals, each perceiving the other's subjective outlook, allowing the emergence of a synthesis objective to both [14,15]. Would this also apply to the bird and its psyche? ...
Article
The relevance of the Two-Brains Hypothesis for induction between peripheral Schwann cells and their axon hosts and for intra- and trans-cranial bioengineering at the human-robotics interface is accompanied by particular attention to its significance for a biological wonder: the involvement of geomagnetism in avian directional behavior in migration, homing and navigation. Two sources of magnetism are considered here. The simpler is the polar (compass) direction, long reported as resulting in some birds in a manner unknown from the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) in the avian ethmoid region. The second is certain chemical reactions that respond to applied magnetic fields. These usually involve radicals, molecules with unpaired electrons that spin in one of two possible states. A radical-pair mechanism, a light-dependent, chemical initiation of magnetic orientation, has been considered responsive to the axial inclination of the field in relation to Earth's field, but not to its polarity. The initiation is by optic but non-visually responsive cellular absorption of a photon of a specific wavelength. Radical pairs are short-lived and must be correctly aligned in the host receptors for directional sensitivity. The firmest evidence for the radical-pair theory of magneto-reception in birds remains the cryptochromes, the blue-light absorbing flavoproteins, but the receptor molecule has not been identified yet. Subjective thought and consciousness are also unexplained in birds, as in humans and animals. However, the novel, structured dichotomy of the Two-Brains Hypothesis may provide a fresh, biophysical approach to the connection between geomagnetism, life and the evolution of vertebrate translocation without recourse to philosophy or a universe expanding beyond imagination.
... We hold that biological evolution may have selected all available biophysical processes for intra-and inter-cellular communication. In this respect, a "Two-Brain hypothesis" was postulated earlier by Goodman et al (2015): postulating an electro-ionic modality, related to the well-known neuro-humoral transmission, and another that may be rather electromagnetic field-based. The latter could be related to (bio)photon transmission that is extrinsic to classic neuronal brain circuitry. ...
... Poznanski et al. (2018Poznanski et al. ( , 2019 presented a related theory in which brain consciousness is guided by hidden dynamics of dipole associated electrons, modeled by ZPE field/de Broglie/Bohm-type of active information of oscillating waves, as also touched upon in our studies. The same group emphasized the importance of biophotonic and electromagnetic information transfer (Cacha et al, 2014(Cacha et al, , 2017 and in relation to this suggested the concept of a "Two-brain hypothesis": one brain with an electro-ionic character and a simultaneously acting electromagnetic brain (see also Goodman et al, 2015). (B) Elementary harmonic brain modes defined as fully synchronous patterns of neural activity are estimated as the harmonic modes of structural connectivity; i.e. connectome harmonics (Atasoy et al, 2018). ...
... We hold that these are crucial in the function of our entire organism, with special reference to our brain (Meijer and Geesink, 2016, 2019b. The necessity to involve such a special mechanism has various backgrounds: a) to be able to deal with the ultra-rapid brain responses that are not compatible with the relatively slow synaptic process of neurotransmission (Cacha and Poznanski, 2015), b) in order to explain the abovementioned binding and synchronicity phenomena in brain function c) to understand the unexpected cognition capabilities of patients with severe brain damage (see section 5.8) and d) to address the presently unexplained subjective experiences in the category of Psi phenomena. All of these phenomena point to some kind of ultra-rapid communication at a distance in brain tissue and/or between different individuals. ...
... Poznanski et al., (2018, 2019) present a related theory in which brain consciousness is guided by hidden dynamics of dipole associated electrons, modeled by ZPE field/de Broglie/Bohm type of active information of oscillating waves as touched upon in our studies. The same group emphasized the importance of biophotonic/electromagnetic information transfer (Cacha et al, 2014(Cacha et al, , 2017 and in relation to this suggested the concept of a "Two-brain hypothesis": one brain with an electro-ionic character and a simultaneously acting electromagnetic brain (Goodman et al, 2015). These aspects of the theory are in striking agreement with the present model. ...
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This review article submits an integral concept of information processing in the universe on the basis of a generalized musical (GM)-scale of discrete EMF frequencies. Meta-analyses of current biophyisical literature revealed the effects of similar EMF frequency patterns in a wide range of animate and non-animate systems. This provided a novel conceptual bridge between living and non-living systems, being of relevance for the areas of biophysics, brain research, as well as for mechanisms of biological evolution. As to the latter aspect, the potential role of phyllosilicates (clay materials) in the generation of a primordial biofield is treated and seen as instrumental in a partially guided creation of first life. We hold, in general, that nature is guided by a discrete pattern of harmonic solitonic waves, likely originating from quantum vacuum fluctuations derived from an immanent zero-point energy (ZPE)/superfluid quantum space. Since the whole human organism, including brain is embedded in this dynamic energy field, a comprehensive model for human (self)-consciousness could be conceived. Evidence is presented for a pilot wave guided supervenience of brain function that may arise from a holofractal memory workspace, associated with, but not reducible to the brain, that operates as a scale-invariant mental attribute of reality. This, field-receptive, workspace integrates past and (anticipated) future events and may explain overall ultra-rapid brain responses as well as the origin of qualia. Information processing in the brain is shown to be largely facilitated by propagation of hydronium (proton/water) ions in aqueous compartments. The hydronium ions move freely within a hexagonally organized H2O lattice, providing a superconductive integral brain antenna for receiving solitonic wave information. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation describes the quantum aspects of the transfer of wave information mediated by H+ and Ca2+ ion flux over long distances at cerebrospinal, inter-neuronal and gap junction spaces. The latter processes enable ultra-rapid soliton/biophoton fluxes that may orchestrate overall brain binding and the creation of coherent conscious states. In a cosmological context, we envision a scale invariant information processing, operating through a toroidal/wormhole mediated information flux. Our concept touches upon the earlier postulated hard problem in consciousness studies. This implies an intrinsic cosmic connectivity that is mirrored in the human brain. The assumed hydrodynamic superfluid background field is proposed to guide the ongoing fabric of reality through a quantum metalanguage that is instrumental in the manifestation of universal consciousness of which human consciousness is an integral part. 2
... Two-brains hypothesis [6,10,11] is one way of resolving how energy can transfer from quantum-to-quantum analog states. It claims that: (1) the electro-ionic brain is the domain of cognition, i.e., the ability to process information in terms of neural activity associated with cognitive neuro-computation. ...
Article
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We define quantum analogs as vibrational excitations of quasi-particles coupled to electromagnetically-mediated resonance energy transfer in water (a crystal lattice). This paper addresses how neural magnetic resonance spectra of the brain's magnetic field influence dipolar oscillation waves in crystal lattices of interfacial water molecules to produce correlates of phenomenal consciousness. We explore dipolar oscillation waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids as a conduit for coherent propagation of vibrational excitation and hydrogen bond distortion associated with phase coherence present in the magnetic field intensity oscillations at a frequency at which the energy switches from its trapped form as excited phonon states to free, cavity-mode magnetic field energy states. A quasi-polaritons that reflect "hydro-ionic waves" is a macroscopic quantum effect of crystal lattice vibrations, consisting of vibron polaritons coupled to ions across the neocortex, except the cerebellum, due to the absence of protein-protein interactions. They are quantum-like at the core and hence can exhibit quantum-like signaling properties when resonant energy is transferred as dipolar waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids. This is due to aromatic residue flexibility in molecular electromagnetic resonances. Finally, the archetypal molecular patterning of conscious experiences, which carries an inherent ambiguity necessary for non-contextually applying 'meaning' that encompasses cognitive signatures of conscious experience, satisfies the nature of quantum analogs and their transmutative properties.
... Neuroscience over the last century has mainly been concerned with electrostatic fields in neurons and ignoring intrinsic magnetism. This flaw in thinking was changed by the two-brains hypothesis [111]. Here there are two inseparable functional domains: the EM brain and the Electro-ionic brain. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes biophysical principles for why geometric holonomic effects through the geometric vector potential are sentient when harmonized by quantized magnetic vector potential in phase-space. These biophysical principles are based on molecular level electromagnetic resonances in partially holistic molecules where nonintegrated information acts as the consciousness process's conduit-using the informational structure of physical feelings as a transition into subjectivity. The transformation of internal energies from potential to kinetic as 'concealed' motion may measure the causal capacity required to bridge causality for conscious experience. Conformational transitions produce bond-breaking, resulting in boundary conditions and limiting the molecular wavefunction to a partially holistic molecular environment with molecular holonomic effects. The van der Waals energy increases protein conformational activity (re-arrangement of bonds), causing energy transfer and information in protein-protein interactions across the cerebral cortex through the energy transduction process. Energy transitions predetermine molecular level electromagnetic resonances in aromatic residues of amino acids. The energy sharing between various nested molecular level electromagnetic resonances interacting with the intermolecular adhesion of London forces at the nexus between phospholipids and the lipophilic proteins has a key role in constraining the release of energy resulting in a vast array of information-based action through negentropic entanglement. Such information structure, passing from the objectivity of holonomic effects stemming from molecular level electromagnetic resonances, has an inherent ambiguity since meaning cannot be related to context, which constitutes preconscious experienceability. The transition from potentiality to actuality where Coulombic force is expressed as a smear of possible experiences where carriers of evanescent meanings instantly actualize through intermittent dispersion interactions as conscious experiences and return to potentiality in preconscious experienceabilities.
... Two-brains hypothesis [6,10,11] is one way of resolving how energy can transfer from quantum-to-quantum analog states. It claims that: (1) the electro-ionic brain is the domain of cognition, i.e., the ability to process information in terms of neural activity associated with cognitive neuro-computation. ...
Article
We define quantum analogs as vibrational excitations of quasi-particles coupled to electromagnetically-mediated resonance energy transfer in water (a crystal lattice). This paper addresses how neural magnetic resonance spectra of the brain’s magnetic field influence dipolar oscillation waves in crystal lattices of interfacial water molecules to produce correlates of phenomenal consciousness. We explore dipolar oscillation waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids as a conduit for coherent propagation of vibrational excitation and hydrogen bond distortion associated with phase coherence present in the magnetic field intensity oscillations at a frequency at which the energy switches from its trapped form as excited phonon states to free, cavity-mode magnetic field energy states. A quasi-polaritons that reflect “hydro-ionic waves” is a macroscopic quantum effect of crystal lattice vibrations, consisting of vibron polaritons coupled to ions across the neocortex, except the cerebellum, due to the absence of protein-protein interactions. They are quantum-like at the core and hence can exhibit quantum-like signaling properties when resonant energy is transferred as dipolar waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids. This is due to aromatic residue flexibility in molecular electromagnetic resonances. Finally, the archetypal molecular patterning of conscious experiences, which carries an inherent ambiguity necessary for non-contextually applying ‘meaning’ that encompasses cognitive signatures of conscious experience, satisfies the nature of quantum analogs and their transmutative properties.
... The two-brains hypothesis (Goodman et al., , 2015Bercovich et al., 2017) claims that the electro-ionic (EI) brain is the domain of cognition, i.e., the ability to process information at the macro-level activity associated with cognitive neuro-computation. It is tangible, accessible, and recognizable through the third-person perspective and referred to as the 'electro-ionic brain'. ...
Article
We have further developed the two-brains hypothesis as a form of complementarity (or complementary relationship) of endogenously induced weak magnetic fields in the electromagnetic brain. The locally induced magnetic field between electron magnetic dipole moments of delocalized electron clouds in neuronal domains is complementary to the exogenous electromagnetic waves created by the oscillating molecular dipoles in the electro-ionic brain. In this paper, we mathematically model the operation of the electromagnetic grid, especially in regard to the functional role of atomic orbitals of dipole-bound delocalized electrons. A quantum molecular dynamic approach under quantum equilibrium conditions is taken to illustrate phase differences between quasi-free electrons tethered to an oscillating molecular core. We use a simplified version of the many-body problem to analytically solve the macro-quantum wave equation (equivalent to the Kohn-Sham equation). The resultant solution for the mechanical angular momentum can be used to approximate the molecular orbital of the dipole-bound delocalized electrons. In addition to non-adiabatic motion of the molecular core, guidance waves may contribute to the delocalized macro-quantum wave functions in generating nonlocal phase correlations. The intrinsic magnetic properties of the origins of the endogenous electromagnetic field are considered to be a nested hierarchy of electromagnetic fields that may also include electromagnetic patterns in three-dimensional space. The coupling between the two-brains may involve an ‘anticipatory affect’ based on the conceptualization of anticipation as potentiality, arising either from the macro-quantum potential energy or from the electrostatic effects of residual charges in the quantum and classical subsystems of the two-brains that occurs through partitioning of the potential energy of the combined quantum molecular dynamic system.
... The two-brains hypothesis (Goodman et al., , 2015Bercovich et al., 2017) claims that the electro-ionic (EI) brain is the domain of cognition, i.e., the ability to process information at the macro-level activity associated with cognitive neuro-computation. It is tangible, accessible, and recognizable through the third-person perspective and referred to as the 'electro-ionic brain'. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we postulate an integral concept of information processing in the universe, on the basis of a new biophysical principle, coined the generalized music (GM)-scale of EMF frequencies. Meta-analyses of current biomedical literature revealed the presence of a distinct pattern of discrete EMF frequency bands in a wide range of animate and non-animate systems. The underlying algorithm of harmonic solitonic waves provided a novel conceptual interface between living and non-living systems being of relevance for the areas of brain research as well as biological evolution. We hold that nature is guided by resonating quantum entities related to quantum vacuum fluctuations of an imminent zero-point energy (ZPE) field, also regarded as a superfluid quantum space (SQS). Since the whole human organism, including the brain is embedded in this dynamic energy field, a pilot wave guided supervenience of brain function is conceived. Conversely, the brain may write discrete informational states into the ZPE- field as individual memory traces. Both information fluxes may be related to a holofractal memory workspace, associated with, but not reducible to the brain, that operates as a scale-invariant mental attribute of reality. Our concept, therefore, addresses the earlier postulated “hard problem” in consciousness studies. The proposed field-receptive workspace, integrates past and (anticipated) future events and may explain overall ultra-rapid brain responses as well as the origin of qualia. Information processing in the brain is shown to be largely facilitated by propagation of hydronium (proton/water) ions in aqueous compartments. The hydronium ions move freely within a hexagonally organized H2O lattice, providing a superconductive integral brain antenna for receiving solitonic wave information, according to the Schrödinger wave equation. The latter quantum process enables an ultra-rapid soliton/biophoton flux that may orchestrate overall brain binding and the creation of coherent conscious states. In a cosmological context, we envision a scale-invariant information processing, operating through a toroidal/wormhole operator at the interface of our 3D world and a 4D acoustic phase space. We submit that the resulting meta-language is instrumental in a partially guided evolution and the creation of first life. This implies that sentience exists on infinite scales, on the basis of an electromagnetic signature of the universe providing an intrinsic cosmic connectivity that is mirrored in the human brain and that we may experience as a vivid dream of a concealed reality. Humans, in this respect, are not only observers but also active participants in this cosmic endeavor: the evolution of conscious entities has been woven into the cosmic mastercode from the beginning. The main thesis of this chapter is that in science and philosophy the dominant paradigm of materialism should be considered as incomplete for explaining the whole of reality.
Article
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744 IMAJ • VOL 16 • DeceMber 2014 medicine), and promised eventual excess of carbon dioxide, rising temperatures, melting ice, flooded land and water wars. The most serious problem, however, is human aggression. Clinicians struggling with a premature newborn, a mangled victim of drunk-driving or irreversible vegetative states perhaps subconsciously wonder whether time, energy and money could be better spent. We submit: if civilization is to survive, preference in allocation of finance and human resources must be directed to better exploitation of the nature, workings and potential of the 'brain' by which Homo sapiens rose and may yet fall. liFe out there: ProBlematic and unPredictaBle Thousands of planets have been found. Does extraterritorial life exist, less or more like ours? Do spatial conditions that suit humans exist? Evidence suggests that life came from space (Panspermia). Did extraterrestrial, natural selection of a nucleotide-based reproductive process start in space, based perhaps on fullerene, a hollow aromatic molecule of 60 Carbon atoms? [1]. Decades of costly search by the SETI Institute have not found intelligent life, whether in civilizations like ours, or with eyes less kind than E.T's. Theories on the Universe abound: one or many, copies of 'me' or 'us' in each; perhaps an arrow of time opposite to ours. Is there Nothing; is it all in our minds? Critically, spatial expansion is so fast we cannot know the 'beyond': 'looped' , 'stringed' , many dimensioned, an infinitely studied ad infinitum? Hamlet pondered suicide, to "shuffle off our mortal coil. " Not knowing what was beyond, undecided he perished anyway [2]. Man must choose in time if civilization is not to perish. The choice sits on our shoulders. the human universe
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We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the "sender") and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the "receiver"). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender's signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.
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Two concepts have long dominated vertebrate nerve electrophysiology: (a) Schwann cell-formed myelin sheaths separated by minute non-myelinated nodal gaps and spiraling around axons of peripheral motor nerves reduce current leakage during propagation of trains of axon action potentials; (b) "jumping" by action potentials between successive nodes greatly increases signal conduction velocity. Long-held and more recent assumptions and issues underlying those concepts have been obscured by research emphasis on axon-sheath biochemical symbiosis and nerve regeneration. We hypothesize: mutual electromagnetic induction in the axon-glial sheath association, is fundamental in signal conduction in peripheral and central myelinated axons, explains the g-ratio and is relevant to animal navigation.
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To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that these methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the door to further progress is opened. In the second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. I put forward my own candidate for such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of information.
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Motor skills, once learned, are often retained over a long period of time. However, such learning first undergoes a period of consolidation after practice. During this time, the motor memory is susceptible to being disrupted by the performance of another motor-learning task 1. and 2.. Recently, it was shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex could disrupt the retention of a newly learned ballistic task in which subjects had to oppose their index finger and thumb as rapidly as possible [3]. Here we investigate whether the motor cortex is similarly involved during the consolidation that follows learning novel dynamics. We applied rTMS to primary motor cortex shortly after subjects had either learned to compensate for a dynamic force field applied to their index finger or learned a ballistic finger abduction task. rTMS severely degraded the retention of the learning for the ballistic task but had no effect on retention of the dynamic force-field learning. This suggests that, unlike learning of simple ballistic skills, learning of dynamics may be stored in a more distributed manner, possibly outside the primary motor cortex.
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A theoretical framework is developed based on the premise that brains evolved into sufficiently complex adaptive systems capable of instantiating genomic consciousness through self-awareness and complex interactions that recognize qualitatively the controlling factors of biological processes. Furthermore, our hypothesis assumes that the collective interactions in neurons yield macroergic effects, which can produce sufficiently strong electric energy fields for electronic excitations to take place on the surface of endogenous structures via alpha-helical integral proteins as electro-solitons. Specifically the process of radiative relaxation of the electro-solitons allows for the transfer of energy via interactions with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules to induce conformational changes in DNA molecules producing an ultra weak non-thermal spontaneous emission of coherent biophotons through a quantum effect. The instantiation of coherent biophotons confined in spaces of DNA molecules guides the biophoton field to be instantaneously conducted along the axonal and neuronal arbors and in-between neurons and throughout the cerebral cortex (cortico-thalamic system) and subcortical areas (e.g., midbrain and hindbrain). Thus providing an informational character of the electric coherence of the brain - referred to as quantum coherence. The biophoton field is realized as a conscious field upon the re-absorption of biophotons by exciplex states of DNA molecules. Such quantum phenomenon brings about self-awareness and enables objectivity to have access to subjectivity in the unconscious. As such, subjective experiences can be recalled to consciousness as subjective conscious experiences or qualia through co-operative interactions between exciplex states of DNA molecules and biophotons leading to metabolic activity and energy transfer across proteins as a result of protein-ligand binding during protein-protein communication. The biophoton field as a conscious field is attributable to the resultant effect of specifying qualia from the metabolic energy field that is transported in macromolecular proteins throughout specific networks of neurons that are constantly transforming into more stable associable representations as molecular solitons. The metastability of subjective experiences based on resonant dynamics occurs when bottom-up patterns of neocortical excitatory activity are matched with top-down expectations as adaptive dynamic pressures. These dynamics of on-going activity patterns influenced by the environment and selected as the preferred subjective experience in terms of a functional field through functional interactions and biological laws are realized as subjectivity and actualized through functional integration as qualia. It is concluded that interactionism and not information processing is the key in understanding how consciousness bridges the explanatory gap between subjective experiences and their neural correlates in the transcendental brain.
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Several theories of consciousness first described about a decade ago, including the conscious electromagnetic information (CEMI) field theory, claimed that the substrate of consciousness is the brain's electromagnetic (EM) field. These theories were prompted by the observation, in many diverse systems, that synchronous neuronal firing, which generates coherent EM fields, was a strong correlate of attention, awareness, and consciousness. However, when these theories were first described there was no direct evidence that synchronous firing was actually functional, rather than an epiphenomenon of brain function. Additionally, any EM field-based consciousness would be a 'ghost in the machine' unless the brain's endogenous EM field is also able to influence neuron firing. Once again, when these theories were first described, there was only indirect evidence that the brain's EM field influenced neuron firing patterns in the brain. In this paper I describe recent experimental evidence which demonstrate that synchronous neuronal firing does indeed have a functional role in the brain; and also that the brain's endogenous EM field is involved in recruiting neurons to synchronously firing networks. The new data point to a new and unappreciated form of neural communication in the brain that is likely to have significance for all theories of consciousness. I describe an extension of the CEMI field theory that incorporates these recent experimental findings and integrates the theory with the 'communication through coherence' hypothesis.
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Electron vortices are shown to possess electric and magnetic fields by virtue of their quantized orbital angular momentum and their charge and current density sources. The spatial distributions of these fields are determined for a Bessel electron vortex. It is shown how these fields lead naturally to interactions involving coupling to the spin magnetic moment and spin-orbit interactions which are absent for ordinary electron beams. The orders of magnitude of the effects are estimated here for ȧngström scale electron vortices generated within a typical electron microscope.