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Participatory approaches emerged in the late 1980 as a response to continued failure of top down approaches. It was realized that most technologies developed by researchers alone were inappropriate for smallholder farmers. Farmer s conditions and, by then seen as partners in research and extension, and the key players in the innovation process. The present study was conducted to explore the perceptions of farmers, organizational staff including the change agents commonly called as extension workers, and their supervisory staff regarding the need for paradigm shift from top down to participatory extension in the governmental agricultural extension system in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Based on the perceptions of stakeholders an analysis of the currently practiced governmental top down agricultural extension system and the participatory extension system of selected NGO (PRSP) was conducted. The questions are there a need for the paradigm shift from top down to the participatory extension in the Punjab? How should this change take place? And what are the perceived implications for this change? Were answered. The organizational staff which includes change agents and their supervisory staff of both systems (Top Down and Participatory Extension); and their joint contact farmers were contacted to collect the needed information from Faisalabad district which is one of the prominent and important district of the Punjab province. The data were collected through the research instrument which was tested for its reliability and validity. The data collected were thus analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The respondents agreed that the participatory extension system (PES) had more strengths than that of the top down extension system (TDES). They indicated a need for Paradigm shift from TDES to PES in the governmental extension system. They indicated that the change should take place step wise in one year. The most important implications of this change were identified as: The country will be self sufficient in all major cash crops; the traditional knowledge of farmers will improve; there will be visible change in the socioeconomic conditions of farmers. The main characteristics of the perceived future participatory extension system were identified as: It should address the real problems of farmers; multidisciplinary teams of researchers, extension workers, and farmers should work together for information generation and dissemination; It should ensure sustainability; there should be working relationship between government, rural communities and other agencies like banks, donor agencies and government line agencies; there should be strong and regular feedback regarding the solutions of problems related to farming community; it should be run by the government through participatory extension approach; it should use farmer friendly mode; It should ensure maximum farmers participation; the need for the physical infrastructure schemes be initiated by the people themselves; Department of Agricultural and it should be run through the active involvement of CBOs ; Department of Agriculture ( extension ) should be run on partnership basis.
    • "practices. Ironically, all these programs could not fulfil the required objectives and were ended one after the other (Lodhi, 2003). After these programs, a Hub program was launched in 2008. "
    Article · Apr 2016 · Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
    • "Particularly, public sector has inadequate funds and low competency level of front line extension workers. Moreover it has centralized structures, and bureaucratic style trends (Lodhi, 2003; Obaa et al., 2005; Khan, 2006; Khooharo et al., 2008). On the other hand, the private companies which provide the extension services are actually meant for profit maximization and are enthusiastic to engage practices which facilitate sale of their products (Saravanan, 2001; Bajwa, 2003; Sulaiman and Suresh, 2005; Mirani, et al., 2007; Khooharo et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Present research sought to analyze professional competency level of public and private sector extension field staff in Baluchistan province of Pakistan. Five districts i.e. Turbat (Kech), Lasbela, Mastung, Sibi, and Loralai, one from each ecological zone, were selected purposefully. Competency level of the field staff of public and private agricultural extension was assessed through farmers’ respondents. A sample of 375 farmers was selected using systematic sampling procedure. A pre-tested and validated research instrument was used to collect the data. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS (PC) program. Mean, standard deviations, rank order and T-values were calculated to analyze and compare the competency means of both public and private extension field staff. The results of the study revealed that farmers had a view that both public and private extension field staffs were not competent enough to perform the extension job. However, they were of the opinion that comparatively, private field staff is more competent than public field staff. T-values reveal that out of 13 competency indicators, 8 were statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance. However, five competency indicators were nonsignificant. The study suggested that adoption of regular in-service training procedures could build the capacity of the public and private extension field staff.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agricultural Extension is very important and modern technology can not be sent to the end users until and unless well qualified and trained Agriculture Extension Officers (AEOs) take this responsibility and pin point those areas which needs special attention. AEOs are key stakeholders and play crucial role in the extension services, particularly in rural development and agriculture. They play an important developmental role by imparting and disseminating knowledge and education particularly to farmers regarding modern production technology. This study based on self assessment of the competency of AEOs in horticulture, was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, which is famous for fruits and vegetables. Data was collected from all the AEOs through a mailed questionnaire. It is found that there are differences between the existing and expected technical competencies in horticulture. The study reveals that there are significant differences in the technical competencies of the agricultural officials based on by their attendance in training programs provided as well as specialization. Since productivity in many horticulture products has been declining during the past two decades, the need for training and imparting specialized scientific and technical education to extension officers is a dire need. Web diagram shows that AEOs urgently need in-service training to enhance their knowledge regarding horticulture. The horticulture is chosen keeping in view its economic and nutritional value and acute shortage of fruits. Moreover, the secondary data also support this fact (as indicated by statistics that per hectare availability is less than 144kgs (GOP 2008-09). The problem is further complicated due to ever increasing population growth in the country. As a result only 10% of the total population can afford to buy fruits in Pakistan It is further recommended that effective measures should be initiated in order to lessen the communication gap between the possessed and the required level of technical competencies.
    Full-text · Article · · Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
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