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Coca-Cola® for determining bioaccessible uranium in contaminated mine soils

Authors:

Abstract

Presentation at International E. SchConference 2011: Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology - VI. Sixth Uranium Conference of the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, 18 – 22 September 2011 B.G. Lottermoser 1, Snug 2, S. Haneklaus 2 1 University of Tasmania, Australia 2 Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Germany
B.G. Lottermoser
University of Tasmania, Australia
E. Schnug, S. Haneklaus
Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants,
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Germany
Coca-Cola® for determining
bioaccessible uranium in
contaminated mine soils
Households
Demonstrations
Hospitals
Cooking
Karanjia & Rees (1993)
Unconventional uses of Cola
Environmental
impact
assessments
Crops
Schnug et al. (1996, 1998)
This study
Traditional
EDTA, DTPA, CaCl2
Agronomy
Contaminated land
assessment
Novel
Cola softdrinks
Mary Kathleen uranium
mine, Australia
Bioaccessibility tests
Mining
1956-1982
Rehabilitation
1985 @ $19 million
Award for
rehabilitation excellence
1986
Sydney
2000 km
Mary Kathleen Mary Kathleen mine site
Waste rock dumps
As, Cu, Ni, Pb, Th, U & LREE
Oxidation, leaching & erosion
Soils & stream sediments
As, Cu, Ni, Pb, Th, U & LREE
U = ~30 ppm
Mary Kathleen mine site
Tailings
7.1 Mt
Tailings seepage
Acid
Ca-Mg-SO4, Fe,
Mn, Ni, U,
LREE, Zn
Ra-226, U-238
Mary Kathleen mine site
Soils
As, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Th, U
& LREE enrichment
1.5-25x background
Correlation for As-Ce-
Cu-Fe-Pb-Th-Y
Pit walls & waste rocks
Ore mineral aggregates
No correlation for U
Uraninite oxidation
U adsorption onto soils
Mary Kathleen mine site
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Plants
Weed invasion
Disturbed ground, TSF &
waste rock dumps
Ce, Cu, La & U enrichment
10-100x background
Landuse
Cattle grazing
Mary Kathleen mine site
Topsoils
Mineralogy
Geochemistry
Extractions
DTPA, CaCl2 & Cola
5g in 50 mL for 1 hr
As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, U,
Y, Zn
Plants
Leaves & stems of the
Apple of Sodom
As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, U,
Y, Zn
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Methods
0.001
0.010
0.100
1.000
10.000
100.000
1000.000
1.000 10.000 100.000 1000.000
Coca-Cola extract (mg/l)
Total (mg/kg)
Coca-Cola Classic
Coke Zero
Diet Coke
0.001
0.010
0.100
1.000
10.000
100.000
1.000 10.000 100.000 1000.000
DTPA / CaCl2extract (mg/l)
Total (mg/kg)
DTPA
CaCl2
Higher
proportions
of leachable
uranium
in more
contaminated
soils
Uranium
Uranium
Uranium
Soil
extractions
As, Ce, Cu, La, Ni, Y & Zn: DTPA
U: Diet Coke® & Coke Zero®
CaCl2
Coke Zero®
Diet Coke®
DTPA
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
As
Ce
Cu
La
Mn
Ni
U
Y
Zn
%
N: 26
Greatest extraction strength
Diet Coke® &
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola Classic®
4-6 % U extraction
0.8 % U extraction
Carbonated, purified water
Sulfite ammonia caramel colour
Flavour & caffeine
Phosphoric acid, pH ~2.4
Artificial sweeteners
Preservatives & citric acid
Cane sugar
Influence of Cola ingredients
on uranium extraction
>>
Citric acid solubilises uranium in contaminated soils
(Ebbs et al. 1998; Huang et al. 1998; Shahandeh and Hossner 2002)
Summary: Soil extractions
Diet Coke® &
Coke Zero®
DTPA, CaCl2 &
Coca-Cola Classic®
Extraction strength for
uranium
Citric acid
>>
Mine soils: U 10-100x background
Higher proportions of more leachable
U in more contaminated soils (DTPA,
CaCl2 & Cola)
1. Equal to DTPA or CaCl2?
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
3. Improvement in convenience?
Validation of Cola extractions
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
0.001
0.010
0.100
1.000
10.000
100.000
0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000 1000.000
CaCl2extract (mg/l)
Coca-Cola extract (mg/l)
Coca-Cola Classic
Coke Zero
Diet Coke
r = 0.86
r = 0.89
r = 0.94
Uranium
Validation of Cola extractions
1. Equal to CaCl2?
0.001
0.010
0.100
1.000
10.000
100.000
0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000 1000.000
DTPA extract (mg/l)
Coca-Cola extract (mg/l)
Coca-Cola Classic
Coke Zero
Diet Coke
r = 0.98
r = 0.55
r = 0.66
Uranium
Validation of Cola extractions
1. Equal to DTPA?
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
Cola-extractable uranium
correlates with DTPA & CaCl2
>> DTPA & CaCl2
= DTPA
Validation of Cola extractions
1. Equal to DTPA or CaCl2?
Apple of Sodom
Israel, Africa, Asia,
Australia & Americas
1st century Flavius
Josephus: Sodom, Israel
Mythical deadly plant
The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by God
as punishment for the evil ways of its inhabitants:
John Martin 1852
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Validation of Cola extractions
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
Apple of Sodom
Milky sap latex
Accidental eye contact
causes diseases
Traditional medicine
Anti-inflammatory
Coagulant in cheese
making
Plastic reinforcement agent
Flocculant in water
treatment
Contraceptive
(Traore 1992; Kareem 2003; Arya & Kumar 2005;
Okonko & Shittu 2007; Hemalatha & Padmini 2011)
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Validation of Cola extractions
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
Apple of Sodom
Stems & leaves
Steroidal heart poisons
Ca-Mg-K-S > Fodder guidelines
Ingestion causes toxicity to
sheep & cattle
(Basak et al. 2009; de Lima et al 2011; Lottermoser 2011)
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Validation of Cola extractions
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
0.01
0.1
1
10
0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000
U (mg/kg)
in leaves
U (mg/kg) in extract
Coca-Cola Classic extract
DTPA-extract
r = 0.79 & 0.41
Apple of Sodom
Calotropis procera
Validation of Cola extractions
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
Correlation
Higher proportions of extractable
uranium in leaves & stems
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
Cola-extractable uranium correlates
with Apple of Sodom uptake
>> Apple of Sodom
= Apple of Sodom
Validation of Cola extractions
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
DTPA & CaCl2
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
Distilled H2O
High-quality chemicals
Experiment protocols
Lab infrastructure
Trained staff
Ease of use
Cost
Availability
Preparation time
Laboratory cleanliness
Disposal
Validation of Cola extractions
3. Improvement in convenience?
1. Equal to DTPA or CaCl2?
2. Mimic of plant uptake?
3. Improvement in convenience?
Validation of Cola extractions
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
1986
2011
Award for
rehabilitation
excellence
Seepage from TSF
Erosion & leaching from waste
rock dumps
Contamination of
soils, sediments
& waters
Toxic weed
invasion
Bioaccessibility of
elements to
plants
Conclusions: Mary Kathleen mine site
Diet Coke®
Coke Zero®
Coca-Cola
Classic®
Extraction strength
Citric acid
Extraction strength
Validation
> DTPA & CaCl2
> Apple of Sodom
Improvement in
convenience
Validation
= DTPA
= Apple of Sodom
Improvement in
convenience
Bioaccessibility
test
Bioaccessibility
test
Conclusions: Cola extractions
>
Acknowledgements
Dr N Munksgaard
Cooperative Research Centre for
Contamination Assessment
and Remediation of the Environment
Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung
UMH 2011 Organizing Committee
Thank you for your interest
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