ArticlePDF Available

Balancing Religious Accommodation and Human Rights in Constitutional Frameworks - Report of a six month research group at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Bielefeld

2 ZiF-Gremien Authorities
3 Editorial
4 Jahresbericht Annual Report
16 ZiF-Forschungsgruppe ›Normative Aspekte von
Public Health‹
20 ZiF-Forschungsgruppe Balancing Religious Accommodation
and Human Rights in Constitutional Frameworks
27 ZiF-Forschungsgruppe Robust Finance: Strategic Power,
Knightian Uncertainty, and the Foundation of Economic
Policy Advice
29 ZiF-Kooperationsgruppe Mathematics as a Tool
31 Mirjam Künkler, Hanna Lerner,
Shylashri Shankar
Balancing Religious Accommodation
and Human Rights in Constitutional
39 ZiF-Interview mit Yadh Ben Achour
45 Rückblick Review
56 Kunst am ZiF ZiF Art
Harald Priem: Echo
58 Das junge ZiF The Young ZiF
60 Notizen Notes
63 Neue Veröffentlichungen aus Projekten des ZiF
ZiF New Publications
64 Aktuelle ZiF-Projekte Current ZiF Projects
65 ZiF-Kalendarium Januar bis April 2015
Upcoming Events January to April 2015
Zentrum r interdisziplinäre Forschung
Center for Interdisciplinary Research
Universität Bielefeld
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
Mirjam Künkler (Princeton, USA), Hanna Lerner (Tel Aviv, ISR),
Shylashri Shankar (New Delhi, IND)
Balancing Religious Accommodation and
Human Rights in Constitutional Frameworks
15 November 2014 brought to a close the residence period of the ZiF research group ‘Balancing
Religious Accommodation and Human Rights in Constitutional Frameworks’. Convened by Mirjam
Künkler (Princeton University), Hanna Lerner (Tel Aviv University), and Shylashri Shankar
(Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi), the group brought together leading scholars in the fields
of political science, law, sociology, history, and religious studies to investigate and compare how
different constitutions reconcile—or fail to reconcile— the protection of human rights with the
demand for religious accommodation. Fellows included Asli Bâli (University of California),
Nathan Brown (George Washington University), Tom Ginsburg (University of Chicago), Bill
Kissane (London School of Economics), John Madeley (London School of Economics), David
Mednicoff (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), Tamir Moustafa (Simon Fraser University),
Matthew Nelson (School of Oriental and African Studies, London), Benjamin Schonthal (Uni-
versity of Otago), and Yüksel Sezgin (Syracuse University). Markus Böckenförde (University of
Duisburg), Mark Farha (Georgetown University, Qatar) and Tine Stein (University of Kiel) were
associate fellows. Aaron Glasserman (B.A., Princeton University) served as coordinator.
Mirjam Künkler has been teaching Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University since
2007. Her work focuses on the politics of religion and law in Iran and Indonesia. She has
published on religious and constitutional thought, religion-state relations, and legal
and political reform in the two countries. Links to her work can be found here:
Hanna Lerner has been teaching in the Department of Political Science at Tel Aviv Uni-
versity since 2007. Her research focuses on comparative constitution writing, particularly
in societies divided over their religious/national identity, on religion and democracy, and
on global justice and international labor standards. Links to her work can be found here:
Shylashri Shankar has been a researcher at the Center for Policy Research in New Delhi,
India, since 2006. She has published on constitutionalism and the patterns of judicial
decision-making in India, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Israel, on religious freedom, anti-
terror laws and social rights, as well as on the mechanisms that reduce corruption in the
implementation of an anti-poverty program in India. Links to her work can be found here:
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
Seven conferences and workshops took place as part of the group’s activities during the six-month
residence. These were:
June 4–6. ‘Constitution Writing, Religion and Human Rights’ (convened by Asli Bâli and
Hanna Lerner)
June 10–11. ‘Index Building in Socio-Legal Scholarship’ (convened by Mirjam Künkler and
Yüksel Sezgin)
July 31–August 1. ‘Religious Education and Democratic Citizenship’ (convened by Matthew
Nelson, Mirjam Künkler, and Aaron Glasserman)
August 21–23. ‘Boundary Making in the Constitution: Balancing Religion and Human Rights’
(convened by Mirjam Künkler, Hanna Lerner, and Shylashri Shankar)
September 11–13. ‘Constitutionalism, Religious Freedom and Human Rights: Constitutional
Migration and Transjudicialism Beyond the North Atlantic’ (convened by Mirjam Künkler
and Shylashri Shankar)
October 14. ‘Constitutionalism and Conceptual Politics’ (convened by Bill Kissane, Mirjam
Künkler, Shylashri Shankar, and Aaron Glasserman)
October 23 –24. ‘Bureaucratization of Islam in Muslim States and Societies’ (convened by
Aaron Glasserman)
In addition, the group will convene a closing symposium titled ‘Inclusiveness, Represen
tion and Religious Accommodation in Constitutions and Constitutionalism’, July 15– 17, 2015
These events gave fellows the opportunity to work together not only with each other but also
with over 60 scholars from Germany, Europe, and all over the world. 17 of the group’s guests at
conferences and workshops were young scholars who were working on their PhDs or had just
completed those. The relatively large number of workshops and conferences enabled the group to
address several facets of the larger subject of religion, law and human rights, including constitu-
tion writing, education, and bureaucratization. It also multiplied the group’s disciplinary toolkit.
The workshop on ‘Index Building in Socio-Legal Scholarship’ (June 10–11), and the workshop on
‘Constitutionalism and Conceptual Politics’ (October 14) paid particular attention to methodologi-
cal questions. The former focused on applying quantitative methods for large-N studies of law and
religion, while the latter explored the role of conceptual history in the research of law, politics and
religion. These workshops enhanced the group’s interdisciplinary and collaborative spirit by
incorporating voices from, among other fields, anthropology, theology, history and education.
In addition to these more or less monthly gatherings, the fellows participated in several pro-
grams on a weekly or semi-weekly basis. Over the course of the residence, twelve scholars, six
coming from German institutions and six from other European and American universities, par-
ticipated in the group’s Tuesday Speaker Series:
May 20. Jeff Redding (Saint Louis University, USA/Centre for Advanced Study of Law as
Culture, GER), ‘The Rule and Role of Islamic Law: Constituting Secular Law and Governance
in Contemporary India’
May 27. Leif Seibert (Bielefeld University, GER), ‘Consociational Belief in an Unjust Peace’
June 25. Heiner Bielefeldt (University of Erlangen, GER), ‘Religion and Secularism in
Post-Soviet Russia, Kazakhstan and Moldova’
July 8. Stefan Voigt (University of Hamburg, GER), ‘The Rule of Law and Constitutionalism
in Muslim Countries’
July 15. Fabian Wittreck (Münster University, GER), ‘Paralleljustiz?—The German Expe-
rience with (Religious) Non-Official Justice’
July 22. Katrin Seidel (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, GER), ‘Constitutional
Recognition of Islamic Law and Sharia Courts in Ethiopia: Towards a Procedural Approach’
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
July 30. Dale Eickelman (Dartmouth College, USA), ‘Morocco’s 2011 Constitution: The First
Three Years’
August 5. Rochana Bajpai (School of Oriental and African Studies, UK), ‘Secularism and
Religion in India’s Constitutional Imagination’
September 9. Benjamin Schonthal (University of Otago, NZL), ‘What Is a Buddhist Consti-
September 16. Mathias Rohe (University of Erlangen, GER), ‘Religious Alternative Dispute
Resolution in Europe—Blessing or Curse?’
October 2. Ebrahim Afsah (University of Copenhagen, DEN), ‘The Empty Fortress: Pitfalls
of Contemporary Constitutional Debates in the Middle East’
October 28. Christopher Thornhill (University of Manchester, UK), ‘A Sociology of Con-
stitutional Rights—Are Religious Rights Different?’
November 6. Yadh Ben Achour (Tunis, TUN), Entstehung einer Verfassung in Zeiten der Revolu-
tion. Tunesien 2011–2014
The program began with a talk by the visiting lecturer and continued with intensive discus-
sion among everyone present. Often, papers had been pre-circulated so that attendees were pre-
pared to discuss them in depth. The group welcomed attendees from the Bielefeld University
community and sees such events as excellent opportunities to foster collaboration between ZiF
fellows and faculty and students just down the hill. On Thursdays, the fellows convened for closed
sessions to share and receive feedback on ongoing research or to discuss readings pertinent to
upcoming conferences and the broader themes of religion and constitutionalism.
Slow Science
Notwithstanding the intense schedule, it was ultimately ZiF’s unique environment of collabora-
tive ‘slow science’ that enabled the group to be as productive as it was. As discussed later, the
fellows are working on four sets of publications that grew out of or benefited from the ZiF col-
laboration: Constitution Writing, Religion and Human Rights (Cambridge University Press, edited by
Asli Bâli and Hanna Lerner), a special journal issue comprising six articles with the American
Behavioral Scientist, an edited volume based on the papers of the workshop ‘Religious Education
and Democratic Citizenship’, and either an edited volume or a special journal issue based on the
papers of the workshop ‘Bureaucratization of Islam in Muslim States and Societies’.
The ZiF experience and the duration of the residence enabled the fellows to generate, discuss,
and rethink ideas within the broad but coherent framework of fellows’ individual interests and
the group’s collective goals. Working together for six months, the fellows were able to build on
previous and ongoing projects and determine and execute a new research agenda, all with enough
time to revise their scholarship and explore other directions as new knowledge and perspectives
dictated. The following are just a few of the themes the group addressed from different disciplin-
ary approaches and in different regional and country contexts.
Constitution-Drafting Processes
In light of the number of new constitutions that have been written over the last three decades, it
is perhaps unsurprising that constitution drafting has emerged as a topic of interest not only
among academics but also for policy-makers, development agencies and a broad array of interna-
tional organizations. Yet a distinctive feature of the current wave of new constitutional exercises
remains relatively understudied: the challenge of constitution-drafting under conditions of deep
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
disagreement over the state’s religious or secular identity. While some attention has been paid to
the broader question of constitution-writing in divided societies, the distinctive problems raised by
religious divisions have not garnered significant attention.
Recent experiences have underscored the degree to which constitution writing can be a
high-stakes game. Amid intense polarization between competing visions of the state, drafting a
constitution risks undermining fragile forms of political stability and derailing fledgling efforts
to democratize. This has been a troubling challenge in the cases of countries such as Iraq and
Afghanistan, where constitutional debates have revealed deep divisions over foundational values
that have catalyzed renewed conflict instead of contributing to state-building. Equally worryingly,
Egypt appears caught in a cycle of constitution promulgation and repeal that reflects deep and
unresolved conflicts over the relationship between religion and the state. The divisions that have
emerged around constitution drafting in Egypt now threaten either to reproduce authoritarian
mechanisms of imposition or to devolve into civil strife.
There can be no question, of course, that the impact of constitutional design on alleviating
or exacerbating underlying religious divisions can only be fully appreciated over time. The mean-
ing of any given constitution will necessarily unfold and evolve gradually through interpretation
by a wide spectrum of authoritative and popular actors, ranging from constitutional courts, legis-
latures, executives and even the military to new political parties and movements that seek to
reframe the constitution through reinterpretation. While all of this interpretive activity is very
important to the operation of constitutions after they have been drafted, to focus exclusively on
the evolution of the text without studying its origins risks obscuring the degree to which delib-
erate design choices by constitution-drafters contribute to constitutional outcomes, for better
or worse.
Many of the research group’s discussions centered on the constitution-drafting process and
the challenges and opportunities of studying the procedural details and recorded debates of draft-
ing committees. At the June 4–6 workshop, which focused on religion and constitution drafting,
participants discussed drafting in Egypt, Tunisia, Malaysia, Spain, Poland, Brazil, Kenya and Fiji.
Other workshops and talks presented additional opportunities to explore understudied cases of
constitution-drafting. Fellow Nathan Brown gave a public talk in early June on recent constitu-
tional developments in Egypt. At a Speaker Series talk in July, Dale Eickelman assessed the 2011
Moroccan constitution in the context of conflicting commitments to the nation, the region, the
continent, and the Islamic ummah.
Fellows found that such investigations yielded important insights into the origins of particu-
lar constitutional provisions regarding religion. In Indonesia, for example, a last-minute interven-
tion by the departing Japanese occupiers in 1945 removed from the constitution the so-called
ʻJakarta Charterʻ, a seven-word sentence specifying that Muslim citizens would be subject to
Islamic law. The removal left unresolved the question of Islamic law in Indonesia. The case also
sheds light on how the status of Islamic law continued to be a bone of contention in Indonesia
(after all, the drafting committee had already agreed on the constitution including the Jakarta
Charter prior to the Japanese intervention), as well as on how colonial histories shape post-colonial
Another insight concerns the methodological approach to studying constitution-drafting
processes. The group found that the conventional distinction between elite and popular, or top-
down and bottom-up, was less instructive than a more contextual appreciation of the factors
impacting both process and outcome. Instead of treating elite-led and representative processes as
dichotomous, paying attention to processes that show overlapping approaches or reflect a con-
tinuum may be more productive. For instance, in India there was a decades-long period of elite-led
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
consultation prior to the constitution-drafting process that determined which groups would be
included and struck a series of bargains on core areas of disagreement including on matters of
religion. When a constituent assembly with elected and appointed representatives was convened
prior to the partition of the country, it was broadly representative— in that various component
groups of the society were represented and the members were elected by provincial representative
bodies. At the same time, the drafting process was to a large extent dominated by elites—in that
the members themselves were primarily drawn from the upper-class, urban and educated elite.
Particularly after partition, the drafting process was led by prominent figures in the Congress
party. The outcome was an innovative solution that was made possible by the forging of a pre-
constitutional consensus on key issues amongst an elite, but that nonetheless gained widespread
popular acceptance and proved durable.
Migration of Constitutional and Judicial Ideas
The migration of constitutional and judicial ideas pertaining to religion was another focus of the
group’s investigations. How does the concept of religious freedom when adopted in different con-
stitu tions tr anslate a cross bo rders? In new as well as long-standing democracies, questions r egarding
the status of religious freedom are increasingly negotiated in the constitutional arena. In such
instances, some constitutional designers and interpreters look beyond national borders to assess
how their peers tackle similar challenges. What meaning or meanings does religious freedom
acquire in new settings, and who reframes their content? Over the course of the residence, the
fellows (and other workshop participants) drew on a range of case studies to address these
There remains a lacuna in the relevant literature on the methodology of constitutional migra-
tions and the normative underpinnings of this enterprise. Most extant literature either compare
constitutional language without considering migration or emphasize the constitutions of the
United States, France, and other Western models as the most important ‘exporters’. The field is
still largely un-mined because most of the debate has focused on the US experience, where borrow-
ing from foreign cases is low and considered illegitimate by many judges. Given current develop-
ments and the fellows’ expertise, the group was able to go beyond conceiving of the North Atlantic
context as the pivot and analyze the evolution of constitutional migration of the concept of reli-
gious freedom particularly in Asian, African and Latin American cases. In the workshop ‘Consti-
tutionalism, Religious Freedom and Human Rights: Constitutional Migration and Transjudi
Beyond the North Atlantic’, fellows and other participants examined the process and conse-
quences of constitutional and jurisprudential migration in cases ranging from the Philippines and
Turkey to China and Iran. At other times during the residence, fellows theorized about different
modes of constitutional migration, and the different meanings assigned to similarly worded
clauses on religious freedom in the constitution. This collaboration yielded several important
insights, including the distinction between explicit and implicit constitutional borrowing, the
awareness of negative borrowing (i.e. the rejection of particular foreign clauses and models), the
use of foreign judgments to assign legitimacy to controversial domestic rulings that contracted the
space for religious freedom, and the tension between whether the concept of ‘religious freedom’
has an inherent meaning that is amenable to translation or whether the concept has no such
meaning, making its usage infinitely flexible and ultimately hollow. These ideas inspired additional
research and writing by the fellows and are already the basis for planned future collaborations.
The fellows’ and other workshop participants’ language expertise enriched the discussions of
migration and translation. Of particular interest was the range of meanings and connotations dif-
ferent languages ascribe to ‘religion’, ‘religious freedom’, ‘essential practices of religion’, ‘public
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
order’, ‘the state’ and other related concepts. China, Japan, and Indonesia all present cases in
which lawmakers and constitution drafters defined and deployed ‘religion’ to exclude and dele-
gitimize traditions they perceived as socially harmful or politically dangerous. India, Pakistan and
Malaysia present cases where the concept of ‘essential practices of religion’ travelled but did not
translate in the same manner or have similar outcomes.
Religion as a Unique Category
The aforementioned inquiries and indeed the group’s entire research program seek to elucidate
the relationship between religion, constitutionalism, and human rights, and whether and how
constitutions can reconcile liberal commitments with religious demands. All this begs the ques-
tion: Is religion unique?
Based on the fellows’ extensive research across numerous and diverse cases, the answer is
a qualified ‘yes’. The qualification of the answer stems, first and foremost, from the empirical dif-
ficulty in defining the boundaries between religious conflicts and other related societal, ideational
or political conflicts. There is often an overlap between religious divisions and other axes of
tension, including those with ethnic, linguistic, class or regional characteristics.
Another difficulty facing any comparative analysis of religion, law, and human rights in dif-
ferent countries stems from the variation in the nature and intensity of religious and legal debates.
The nature and intensity of the religious divisions that characterize different societies, and which
are reflected in their constitution-drafting debates, vary significantly. Different religious tradi-
tions also present different kinds of challenges to the constitutional reconciliation of religious
accommodation and human rights: Catholicism raises the question of structuring relations
between the state and a hierarchically-organized external authority, the Vatican; Islam raises the
question of the relationship between state law and shari‘a. Religious traditions represent an array
of conceptions of authority, bureaucratized clerical institutions and legal systems governing
everything from the structure of family to the content of education. Given the variation across
religious traditions, there may be no single, universally applicable way of defining precisely how
religion is distinctive.
Moreover, any comparative analysis of constitutional debates on religion tackles the difficult
challenge of definitions. Terms such as ‘religion’, ‘religious’, ‘secular’ or ‘secularism’ are often
understood differently by different members of the same society, let alone the great variation
in their meanings in the context of different societies, cultures or historic periods. Aware that
‘religion’ is a contested term and that there is a substantial literature addressing such definitional
questions, the group opted to take assertions of religious character at face value. That is, if
parties in question believe that their disagreements are over questions of religion or have a reli-
gious character, then the group took them as such.
Yet the group’s broad comparative work also indicates that, regardless of the specific nature
of the religious divisions and their intensity across cases, there is something about conflicts over
religious questions that cannot be reduced to or conflated with other kinds of material or identi-
tarian conflict. The debates examined during the residence are not just proxies for conflicts over
class, geographic, ethnic or linguistic differences. Rather, they reflect conflicts over beliefs, values
and normative commitments that have proven to be remarkably durable. Of course, not all soci-
eties marked by religious diversity experience such conflicts, but those societies that do share
common features that are not present where conflicts are less over beliefs and values than over
interests and distributional questions. While it is difficult to isolate the ideational elements of
religious divisions from the social structures in which they are embedded, political fragmentation
over questions of religion produces distinctive challenges.
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
Religious conflicts present a special problem from a constitutional perspective for another reason.
Both religions and constitutions not only regulate human behavior and activities, but also create
the very possibility of social, political and legal practices and institutions. The practices and insti-
tutions created by religions often compete with the political/legal institutions brought into exis-
tence by constitutions. Historically, the question of the separation of religious and temporal
authority has long been one of the central battles of modernization and state-formation,
especially in the European context. This was in part because, unlike other identity categories or
sources of affiliation, religious authorities make competing demands of obedience on the indi-
viduals constituting the state. In some religious traditions, religion is also a competing source of
law and invokes a legal tradition outside of the state. Elsewhere, there is a long history of religious
political parties that structure political contestation in ways that make religious identity more
salient. Further, for societies that are former colonies, colonial governors often used religion to
legally define the communities in the territories under their administration. Thus, colonial lega-
cies and the legal patrimony inherited by the post-colonial state are marked by the entrenchment
of religion in law. These characteristics of religion continue to have important institutional and
ideational implications in religiously divided societies.
Publications and Beyond
Several publications based on these and other collective inquiries are now underway. Asli Bâli
and Hanna Lerner are editing a volume titled Constitution Writing, Religion, and Human Rights,
forthcoming (2015) with Cambridge University Press. The book breaks new ground in comparative
constitutional scholarship by examining debates over religion during constitution-drafting pro-
cesses. The wide range of country cases from Asia, Africa, Europe and Middle East—neglected
areas in comparative constitutionalism—render the book a timely and important contribution
to the field. In addition to an introduction and theoretical chapter, the volume contains expert
studies of Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Lebanon, Morocco, Norway, Pakistan,
Senegal, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Turkey. Additional contributing authors include several of the
group’s members (convenors, fellows, and associate fellows), namely Nathan Brown, Mark
Farha, Mirjam Künkler, John Madeley, David Mednicoff, Matthew Nelson, and Shylas-
hri Shankar. The group’s opening conference ‘Constitution Writing, Religion and Human
Rights’ (June 4–6) featured presentations of several of the volume’s chapters and gave the editors
the opportunity to learn about other country cases and receive feedback from participants. The
editors and contributors continued to work on the project during the summer at ZiF .
For the three summer months when most of the research group was in residence at ZiF, the
fellows identified and pursued several smaller research agendas within the group’s larger research
theme of religion, constitutionalism, and human rights. These sub-topics included:
• Role of law in mollifying and exacerbating religious conflicts
• Constitutions and religious education
• Legal pluralism in the area of personal law
• Migration of constitutional models of religion-state relations
• Constitutionalism and conceptual history
The group collectively came up with these themes, laid out a research plan, and organized a
workshop (August 21–23) to present their findings. The fellows also found it helpful to break into
smaller groups to address them individually. Each subgroup met several times during the summer
months to study its topic and related readings in addition to those discussed by the entire group
ZiF-Mitteilungen 1|2015
at weekly meetings. These conversations generated ideas for six new papers: ‘The Migration
of Religious Ideas into the Irish Constitution: The Problem of “Church” and “State”’ (Bill
Kissane), ‘Juridical Voyage of “Essential Practices of Religion” from India to Malaysia and Paki-
stan’ (Shylashri Shankar), ‘The Polarizing Effect of Law in South and Southeast Asia’ (Tamir
Moustafa, Matthew Nelson, Ben Schonthal, Shylashri Shankar), ‘Religion, Education,
and Constitutional Stasis’ (Nathan Brown, Bill Kissane, John Madeley), ‘The (De-) Confession-
alization of Law in India and Indonesia: the Limits of Monism’ (Mirjam Künkler, Yüksel Sezgin)
and ‘Rethinking the Migration of Constitutional Models’ (Asli Bâli, Hanna Lerner, David
Mednicoff, Matthew Nelson).
The fellows are now revising these papers and preparing them for submission as a special
journal issue with the American Behavioral Scientist. The issue offers analyses of the ways in which
domestic actors—constitutional drafters, judges, political elites, civil society activists— influence
the crafting and reception of constitutional concepts and ideas pertaining to religious issues.
While varying in the methodology applied by their authors, the articles included in this special
issue address a similar question: How do political contestations draw and shape the constitutional
and interpretational boundaries between the autonomy of religious practice and the ability of
the state to regulate religion? The articles draw on different constitutional settings and different
country contexts, highlight the various ways domestic actors— elites, courts, political parties, and
civil society groups— influence and shape the boundaries between the domains of religion and the
state and its consequences for religious polarization. They examine case studies from the ‘West’
and the ‘East’, featuring such processes in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Ireland,
Egypt, Turkey, Norway and the USA. They analyze the implications of the migration of constitu-
tional models of religion-state relations, contestations of constitutional boundaries drawn
between or among religious groups, and the impact of choices made on religious personal law and
religious education on the balance between religious demands and the protection of human
rights. The special issue contributes to the existing literature by challenging the dichotomy
between constitutional drafting and constitutional interpretation/reception, highlighting the
various ways through which political actors/interests/ groups have influenced the capacity of the
state to regulate religion through constitution writing, ordinary legislation, judicial adjudication
or even informally through civil society.
Group members are also in the early stages of preparing publications based on two other col-
laborative efforts undertaken as part of the larger ZiF research project. Matthew Nelson, Mir-
jam Künkler, and Aaron Glasserman are planning an edited volume based on the workshop
‘Religious Education and Democratic Citizenship’ they convened July 31August 1. In addition,
Aaron Glasserman is preparing prospectuses to publish either a special journal issue or an
edited volume based on the papers presented at the workshop ‘Bureaucratization of Islam in Mus-
lim States and Societies’ he convened on October 23–24.
Finally, the fellows are delighted to be able to return to ZiF in Summer 2015 for a two-week
residence July 6–20. That residence will include an internal meeting with presentations of fellows’
work relating to the group’s research theme as well as a larger closing conference with guest par-
ticipants joining the group. The two weeks will be an excellent opportunity for the fellows to
reconvene, consider their progress over the previous year, and plan future collaborations on
the rich and timely topic of constitutionalism, religion, and human rights.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.