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Key to Diptera families (adults)

Authors:
  • Royal BC Museum
  • Natural History Museum of Denmark
Citation:
Buck, M., Woodley, N.E., Borkent, A., Wood, D.M., Pape, T., Vockeroth, J.R., Michelsen, V., & Marshall, S.A.
2009. Key to Diptera families - adults. Chapter 6, pp. 95-144. In Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming,
J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E., & Zumbado, M.A. (eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera.
Volume 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. i-xii + 1-714.
See last page for book title page.
... Later, every sample was preserved in 70% ethanol and deposited in the facilities of the Multitrophic Interaction Network (INECOL) for further studies. Each sample was identified to family level using taxonomical keys (Buck et al. 2009), and the trophic guilds of the larval stages were also documented Marshall 2012;Courtney et al. 2017) to explore the functional structure of the community. ...
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... Based on their taxonomic identity, all adult and immature samples (excluding mites) were assigned to one of the following trophic guilds: scavengers, coprophagous, hematophagous, parasitoids, mycetophagous, herbivores, saprophagous, omnivorous, and predators (Arnett, 1973;White, 1983;Cibrián et al., 1995;Fernández and Sharkey, 2006;Buck et al., 2009). This critical task was performed by a specialist taxonomist from the INECOL, who possesses a deep knowledge of the natural history of the soil arthropod. ...
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Wildfires are significant disruptors of established communities, but natural fire regimens are essential to sustaining biodiversity in fire-prone ecosystems. Besides plants, soil arthropods are highly affected by wildfires, but their communities are also highly resilient to such catastrophic events. It is known that both stochastic (local extinction, dispersion, and colonization probabilities) and deterministic (environmental and biotic filters) processes take part in the reassembly of biotic communities after wildfires. However, the contribution of stochastic and deterministic processes in reassembling soil arthropod communities after wildfires remains unclear, and it is largely unknown how this is affected by fire severity. This study reports on the trophic guilds, taxa composition, and alpha and beta diversity partitioning of a soil arthropod community over one year, considering unburnt forest and two levels of fire severity in a pine forest in the eastern mountainous region of Mexico. The wildfire had a positive effect on the abundance of saprophagous species, especially in moderate-fire severity sites. Overall, the diversity of the community of soil arthropods has increased over time since the fire. Taxa turnover contributed beyond random expectations to the observed beta diversity, suggesting that stochastic processes predominated in the reassemblage of the soil arthropod community. We conclude that the changes in the alpha and beta diversity of the postfire soil arthropod community were affected by the severity of the wildfire and by the time that had passed since the fire event, showing a capacity for recovery to this type of disturbance.
... The following keys are simplified with the intention to recognize adults of Diptera families with obligate hematophagous species. For a more detailed and precise identification, we recommend the keys provided by McAlpine (1981b), Papp and Schumann (2000), Buck et al. (2009), and Kirk-Spriggs (2017). ...
Chapter
Diptera is one of the most diverse orders of insects with more than 159,000 valid species described worldwide, which are arranged in approximately 158 families. A general overview of insect species of the order Diptera with hematophagous habits is presented. This includes some important characteristics to recognize those families with blood-sucking habits and a simple taxonomic key for their identification. Of the 13 blood-feeding families included, four are known to be involved as vectors of avian haemosporidia and are treated in more detail. As such, an overview of the morphology, biology, importance, taxonomy, and diversity of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, and Hippoboscidae is presented. Basic literature for their study is also provided. The novice is reminded that many technical taxonomical terms will be used, so make sure you follow closely the figures legends and drawings throughout the text; we also include a glossary of terms to help you traverse the journey (remember patience and dedication pay off!).
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  The acalypterate family Inbiomyiidae fam.n. (Diptera, Carnoidea) is described for the newly discovered Neotropical genus Inbiomyiagen.n. with its type species I. mcalpineorumsp.n. from Costa Rica. The genus ranges from Guatemala south to French Guiana and Bolivia and includes a total of fourteen undescribed species, ten of which will be described formally in a separate paper. Inbiomyia is distinctive, with characteristic, extremely shortened head with nonfunctional ptilinum and reduced chaetotaxy, shortened first flagellomere with very elongate, dorsoapically inserted arista, proboscis with largely separate labellar lobes that point in different directions, mid tibia lacking apicoventral bristle, unusual fusion of male sternites 5–7, reduced male sternite 8, elongate surstyluslike ventral epandrial lobes, cerci absent in both sexes, extremely truncate female genitalia, and large, extremely flattened eggs. The larva of Inbiomyia and its biology are unknown. Inbiomyia occurs mostly in primary lowland rain forest and often is associated with the decaying foliage of fallen trees. Inbiomyiidae belong in the superfamily Carnoidea. The previously doubtful monophyly of the Carnoidea is accepted tentatively on the basis of newly established synapomorphies of the male genitalia. Family level relationships of the Carnoidea are analysed quantitatively for the first time based on a matrix of fifty-eight morphological characters. The putative sister group relationship of Inbiomyiidae to the monotypic Australasian family Australimyzidae is supported by several synapomorphies, mostly from the male and female postabdomen. Family status for the Australimyzidae is confirmed, rejecting previous claims of a sister group relationship (or synonymy) with the Carnidae. The analysis also leads to revised hypotheses of the relationships of Cryptochetidae and Acartophthalmidae, and the paraphyly of ‘Tethinidae’ with regard to Canacidae, suspected by previous authors, is confirmed.
166); frons with fronto-orbital bristles small and hairlike (Fig. 181); face flat to concave
  • ........................ Chloropidae
Propleuron with sharp vertical ridge (similar to Fig. 166); frons with fronto-orbital bristles small and hairlike (Fig. 181); face flat to concave..........................Chloropidae, in part* *Note: Brachypterous species known from South America but not yet recorded from Central America.
Revisión parcial de las Pyrgotidae neotropicales y antárticas, con sinópsis de los géneros y especies (Diptera, Acalyptratae)
  • M L Aczél
Aczél, M.L. 1956. Revisión parcial de las Pyrgotidae neotropicales y antárticas, con sinópsis de los géneros y especies (Diptera, Acalyptratae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 6: 1–38.
A review of the Rhinophoridae (Diptera) and a revision of the Afrotropical species
  • R W Crosskey
Crosskey, R.W. 1977. A review of the Rhinophoridae (Diptera) and a revision of the Afrotropical species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology 36: 1–66.