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Generalizing Screen Inferiority - Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?


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Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper. Learning tasks involving a heavy reading burden confound technological and physiological media differences with potential media effects on recruitment of mental effort. The present study focused on media effects on effort recruitment. We examined whether screen inferiority remains even with a brief task that nevertheless requires effort recruitment. In two experiments, participants faced three short math problems that require systematic processing to solve correctly. We examined media effect on solving these problems, and the potential of disturbed perceptual fluency (i.e., disfluent versus fluent fonts) to induce effort investment. Overall, there were no performance differences between the media. However, when collecting confidence ratings, disfluency improved performance on screen and hindered it on paper. Only on paper confidence ratings were sensitive to performance differences associated with fluency, and resolution was better with the disfluent font than with the fluent font. Correspondingly, another sample reported on their preference of media for solving the problems. They expressed a clear reluctance to working on screen despite the task being brief. This preference is suggestive of reliable meta-metacognitive judgments reflecting the general lower quality of metacognitive processes on screen. The findings call for considering medium and presentation format effects on metacognitive processing when designing computerized environments, even for brief tasks.
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November, 2015
Sidi, Y, Ophir, Y, & Ackerman, R. (in press). Generalizing Screen Inferiority - Does the Medium,
Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks? Metacognition and Learning.
This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the journal.
It is not the copy of record.
Generalizing Screen Inferiority - Does the Medium,
Screen versus Paper,
Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?
Yael Sidi, Yael Ophir, and Rakefet Ackerman
Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management,
TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Corresponding Author - E-mail:
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Author note
The study was supported by grants from the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No.
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Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found
with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and
physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent
studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper. Learning tasks
involving a heavy reading burden confound technological and physiological media
differences with potential media effects on recruitment of mental effort. The present study
focused on media effects on effort recruitment. We examined whether screen inferiority
remains even with a brief task that nevertheless requires effort recruitment. In two
experiments, participants faced three short math problems that require systematic
processing to solve correctly. We examined media effect on solving these problems, and
the potential of disturbed perceptual fluency (i.e., disfluent versus fluent fonts) to induce
effort investment. Overall, there were no performance differences between the media.
However, when collecting confidence ratings, disfluency improved performance on screen
and hindered it on paper. Only on paper confidence ratings were sensitive to performance
differences associated with fluency, and resolution was better with the disfluent font than
with the fluent font. Correspondingly, another sample reported on their preference of
media for solving the problems. They expressed a clear reluctance to working on screen
despite the task being brief. This preference is suggestive of reliable meta-metacognitive
judgments reflecting the general lower quality of metacognitive processes on screen. The
findings call for considering medium and presentation format effects on metacognitive
processing when designing computerized environments, even for brief tasks.
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Computerized environments are often used in place of paper-based environments for
training, learning, and assessment. However, this development has raised concerns about
the potential effects of screen-based environments on learning and other cognitive tasks.
Studies examining users’ attitudes generally find a preference to work on paper, indicating
a subjective difference between the media (e.g., Annand, 2008; Mizrachi, 2015; Woody,
Daniel, & Baker, 2010). With respect to the actual performance of cognitive tasks, the
evidence, though mixed, points toward screen inferiority. While some studies have found
equivalence between the media (e.g., Ball & Hourcade, 2011; Margolin, Driscoll, Toland,
& Kegler, 2013; Murray & Pérez, 2011; Salmerón & García, 2012), many others report
inferior results on screen. Consistently, studies involving learning from continuous texts, a
task that can be performed the same way in both media, have found screen inferiority in
performance (e.g., Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Ben-Yehudah & Eshet-Alkalai, 2014;
Daniel & Woody, 2013; Mangen, Walgermo, & Brønick, 2013). Moreover, screen
inferiority has been found even in tasks involving capabilities unique to computerized
environments and considered as advantageous for this environment, like hypertext (see
DeStefano & LeFevre, 2007, for a review), sound, animation, and interactive reading (e.g.,
Chiong, Ree, Takeuchi, & Erickson, 2012; Mayer, Heiser, & Lonn, 2001). Notably, the
majority of studies that found screen inferiority have used reading comprehension tasks
involving a substantial reading burden. The present study extends this investigation by
employing a brief problem solving task, to examine whether screen inferiority remains
even when the reading burden is minimized.
Many studies have attributed screen inferiority in text learning to technological
disadvantages (e.g., less-convenient browsing and navigation) or to physical discomfort
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(e.g., eye strain) (e.g., Benedetto, Drai-Zerbib, Pedrotti, Tissier, & Baccino, 2013; Li,
Chen, & Yang, 2013; see Leeson, 2006, for a review). However, screen inferiority persists
even with modern e-books, which are presumed to overcome these disadvantages (e.g.,
Antón, Camarero, & Rodríguez, 2013; Daniel & Woody, 2013; see Gu, Wu, & Su, 2015,
for a review).
Another possible explanation for screen inferiority, and one which has been
gaining support in recent years, is the effect of the medium on depth of processing. In
other words, this explanation offers that working in computerized environments is
associated with shallower cognitive processing, leading to inferior cognitive
performance. Indeed, people often report on engaging in sustained reading on paper,
while on screen they engage more in multi-tasking and discontinuous reading (Daniel &
Woody, 2013; Hillesund, 2010; Liu, 2005). Moreover, the mere presence of an e-book
nearby the learners has been found to hinder recall of studied information (Morineau,
Blanche, Tobin, & Guéguen, 2005). The researchers suggested that electronic devices
provide a contextual cue that leads people to shallower processing, resulting in inferior
cognitive performance.
The link between depth of processing and inferior learning on screen has also been
discussed in analyses inspired by the metacognitive approach. These studies provide
growing evidence which associates screen-related contextual cues with inferior
metacognitive processes, namely, less reliable judgments of the expected chance for
success and less effective regulation of effort (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Ackerman &
Lauterman, 2012; Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014). For instance, Ackerman and Goldsmith
(2011) addressed medium influences on meta-comprehension processes and found more
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pronounced overconfidence among screen learners compared to paper learners. Similarly,
Ackerman and Lauterman (2012) found consistent overconfidence for screen learners
under time pressure, while paper learners showed better calibration (but also see Norman
& Furnes, 2016, where no consistent media effects on metacognitive measures were found,
possibly accounted for by several important methodological differences between the
studies). As subjective confidence directs study regulation and decisions (e.g. effort
investment and stopping rules), overconfidence is undesirable (Dunlosky & Thiede, 1998;
Greene & Azevedo, 2007; Winne, 2004).
Further support for depth of processing as a contributing factor to screen inferiority
can be derived from studies that attempted to reduce and even eliminate it, by guiding
participants to recruit more intensive mental effort to the task than they would engage
spontaneously. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated elimination of screen
inferiority by activities that encourage in-depth processing. For example, asking
participants to identify errors, to improve the quality of a text, or to write keywords that
summarize the text’s contents, or letting participants gain experience with the test demands
(Eden & Eshet-Alkalai, 2013; Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014). These studies suggest that
while on paper in-depth text processing is the default, on screen an external trigger is
The aforementioned studies which found screen inferiority in cognitive and
metacognitive processes involved reading texts with approximately 600-1200 words.
Notably, some tasks preformed on screen indeed involve reading lengthy texts, such as
reading from an e-book or an online version of an article. However, other typical daily
computerized interactions with e-mails, forums, and social networks tend to involve much
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briefer reading. In the present study, we suggest that using lengthy texts for studying
cognitive performance in computerized environments confounds the reading processes
with other involved cognitive and metacognitive processes. Specifically, reading per se
might be more susceptible to the technological disadvantages and physical discomforts
associated with working on screen (see examples above) than memory, inference,
monitoring, and effort regulation. In order to disentangle this confound, we examined
whether challenging tasks that require recruitment of mental effort, yet involve a minimal
reading burden, also show screen inferiority in performance and/or metacognitive
processes. Based on the studies which pointed to shallower processing on screen, the
hypothesis that guided the present study was that the minimal reading burden does not
eliminate screen inferiority.
Following the methods mentioned above, which allowed overcoming screen
inferiority with text learning (Eden & Eshet-Alkalai, 2013; Lauterman & Ackerman,
2014), we aimed to increase recruitment of mental effort in a brief task as well. Time
pressure was found with the same population to be effective in this respect with text
learning (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012). However, this method was effective on paper
but not on screen, while our goal was to increase effort on screen, where, as described
above, the default mode of processing is shallower than on paper. Another potential
method which is known to be effective in learning tasks is introducing ‘desirable
difficulties’. For example, Sungkhasettee, Friedman, and Castel (2011) presented words for
memorization either upside down or straight. Recall was better in the more challenging
upside down condition. Such manipulations have been suggested to improve learning by
triggering deeper processing of the learning contents (Bjork, 1994, 1999; see Kühl & Eitel,
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this issue, for a review of the disfluency theory). In the context of problem solving as well,
several studies have found that people engage more in the task when perceptual fluency,
manipulated by font readability, is disturbed (e.g., fonts vs. font; Thompson et al., 2013).
In one such study performed on paper (Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, & Eyre, 2007)
improved performance with disturbed fluency was found. Although other studies did not
find such performance advantage either on screen or on paper (Meyer et al., 2015;
Thompson et al., 2013), in text learning, in-depth processing was associated with improved
test scores and improved reliability of metacognitive monitoring (Lauterman & Ackerman,
2014; Thiede, Anderson, & Therriault, 2003). It is possible then, that even if the disfluent
font does not improve performance on screen, monitoring improvement would be found
nevertheless. Thus, the present study examined disfluency as a metacognitive cue for
recruitment of mental effort, expecting more improvement on screen than on paper.
The present study
To examine our hypotheses, we studied the effects of the medium, screen versus paper, and
perceptual fluency on performing a brief problem-solving task, the Cognitive Reflection
Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005), which introduces cognitive and metacognitive challenges,
but involves a minimal reading burden. The CRT consists of three misleading math
problems (bat & ball, widgets, lily pads; up to 45 words in each). These problems are
designed so that the first solution that commonly comes to mind is a wrong but predictable
one. For example, the first question is: "A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs
$1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost? _____ cents". The intuitive
answer, "10 cents", is wrong. Deeper processing is required to recognize this error and
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come up with the correct answer ("5 cents") (see Frederick, 2005, for the complete
question set). These problems are widely used in studies related to dual-process theory
(e.g., Alter et al., 2007; Cokely & Kelley, 2009; Thompson et al., 2013). Within this
theory, the misleading power of these problems is explained by the dominance of Type 1
processes, which are mostly automatic (see Evans & Stanovich, 2013, for a review). Most
people can overcome this misleading intuition by recruiting the more effortful and analytic
Type 2 processing (Frederick, 2005). The activation of Type 2 processes depends on the
reliability of the Feeling of Rightness (FOR). FOR is a metacognitive judgment which
refers to the assessed chance that the initial solution that comes to mind is correct
(Thompson, 2009). When FOR is high, people tend to provide their first solution. When it
is lower, they tend to reconsider their initial solution candidate and change it (Thompson et
al., 2013). Thus, activation of Type 2 processes when needed is a metacognitive regulatory
process which accompanies the cognitive process of solving the problem per se.
The features of the CRT make it suitable for the present study as it can be
performed in much the same way on screen and on paper, and it requires recruitment of
mental effort while involving only brief reading. In addition, the task itself is also brief
when compared to commonly studied problem solving tasks. For instance, Ackerman
(2014) used a problem-solving task which takes about half an hour. Other problem solving
procedures may take even 45 minutes (e.g., King, 1991). The CRT, in contrast, involves
only three problems that take just a couple of minutes to solve. Thus, the task is brief both
in the number of problems and in its reading burden.
We started our study by examining media preference regarding solving the CRT by
a survey. This allowed us to examine the correspondence of perceived differences to actual
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differences between the media in performance and the quality of metacognitive processes.
Previous research indicated a relatively weak association. For example, Holzinger et al.
(2011) found that in a sample of medical professionals, 90% preferred reading medical
reports on paper rather than on screen, even though reading comprehension tests showed
no differences in performance. Ackerman and Lauterman (2012) found attenuated paper
preference (62%) among engineering undergraduates, while the rest of the sample expected
no performance difference between the media. The test outcomes were equivalent for both
media when free learning time was allowed, yet inferior on screen when limiting the
learning time. On the other hand, at the same study, examining the data in division by
participants' preference showed some validity in it: Those who studied from their preferred
medium outperformed those who studied from their less preferred medium. The population
in the present study consisted of engineering students as well, and the task’s focus was on
reasoning rather than on interacting with the media. Thus, we hypothesized a moderate
paper preference for performing the CRT (H1), similar to that found in Ackerman and
Lauterman (2012).
As for recruitment of mental effort, if working on screen cues participants to recruit
less effort in the task than on paper, regardless of the reading burden involved, then screen
participants are expected to rely more on Type 1 processes and to achieve inferior
performance compared with paper participants. Since the reliability of metacognitive
monitoring depends on recruitment of mental effort (Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014;
Thiede et al., 2003), it was also expected to be inferior on screen. Thus, we predicted that
despite the task being brief, screen inferiority would emerge with the CRT task and
manifest both in lower performance (H2) and less reliable monitoring (H3) on screen.
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A recent study from another domain supports our prediction of screen inferiority in
brief tasks. Oeberst, Haberstroh, and Gnambs (2015) examined effects of the medium on
risk taking. Participants viewed outcomes of two lotteries, either in a computerized
environment or using the traditional format of drawing balls from a closed box. They then
selected between a risky or less risky lottery. Despite viewing the same outcomes, the
computerized group made more risky choices than the traditional lottery group. The
authors proposed that the computerized group underestimated the probability of an
unfavorable outcome, and therefore perceived the lottery as less risky than it actually was.
In metacognitive terms, these results indicate greater overconfidence in the computerized
As previously indicated, we also sought to examine whether screen inferiority
would diminish if more effort investment was encouraged. Specifically, under the
assumption that H2 and H3 are supported (screen inferiority would be evident with the
CRT task), we aimed to examine the influence of recruitment of extra mental effort on
cognitive performance and metacognitive processes. Based on the effects of in-depth
processing on text learning, as described above, we hypothesized that recruitment of extra
mental effort in response to disturbed fluency would result in improved performance for
the screen group (H4) and enhance the reliability of their metacognitive judgments (H5).
Notably, as the CRT problems are considered quite challenging, it has been
asserted that with this task only people with high cognitive ability would benefit from
recruitment of extra mental effort (see Meyer et al., 2015, for a review). In line with this
assertion, we sampled undergraduates from programs that require high SAT scores (top
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To summarize, we started our investigation with a survey designed to examine the
target population’s media preference for the brief CRT task (H1A moderate paper
preference with the brief task). As rating confidence might influence task performance
(e.g. Yue, Castel & Bjork, 2013), in Experiment 1 we examined performance in the CRT
problems on screen and on paper with the perceptual fluency manipulation. Experiment 2
was a replication of Experiment 1 to which we added confidence ratings. Thus, in
Experiment 1 we examined the hypotheses related to the effects of media and fluency on
performance (H2screen inferiority and H4disfluency advantage) and in Experiment 2
we also examined the hypotheses related to the effects of these factors on confidence
reliability (H3screen inferiority and H5disfluency advantage).
Medium preference survey
As mentioned above, it is a common finding that people prefer reading on paper to reading
from a screen. The purpose of the present survey was to examine whether a preference for
preforming tasks on paper is moderated with a brief task (H1). We presented
undergraduates with the three CRT problems and asked which medium they would prefer
for solving them.
Forty-three Technion undergraduates (49% females) volunteered to fill in the
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The three CRT problems used by Frederick (2005) were translated into Hebrew. The
questionnaire was printed on one page. Respondents were first asked to provide a few
demographic details. The three CRT problems appeared below, in the same order as in
Frederick (2005), with a statement making clear that respondents were not being asked to
actually solve the problems. This was followed by the four critical survey questions: a) If
you were asked to solve these problems, on which medium would you prefer them to be
presented? (computer, paper, no difference) b) If you were asked to solve these problems,
would you be more likely to succeed if they were presented on a computer screen, paper,
no difference? c) If you were given the problems on the computer, would you print them so
they would be in a form you find more convenient? (yes/no) d) If you were given the
problems on paper, would you scan them so they would be in a form you find more
convenient? (yes/no). The order of the medium options in questions a and b was
counterbalanced across participants, and the order of questions c and d was
counterbalanced across participants.
Participants filled in the questionnaire in the lab before or after (randomly assigned)
participating in other, unrelated, experiments.
Results and discussion
Contradictory to our hypothesis, despite being technologically proficient, a majority of the
participants reported that they would prefer solving these brief problems on paper (Fig. 1,
chart A), p < .0001 by a binomial test comparing screen and paper preference. Indeed,
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somewhat more than a third of the respondents said they would print the problems if they
received them electronically (Fig. 1, chart C), p < .01, but none said they would scan a
paper copy (Fig. 1, chart D), p < .0001. Nevertheless, most respondents also expected the
medium to make no difference in their success (Fig. 1, chart B), p < .05 comparing those
who expected no difference with those who expected media advantage.
Fig. 1 Distribution of answers to the survey questions: A. Choice of preferred medium for
solving the CRT problems. B. Medium expected to yield better success in the task. C.
Choice to print the problems if received on screen. D. Choice to scan the problems if
received on paper.
To summarize, despite the brief task and the technology-oriented population, over
the four survey questions, the results provide a clear picture of a paper preference.
Interestingly, however, although the participants expected the solving process to be more
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convenient on paper, most did not foresee a difference in their solving success. It seems
that many participants anticipated that they would be able to overcome this
Experiment 1
In Experiment 1, we examined effects of the medium, screen versus paper, on performance
in the CRT task. Our aim was to examine whether screen inferiority in performance is
evident with the brief task (H2) and, if so, whether disturbed fluency leads to performance
improvement on screen (H4). Specifically, we examined whether, with disturbed fluency,
participants would provide the expected misled answers less often as a result of a
metacognitive regulatory mechanism which hints at activation of Type 2 processes (see
Alter et al., 2007). To accomplish this we employed a two-by-two between participants
design with the factors Medium (Screen vs. Paper) and Perceptual Fluency (disfluent vs.
Two hundred and four Technion undergraduates (46% females; Mage = 24.3, SD = 2.1)
volunteered to participate in the experiment
. Their mean self-reported SAT score was
680.2 (SD = 41.6)
. They were randomly assigned to screen or paper, and to disfluent or
The original planned sample size was of about 100 participants. After running this sample and finding no
effects (see below), we doubled the sample in order to verify that these results did not stem from effects
that were weaker than expected.
In the Israeli version of the SAT, known as the Psychometric Entrance Test, scores range from 200 to
800, normally distributed (M = 533, SD = 101, in 2013).
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fluent font, with 45-59 participants in each group. Thirty-one participants (15%) reported
having learning disabilities, but they were spread similarly among the four groups, χ2 < 1.
The disfluent and fluent font types were chosen based on a pretest (see Thompson et al.,
2013). In the pretest (N = 20), several font options were rated on a Likert scale ranging
from 1 (“Illegible”) to 5 (“Easier than the regular font”). Most participants (70%) rated the
chosen disfluent font (Arial 9-point italicized light grey) as “Legible with effort” (2 on the
scale), and none characterized it as easy to read (4) or easier than the regular font (5) (M =
2.1, SD = 0.55). The fluent font (Arial 18-point black) was judged as easy to read (i.e.,
rated 4 or higher) by all participants (100%) (M = 4.3, SD = 0.30). Ratings of both font
types deviated significantly from the mid-scale (3), both ps < .0001. See Figure 2.
Fig. 2 Hebrew versions of the bat and ball problem presented in disfluent (top) and fluent
(bottom) fonts.
A computerized questionnaire presented the three CRT problems on one page, with
an empty space for answer entry next to each question (see Figure 2). A second page was
used to collect personal details. The printed version was a printout of the computerized
questionnaire. The disfluent version was identical to the fluent version, except for the font
of the CRT problems.
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The participants were randomly assigned to perform the task before or after participating in
other experiments. Participants were explicitly instructed to refrain from writing, drawing
or figuring while solving the problems. The task was self-paced.
Results and discussion
No difference was found between the groups in SAT scores or age (ts < 1). The mean
success rate was 64% (SD = 33.4). Most importantly, in an Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) of Medium (Screen vs. Paper) × Perceptual Fluency (disfluent vs. fluent) on
success rates, no main effects and no interactive effect were found, all Fs < 1 (see Fig. 3).
A similar analysis for the expected misled answers (i.e., the intuitive and predictable wrong
solutions) yielded similar results. Thus, the hypothesized performance differences between
screen and paper were not evident, nor did perceptual fluency induce a difference between
All analyses were also separately conducted for each of the CRT problems, with similar results (no main
effects or interactive effect).
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Fig. 3 Success rates for each experimental group in Experiment 1. Error bars represent
standard errors of the means.
In conclusion, in contrast to the clear medium preference expressed in the survey, no
differences were found between the media. This is important, as it suggests that despite a
decisive preference for paper, most members of the studied population perform equally
well regardless of the medium. Additionally, we did not find that perceptual fluency
affected success rates and the number of expected misled answers.
Experiment 2
In Experiment 2, we examined whether working on this brief task on screen results in less
reliable confidence ratings (H3), as was consistently the case with learning tasks
(Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012; Lauterman & Ackerman,
2014). To examine this, we replicated Experiment 1, with the same experimental design,
except that here we collected a confidence rating for each solution. These confidence
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ratings reflected participants' subjective assessment of the likelihood that their solution was
The reliability of confidence ratings is commonly measured using two indicators,
calibration and resolution. Calibration relates to absolute accuracy: mean confidence
ratings are compared with actual success rates on the task per subject, providing a measure
of overall overconfidence. Existing research indicates that problem solvers are often
overconfident (Ackerman & Zalmanov, 2012; Prowse Turner & Thompson, 2009;
Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). If screen inferiority in the reliability of metacognitive
judgments does not depend on text length, overconfidence is expected to be more
pronounced on screen than on paper with the brief task as well (H3). However, previous
work with text learning has shown that overconfidence was eliminated by manipulations
that encouraged more in-depth processing. Thus, we expected that with disturbed fluency,
confidence ratings on screen would correspond better to actual performance (H5).
Resolution is another aspect of judgment reliability, distinct and independent of
calibration (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011). While calibration reflects absolute accuracy,
resolution relates to relative accuracy as it measures discrimination between correct and
wrong responses (Nelson, 1984). Resolution is usually calculated by within-participant
gamma correlation between confidence and success in each item (e.g., Koriat, Ma'ayan, &
Nussinson, 2006, Experiment 7). The reliability of this statistical method increases as more
items are used (see explanation and critique in Masson & Rotello, 2009). In the present
study, there were only three items per participant. Thus, we examined resolution somewhat
differently, but followed the principles of gamma correlation, as described below.
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Studies with text learning have found improved resolution when more in-depth
processing of the text was required (e.g., Thiede et al., 2003). Thus, similarly to the
predictions above regarding calibration, weaker resolution is expected (H3), and disturbed
fluency should support resolution improvement (H5) on screen.
Participants were one hundred and seventeen Technion undergraduates (43% females; Mage
= 24.7, SD = 2.6; MSAT = 682.9, SD = 37.5; 13% reported learning disabilities). They were
randomly assigned to screen or paper, and to disfluent or fluent fonts, with 28-31
participants in each group.
Materials and procedure
The questionnaires and procedure were highly similar to those used in Experiment 1. The
only difference was that each question was followed by an eleven-point scale representing
0, 10, 20 …100% confidence. Participants rated their confidence after providing their
response to each question.
Results and discussion
No differences were found between the groups in SAT scores or age (both ps > .05).
Success rates and expected misled answers
The mean success rate was 66.6% (SD = 33.87). Two-way ANOVA examining the effects
of Medium × Perceptual Fluency revealed no main effects (both Fs < 1). However, there
was an interactive effect, F(1, 113) = 9.08, MSE = 1084.30, p = .003, ηp2 = .074. The
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interaction stemmed from opposite effects of perceptual fluency on success rates in the two
media. While on screen, as predicted, the disfluent font resulted in better success rates than
the fluent font, t(54) = 2.22, p = .030, on paper the effect was reversed, t(59) = 2.01, p =
.049. See Figure 4 for the results.
Expected misled answers comprised 73% of the total errors. The results for
expected misled answers were similar to the overall results. While there were no main
effects (F < 1), there was a significant interaction between the medium and perceptual
fluency on the number of expected misled answers produced, F(1, 113) =3.97, MSE =
908.16, p = .049, ηp2 = .034. Screen participants had a lower number of expected misled
answers with the disfluent font, while for the paper participants the pattern was reversed.
However, these simple effects were not statistically significant, t(54) = 1.74, p = .087 and t
< 1, respectively. Notably, this interactive effect on performance was not found in
Experiment 1. The implications of this finding are addressed in the General Discussion.
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Fig. 4 Success rate and overconfidence in Experiment 2. Error bars represent standard
errors of the mean for the bar below them.
Confidence ratings are represented in Fig. 4 by the top of the overconfidence bars. A
similar ANOVA on confidence revealed a main effect of the Medium, F(1, 113) = 6.30,
MSE = 169.29, p = .013, ηp2 = .053, with higher confidence on screen than on paper. There
was no main effect for perceptual fluency, F < 1, but there was an interactive effect, F(1,
113) = 7.07, MSE = 169.29, p = .009, ηp2 = .059. On screen, despite the positive effect of
the disfluent font on performance, confidence was equivalent for both font types, t(54) =
1.41, p = .16. On paper, in contrast, there was a significant difference between the font
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types, in correspondence with the performance differences, such that confidence was lower
with the disfluent font than with the fluent font, t(59) = 2.33, p = .023
Calibration was calculated using a within-participant comparison between task
performance and subjective confidence judgments. The above-reported performance and
confidence differences resulted in no main effects of the medium or perceptual fluency,
both Fs ≤ 1, on overconfidence, but a significant interactive effect, F(1, 113) = 4.82, MSE
= 867.51, p = .030, ηp2 = .041. Supporting our hypothesis, overconfidence on screen was
lower for the disfluent than for the fluent font, t(54) = 2.08, p = .042, while on paper,
overconfidence did not differ between the font types, t < 1.
One might suggest that overconfidence for the disfluent font on screen could not be
as high as for the fluent font because of a ceiling effect in confidence (see Fig. 4).
However, all means of confidence ratings were significantly lower than 100%, all ps ≤
.002. Thus, there was room for even higher confidence ratings. Moreover, if participants
were sensitive to their performance, they could have produced lower confidence ratings for
the fluent fonts, as found with the disfluent fonts on paper. However, this was not the case.
To calculate resolution, we accumulated for each participant cases of fit between
confidence and success. That is, each case in which confidence was higher for a correct
response than for a wrong response (e.g., 80% confidence for a correct response to one
A separate analysis per each of the CRT problems revealed that the interactive effects found for success
rates were mainly due to widgets and lily pads problems, and the interactive effect found for confidence
was mainly due to the widget problem.
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
problem and 70% confidence for a wrong response to another problem), was marked as fit.
If confidence ratings w`ere the other way around, then the case was marked as nonfit.
Resolution of each participant’s confidence ratings was defined to be the difference
between fit and nonfit, and ranged between -2 and 2. Cases of no variability in
performance or confidence are undefined by gamma correlation as well as in this
procedure. This procedure resulted with meaningful resolution results for 108 participants
(92%). Importantly, there was no significant correlation between resolution and calibration
in our study, supporting the distinct contribution of each measure (r = -.13, p = .248)
ANOVA as above on resolution yielded no main effects for the Medium, F(1, 83) =
2.69, MSE = 0.84, p = .105, ηp2 = .031, or for perceptual fluency, F(1, 83) = 1.81, MSE =
0.84, p = .175, ηp2 = .022. There was, however, an interactive effect, F(1, 83) = 4.78, MSE
= 0.84, p = .032, ηp2 = .054. Analysis of simple effects revealed no significant difference
between the two font types on screen (Mdisfluent = 0.31, SD = 0.75; Mfluent = 0.47, SD =
0.81), t(32) = 0.60, p = .55. On paper, in contrast, resolution was better for the disfluent
font (M = 1.09, SD = 1.04) than for the fluent font (M = 0.36, SD = 0.90), t(51) = 2.66, p =
.010. In order to compare other combinations of groups, we also conducted a one-way
ANOVA with the four groups in one factor and a Tukey post-hoc test for paired
comparisons. Beyond the comparisons reported above, the paper group with the fluent font
did not differ from both screen groups (both ps > .954). However, resolution for the paper
group with the disfluent font was marginally better than both screen groups, disfluent and
fluent, (p = .052, p = 086, respectively). This latter finding helps appreciating the extent of
metacognitive benefit gained on paper with the disfluent font.
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
In sum, as in Experiment 1, overall success rates did not differ between the media.
However, the media did differ in performance sensitivity to perceptual fluency. Of more
importance for the purpose of Experiment 2 are the findings regarding metacognitive
processes. Confidence sensitivity, as demonstrated by an adjustment of confidence ratings
to performance differences between the fonts, was weaker on screen. Moreover, even
though calibration improved for the screen group with the disfluent font, as predicted,
resolution was not affected by the fluency manipulation. On paper, in contrast, confidence
ratings were in line with the performance difference between the fonts, and resolution
improved when the font was disfluent. Thus, on screen, there was less sensitivity to the
performance differences associated with the perceptual fluency manipulation.
General discussion
In this study, we examined medium effects on performance and metacognitive processes.
Unlike previous studies which addressed this issue, we used a brief task imposing a
cognitive challenge, with only a minimal reading burden. Within each medium, screen
versus paper, we examined the sensitivity of these processes to perceptual fluency by
presenting the problems in a fluent or a disfluent manner.
We hereby summarize the findings and the questions arising from them. We start
with a discussion of effects of medium and perceptual fluency on performance in solving
brief problems, followed by a discussion of their effects on the metacognitive processes
involved. Next, we consider what can be learned from subjective preferences for the media
on which the task is performed, and conclude with the implications of the study for
computerized learning environments.
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
Media and perceptual fluency effects on performance
In the present study, we examined whether screen inferiority in performance would be
evident even with a brief task (H2). Contrary to our hypothesis, the problem solving task
that we used did not generate a difference in performance between screen and paper. One
possible explanation for this finding is that the main cause of the previously found
performance inferiority on screen is technology-related barriers associated with extensive
reading. Thus, when the reading load is reduced, performance differences can be
eliminated. However, some studies found performance equivalence even with longer texts
under certain conditions. For instance, Ackerman and Lauterman (2012, Experiment 1)
demonstrated with text learning that only when the task was performed under time
pressure, screen inferiority in performance emerged. The authors suggested that while the
learning processes per se may be equivalent under the two media, metacognitive regulatory
processes are inferior on screen, and that this inferiority emerges with the challenge of
study regulation under time pressure. We call future studies to examine whether similar
constraint conditions, which require effective regulation processes, reveal performance
differences in brief tasks as well.
In both experiments we attempted to encourage recruitment of extra mental effort by
disturbing perceptual fluency (H4). Due to the nature of our design, we were limited in our
ability to directly examine the experience of this disruption during solving the brief
problems. However, in our pretest for choosing the disfluent and fluent fonts, most
participants reported the disfluent font to be legible with effort. Previous studies have
shown that making fonts harder to read (e.g., by shrinking them, blurring their edges, or
using italics) indeed influences the fluency of reading (e.g. Oppenheimer, 2006; Song &
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
Schwarz, 2008). Moreover, disfluency has been found to elicit more effort investment in
various memorization tasks (Diemand-Yauman, Oppenheimer, & Vaughan, 2011;
Hirshman & Mulligan, 1991). However, findings from such fluency manipulations with
CRT problems have been inconsistent (Alter et al., 2007; Meyer et al., 2015; Thompson et
al., 2013).
We found opposing effects for fluency on screen and paper only in Experiment 2.
The screen group displayed better success with the disfluent font, in support of H4, while
the paper group demonstrated poorer performance under this condition, which we did not
expect. While usually disturbed fluency is found to either improve or have no effect on
performance, a recent research on memory found that in difficult tasks it might actually
hinder performance, because it overloads the cognitive system (Yue, et al., 2013). This
finding may provide a direction for interpreting our results on paper.
The opposite effects of fluency on screen and paper may hint at the medium as an
intervening factor in the fluencyperformance relationship. However, Meyer et al. (2015)
examined whether the use of screen versus paper could account for the discrepant findings
in the literature by analyzing data from studies that were conducted on one medium or the
other, and did not find such an intervening effect. Furthermore, these effects were not
found in Experiment 1. While Meyer et al. compared results across studies, the comparison
between Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 is cleaner, as they were conducted with the same
population and in time proximity. It is possible that the inconsistent findings in Experiment
1 and in Experiment 2 are part of the varying effects on performance when using fluency
manipulations, pointed by Meyer et al. (2015). However, it is important to note that while
we used the same procedure in Experiment 1 as in Experiment 2, we solicited confidence
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
ratings only in the latter. In this respect, Experiment 2 differed not only from Experiment
1, but also from most of the aforementioned studies on perceptual fluency with the CRT
task. Could the elicitation of confidence ratings have influenced the findings, and thereby
possibly help explain the discrepancy in this case? Generally, the metacognitive literature
considers the elicitation of judgments as non-proactive (e.g., Ackerman & Goldsmith,
2008; Benjamin, Bjork, & Schwartz, 1998; Tauber & Rhodes, 2012). Nonetheless, it is
possible that in the brief task used here, the requirement to provide confidence ratings
interacted with recruitment of mental effort caused by the medium and the font
manipulation. This possibility was also considered by Yue et al. (2013) to explain similar
inconsistent effects of disturbed perceptual fluency in a memorization task, when
judgments were elicited during the learning process. The potential effects of judgment
elicitation on performance under some combination of factors are troublesome for the
metacognitive research (see also Koriat & Ackerman, 2010; Soderstrom, Clark, Halamish,
& Bjork, 2015). It is important to better define the conditions under which it happens than
is known today.
At this point, it would be rash to derive decisive conclusion for the effects of
perceptual fluency on performance in the two media. Thus, we offer future research
directions which would aid in shedding more light on these effects. One possible direction
is to measure implicit indicators of effort investment (e.g., pupil dilation or response time;
see Poole & Ball, 2006) to illuminate the specific ways in which fluency affects
performance on the two media. Another interesting issue that has only recently been
examined is the effects of perceptual fluency on control processes. Li, Xie, Li, and Li
(2015) reported that when memorizing items, participants elected to first study the fluent
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
items (large font size) and only then the disfluent items (small font size), regardless of
diagnostic cues of difficulty and reward value. If fluency has distinct effects for the two
media, we would expect this to translate to control processes in a brief task as well.
Media and perceptual fluency effects on metacognitive judgments
Consistent with the previous findings with text learning (and also decision making; Oeberst
et al., 2015) and supporting H3, our results expose further conditions under which
metacognitive monitoring on screen is inferior to paper. First, screen participants did not
attenuate their high confidence when their performance was lower, as was done adequately
on paper. This insensitivity to performance differences on screen resulted in
overconfidence when fluency was high, while calibration was better in the disfluent
condition, in line with H5. However, it seems plausible that this was due to insensitivity to
the different performance in the two perceptual fluency conditions, rather than to an
accurate assessment of performance in this condition. We therefore suggest that by
maintaining the perceptual fluency manipulation while comparing various knowledge
levels, future research could shed more light on this result.
Second, resolution on screen was insensitive to the disturbed fluency manipulation,
which was expected to enhance it (H5). In contrast, disturbed fluency did improve
resolution on paper, relative to both the fluent font on paper and (marginally significant)
relative to the disfluent and fluent font on screen. Interestingly, the superior resolution on
paper, which may suggest deeper processing (Thiede et al., 2003), did not correspond to
performance, which was lower in the disfluent condition for the paper group. As
mentioned above, text learning studies usually find an association between better
performance and better resolution (e.g., Thiede et al., 2003).
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
In sum, we found that judgments were less sensitive to variability in performance
(generated by the fluency manipulation) on screen than on paper. These results accord with
a growing body of research that shows the potential debilitating effects of screen learning
on metacognitive processes (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Ackerman & Lauterman,
2012; Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014). The present study demonstrates a generalization of
this effect to cases in which the reading burden is minimized, contributing to the
robustness of this phenomenon. We call for future studies to delve further into the factors
that affect depth of processing and its effect on metacognitive processes.
Subjective media preference
Many studies point to a preference for reading on paper over reading on screen (e.g.,
Mizrachi, 2015; Woody, Daniel, & Baker, 2010). In the present study, we expected that the
rich technological background of our sample and the limited reading demands of the task
would moderate this tendency (H1); however, participants showed a strong paper
preference. Despite this stated preference, most participants did not anticipate a difference
in success due to the medium, and that finding was borne out by the results of the two
experiments. Why then would members of this population be reluctant to work on screen?
As our population was technologically proficient, we cannot attribute this reluctance to
unfamiliarity with computerized environments. We would like to speculate on another
possible explanation, which rests on the effects of screen learning on the reliability of
metacognitive judgments. The correspondence between personal preferences and
differences in the quality of metacognitive processes has been referred to as a meta-
metacognitive judgment (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Dunlosky & Thiede, 2013). In the
present study, the general reluctance to work on screen found in the survey may be an
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
encouragingly reliable meta-metacognitive reflection of the quality of the metacognitive
processes associated with working on screen. A direction for future studies to examine is to
what extent this meta-metacognitive judgment is reliable, and whether people would be
attuned to conditions that might improve their metacognitive processes on screen, thereby
attenuating their paper preference.
Practical implications
The effects of presentation medium on cognitive processes has been gaining researchers’
attention due to the increased use of digital environments for learning and assessment in
educational settings, as well as in screening exams (e.g., Graduate Management Admission
Test - GMAT). The present study extends the findings regarding high susceptibility of
performance and metacognitive processes to the medium when solving brief problems.
Moreover, it draws attention to the possibility that additional factors, as demonstrated here
by ease of processing, may affect working on screen differently, compared to practices that
were effective in traditional study environments. Thus, designers of computerized
environments in educational settings must be aware of the potential negative effect of
computerized work on these processes, even with brief tasks. In particular, designers'
attentions should be directed to the potential dissociations between effects on performance
and on metacognitive processes.
Important implications should also be drawn for presentation format. It is generally
accepted that introducing desirable difficulties to the learning process (e.g., disfluent fonts,
disorganized material, etc.) encourages deeper cognitive processing and improves long-
term retention (Bjork, 1994, 1999). However, we found performance improvement to be
inconsistent. Moreover, contribution to processing in metacognitive measures was
Medium Effect on Performing Brief Tasks
dependent on media. Therefore, the types of difficulties that are indeed desirable, and the
appropriate conditions under which they enhance performance, are still unclear. Thus,
these tools should be used cautiously.
Overall, our study highlights the importance of future research, as outlined above, to
further expose effects of the medium and presentation format on cognitive and
metacognitive processes. This is indisputable at the practical level as well as in the
theoretical level. When taking into account the high susceptibility of performance and
metacognitive processes to media effects, it is clear that scientific contributions within this
domain should inform planning, designing, and utilizing computerized educational
environments. At the theoretical level, further investigation of these effects will elucidate
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... Importantly, overconfidence was most apparent for screen solvers under time pressure. These findings generalize the findings of Sidi et al. (2016), in which the comparison within each medium was between fluent and disfluent fonts. Finally, with respect to effort regulation, while in a reading comprehension task ( Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012) efficiency on screen remained constant in both time frames, here time pressure reduced efficiency on screen. ...
... As described above (see also Sidi et al., 2016, for a review), researchers have previously maintained that extensive reading on screen is associated with technology-related barriers, and offered this as an explanation for screen inferiority. However, accumulated evidence raised the possibility that regulatory processes may serve as an alternative explanation. ...
... Importantly though, there was still greater overconfidence on screen than on paper under time pressure, but not under a loose time frame. In addition, there was lower sensitivity of confidence ratings to performance variations between the time conditions, as found before with font readability ( Sidi et al., 2016). It may be argued that reaching similar efficiency and performance for both media is satisfactory, even if a monitoring bias remains. ...
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Paper-and-pencil learning and testing are gradually shifting to computerized environments. Cognitive and metacognitive researchers find screen inferiority compared to paper in effort regulation, test performance, and extent of overconfidence, in some cases, with unknown differentiating factors. Notably, these studies used reading comprehension tasks involving lengthy texts, which confound technology-related and cognitive factors. We hypothesized that the medium provides a contextual cue which leads to shallower processing on screen regardless of text length, particularly when task characteristics hint that shallow processing is legitimate. To test this hypothesis, we used briefly phrased yet challenging problems for solving on screen or on paper. In Experiment 1, the time frame for solving the problems was manipulated. As with lengthy texts, only time pressure resulted in screen inferiority. In Experiment 2, under a loose time frame, the same problems were now framed as a preliminary task performed before a main problem-solving task. Only the initial task, with reduced perceived importance, revealed screen inferiority similarly to time pressure. In Experiment 3, we replicated Experiment 1's time frame manipulation, using a problem-solving task which involved reading only three isolated words. Screen inferiority in overconfidence was found again only under time pressure. The results suggest that metacognitive processes are sensitive to contextual cues that hint at the expected depth of processing, regardless of the reading burden involved.
... In contrast with our second research hypothesis, regarding the influence of medium naturalness and participants' personality on different aspects of perceived learning, findings indicated that students in the one-way videoconferencing condition felt that they understood the content and learned better (cognitive aspect) than students in the face-to-face condition. The perceived overconfidence of digital learners in their achievements is well-known from other fields of research, such as in reading studies, in which digital readers are often overconfident in their performance with digital reading compared to print reading (Ackerman and Goldsmith 2011;Eshet-Alkalai and Geri 2007;Lauterman and Ackerman 2014;Sidi, Ophir, and Ackerman 2016;Sidi et al. 2017). However, in accordance with the second hypothesis, students from the face-to-face condition perceived learning to be easier and more interesting (emotional aspect) than students from the online learning environments (one-way and two-way videoconferencing conditions). ...
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This controlled experiment examined how academic achievement and cognitive, emotional and social aspects of perceived learning are affected by the level of medium naturalness (face-to-face, one-way and two-way videoconferencing) and by learners’ personality traits (extroversion–introversion and emotional stability–neuroticism). The Media Naturalness Theory explains the degree of medium naturalness by comparing its characteristics to face-to-face communication, considered to be the most natural form of communication. A total of 76 participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: face-to-face, one-way and two-way videoconferencing. E-learning conditions were conducted through Zoom videoconferencing, which enables natural and spontaneous communication. Findings shed light on the trade-off involved in media naturalness: one-way videoconferencing, the less natural learning condition, enhanced the cognitive aspect of perceived learning but compromised the emotional and social aspects. Regarding the impact of personality, neurotic students tended to enjoy and succeed more in face-to-face learning, whereas emotionally stable students enjoyed and succeeded in all of the learning conditions. Extroverts tended to enjoy more natural learning environments but had lower achievements in these conditions. In accordance with the ‘poor get richer’ principle, introverts enjoyed environments with a low level of medium naturalness. However, they remained focused and had higher achievements in the face-to-face learning.
... (The correct solution is: BA, CA, AB) [12,14,19,22,24,69] Description: A set of three math problems, having simple computational requirements, but all require overcoming an initial, misleading response. ...
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Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving. In that context, we recently developed a Meta-Reasoning framework, used here to review existing findings, consider their consequences, and frame questions for future research.
Modern technologies increasingly make use of personal data to provide better services. Technologies using biometric data for identity and authorship verification in the context of e-assessment are a case in point. Previous studies in e-health described a privacy paradox in relation to consent to personal data use: even when people consider protection of their personal data important, they consent fairly readily to personal data use. However, the new European Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) assumes that people give free and informed consent. In the context of e-assessment, this study investigates students’ attitudes towards personal data sharing for identity and authorship verification purposes with the aim of optimising informed consent practice. Students with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND) were included as a specific target group because they may feel more dependent on e-assessment. The findings suggest that a privacy paradox exists in the context of e-assessment as well. Furthermore, the results indicate that students are more reluctant to share video recordings of their face than other personal data. Finally, our results confirm the effect found in previous studies on e-health: those feeling a stronger need for technologies, in this case SEND students, are more inclined to consent to personal data use. Implications for informed consent practice are discussed.
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Recent research in a text-based educational context has demonstrated a seemingly paradoxical disfluency effect in reading, namely that learning with hard-to-read (disfluent) materials helps learners recall more details than learning with easy-to-read (fluent) materials. Many follow-up studies using a variety of participants, learning materials, and experimental designs have been conducted to verify the effects of disfluency manipulation on recall, transfer, judgments of learning, and learning time. However, a number of them have failed to replicate this effect and the mixed findings bring into question the generality of the disfluency effect with respect to learning. In this meta-analysis, we tested the overall effect of perceptual disfluency on learning with texts, as well as moderators of this effect, based on 25 empirical articles involving 3135 participants. Results showed that overall, there was no effect of perceptual disfluency on recall (d = − 0.01) or transfer (d = 0.03), but perceptual disfluency did reduce participants’ judgments of learning (d = − 0.43) and increase learning time (d = 0.52). Tests of moderation focused on the most commonly studied dependent measure, namely recall. There was no evidence that characteristics of the participants, learning material, or experimental design moderated the effect of perceptual disfluency on recall. In general, though perceptual disfluency can be used as an effective metacognitive cue to reduce judgments of learning and increase learning time, there is not enough evidence to show that it either stimulates analytic processing or increases extraneous cognitive load.
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examine 2 . . . contributors to nonoptimal training: (1) the learner's own misreading of his or her progress and current state of knowledge during training, and (2) nonoptimal relationships between the conditions of training and the conditions that can be expected to prevail in the posttraining real-world environment / [explore memory and metamemory considerations in training] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Textbook options are expanding and the electronic text is poised to become prevalent in the college classroom. Cost pressures are driving this trend even as the academic value of e-textbooks has yet to be established. Limited research is available that examines the effectiveness of the e-textbook as a learning tool. This paper presents the results of a study that compares student performance in two sections of an online course, one using an e-textbook and the other using a paper-based text. No significant difference in student performance was found. However, until e-textbook format and features are standardized and business models generate sizable cost savings, e-textbook adoption is likely to evolve slowly.
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Metacognitive monitoring affects regulation of study, and this affects overall learning. The authors created differences in monitoring accuracy by instructing participants to generate a list of 5 keywords that captured the essence of each text. Accuracy was greater for a group that wrote keywords after a delay (delayed-keyword group) than for a group that wrote keywords immediately after reading (immediate-keyword group) and a group that did not write keywords (no-keyword group). The superior monitoring accuracy produced more effective regulation of study. Differences in monitoring accuracy and regulation of study, in turn, produced greater overall test performance (reading comprehension) for the delayed-keyword group versus the other groups. The results are framed in the context of a discrepancy-reduction model of self-regulated study. Many models of self-regulated learning can be classified as discrepancy-reduction models (e.
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Technological development has influenced the ways in which learning and reading takes place, and a variety of technological tools now supplement and partly replace paper books. Previous studies have suggested that digital study media impair metacognitive monitoring and regulation (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011; Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012; Lauterman & Ackerman 2014). The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between metacognitive experiences and learning for digital versus non-digital texts in a test situation where metacognitive experiences were assessed more broadly compared to previous studies, and where a larger number of potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Experiment 1 (N = 100) addressed the extent to which metacognitive monitoring accuracy for 4 factual texts was influenced by whether texts were presented on a paper sheet, a PC, an iPad, or a Kindle. Metacognitive experiences were measured by Predictions of Performance (PoP), Judgements of Learning (JoL), and Confidence Ratings (CR), and learning outcome was measured by recognition performance. Experiment 2 (N = 50) applied the same basic procedure, comparing a paper condition with a PC condition with the opportunity to take notes and highlight text. In both experiments, study media had no consistent effect on metacognitive calibration or resolution. The results give little support to previous claims that digital learning impairs metacognitive regulation.
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In the last decade, the use of e-Textbooks has received attention in research and practice. However, the expanded use of e-Textbooks was not easily achieved because of the missing standards in learning content and functionalities, and barriers in utilizing e-Textbooks, such as screen reading and intellectual property protection. This paper provides insights on the design, development, and learning with e-Textbooks by reviewing studies, project reports, and cases on its use. Results reveal the increased promotion and implementation of e-Textbook development in several countries. Criticisms on different e-Textbook types began during the early stages of open multimedia learning resources and digitized textbooks, and continued until the integration of information and communication technologies, authoring tools, and learning platforms. The study examined advantages of e-Textbooks and different factors that influenced e-Textbook applications. The study also reviewed the literature on learning through e-Textbooks in terms of acceptance and perception of users, and the comparison of the learning effectiveness of this format with printed textbooks. Moreover, learning in e-Textbooks is not fully realized, and requires increased in-depth studies. This paper suggests investigating the pedagogical design of e-Textbooks and further evaluation of e-Textbook functions to support learning.
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Prior research suggests that reducing font clarity can cause people to consider printed information more carefully. The most famous demonstration showed that participants were more likely to solve counterintuitive math problems when they were printed in hard-to-read font. However, after pooling data from that experiment with 16 attempts to replicate it, we find no effect on solution rates. We examine potential moderating variables, including cognitive ability, presentation format, and experimental setting, but we find no evidence of a disfluent font benefit under any conditions. More generally, though disfluent fonts slightly increase response times, we find little evidence that they activate analytic reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Eye tracking is a technique whereby an individual’s eye movements are measured so that the researcher knows both where a person is looking at any given time and the sequence in which the person’s eyes are shifting from one location to another. Tracking people’s eye movements can help HCI researchers to understand visual and display-based information processing and the factors that may impact the usability of system interfaces. In this way, eye-movement recordings can provide an objective source of interface-evaluation data that can inform the design of improved interfaces. Eye movements also can be captured and used as control signals to enable people to interact with interfaces directly without the need for mouse or keyboard input, which can be a major advantage for certain populations of users, such as disabled individuals. We begin this article with an overview of eye-tracking technology and progress toward a detailed discussion of the use of eye tracking in HCI and usability research. A key element of this discussion is to provide a practical guide to inform researchers of the various eye-movement measures that can be taken and the way in which these metrics can address questions about system usability. We conclude by considering the future prospects for eye-tracking research in HCI and usability testing. Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 9 pages >
This chapter develops a framework for predicting S2 intervention that is based on metacognitive experiences associated with S1 processes. In particular, it develops the argument that the outcome of a given reasoning attempt is determined not only by the content of the information which is retrieved by S1 and analysed by S2, but also by a second-order judgement. This metacognitive judgement is largely based on the experience associated with the execution of S1 and S2 processes, and it is this judgement that determines whether, and how, S2 processes are engaged.