ResearchPDF Available

A PhET-Based Laboratory Activity in Teaching Direct Current Circuits (Guided Inquiry with Formative Assessment)

Research

A PhET-Based Laboratory Activity in Teaching Direct Current Circuits (Guided Inquiry with Formative Assessment)

Abstract and Figures

An activity designed for a wide range of grade level. It can be modified to suit the grade and need.It is designed for the PHET Simulation Circuit Construction Kit (CCK) in such a manner that it follow guided inquiry and with embedded formative assessment.
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 1
A PhET-Based Laboratory Activity in Teaching Direct Current Circuits
(Guided Inquiry with Formative Assessment)
Vel Marie C. Palisbo, Arlyn S. Pusta, Jonell B. Razo, Sotero O. Malayao Jr
Department of Science and Mathematics Education
College of Education
Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City, Philippines
velmarie.palisbo@g.msuiit.edu.ph
arlyn.pusta@g.msuiit.edu.ph
jonell.razo@g.msuiit.edu.ph
sotero.malayao@g.msuiit.edu.ph
Education in the 21st century is integrated with the Information and Communications
Technology (ICT). Moreover, it is continually being rationalized and updated with the constant
development and new advancement in technology.
The researchers believe that educators of today should align themselves with the new breed of
learners who are living in this generation. The use of ICT in education is vital in the students'
development of 21st century skills, specifically Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
Literacy. As educators, we should be capable of utilizing available resources that are valid and reliable
in order to provide students the knowledge and skills they need and are appropriate for them[1].
The PhET project provides a stimulation software on electric circuit called Circuit Construction
Kit (CCK). It exploits the idea of greater level of interactivity, illustration power and provides
immediate feedback to those who are using it [2]. The simulations create animated games, like
environments where the visual and conceptual models that physicists use, are made accessible to
students. As consistent with constructivism, overwhelming data points out that virtual environment can
be a best replacement for real objects laboratory activity [3],[4].
The researchers of this study aim to develop a PhET-based laboratory activity in teaching direct
current circuits to enhance student's performance in their test scores with the core emphasis of guided
inquiry mode [5], [1].
The strengthening of internet, the improvement of support technologies, and the global goal of
student centered and constructivist stance simply made a radical move to rethink of what we long-
termed as time-tested modalities” to be in the way of retooling as these would not fit into the kind of
cognitive frame of the 21st century learners. And simply put, there are concepts that cannot be fully
grasped and elucidated without the more insightful and more magnifying power of simulations [6],[7].
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 2
References:
1. Ohio State University. (2010). Computer simulations can be as effective as direct observation at
teaching students. ScienceDaily. Retrieved on June 13, 2015 from
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100211151653.htm
2. Keller, C. J., N. D. Finkelstein, K. K. Perkins and S. J. Pollock. (2007). Assessing the
Effectiveness of a Computer Simulation in Introductory Undergraduate Environments. AIP
Conf. Proc. 883, 121; Syracuse, New York. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2508707.
3. Finkelstein, N. D., W. K. Adams, C. J. Keller, P. B. Kohl, K. K. Perkins, N. S. Podolefsky, S.
Reid, and R. LeMaster. (2005). When Learning About The Real World Is Better Done Virtually:
A Study Of Substituting Computer Simulations For Laboratory Equipment. Phys. Rev. ST Phys.
Educ. Res. 1, 010103. Retrieved from
http://journals.aps.org/prstper/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.1.010103.
4. PhET Interactive Simulations. (2015). About PhET. Retrieved from
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/about.
5. Moore, E. B., T. A. Herzog and K. K. Perkins. (2013). Interactive Simulations As Implicit
Support For Guided-Inquiry. This article is part of themed collection: The Application of
Technology to Enhance Chemistry Education. DOI: 10.1039/C3RP20157K
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2013/RP/C3RP20157K
6. Rehn, D. A., Moore, E. B., Podolefsky, N. S., & Finkelstein, N., JoTLT. (2013). Tools For
High-Tech Tool Use: A Framework And Heuristics For Using Interactive Simulations. 2(1), p.
31-55. Retrieved from http://jotlt.indiana.edu/article/view/3507.\
7. Winsberg, Eric. (2015). "Computer Simulations in Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from
http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/simulations-science/.
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 3
Names: _____________________________________________ Score: ____________
_____________________________________________ Group No.: _______
What happens in a Circuit?
Directions:
1. Log on to your computer
2. Go to the following website:
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit-construction-kit-dc
Click the button that says “Play with sims…”
3. On the side bar under Simulations, select By Grade Level and pick
Elementary School. Then, scroll down and click on the application that says
Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only).
4. Click “Run now.”
5. You now have the raw material to create a circuit.
Take a moment to look over the site and find all the
different materials. To build a circuit you will need several
wires, a light bulb, a battery, a switch, and a resistor. Play
with it to see how to grab and manipulate these tools.
6. Click the reset button.
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 4
Image Source:
img08.deviantart.net/8397
/i/2014/291/1/7/circuit_ma
n_powered_up_by_ultimat
emaverickx-d7zvcj3.png
WORD BANK:
Black out is a period of
darkness caused by a
failure of electrical
power.
Hello Kids! Did you know that electricity flows in a path called
circuit? An electric circuit is composed of interconnected
electrical components. These components form a complete
path of an electric circuit.
By the way, I am Circuit Man, and I badly need your help! The
people in Bright Town have been experiencing a blackout for
three days now. This is because Scorch Man has stolen all the
components of my circuit. He would only give each component
back if I do the activity, and answer all his questions correctly.
Please help me bring light to Bright Town again!
I am Scorch Man!
If you can determine the effects of changing the
number or type of component in a circuit, then
you can help Circuit Man. If not, Bright Town will
be in darkness forever!
Bright Town is
wrapped in darkness!
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 5
http://ultimatemaverickx.
deviantart.com/art/Scorc
h-Man-Powered-Up-
I. There are two types of circuits, the series circuit and parallel
circuit. Using the Circuit Construction Kit, build a simple series circuit
that consists of 10 pieces of wire, 2 light bulbs, and 2 batteries.
Your circuit may look like the image below.
NOTE:
In order to complete the circuit, the red circles at
the end of each must overlap. Please note that
the light bulb also has TWO circles. Your circuit is
complete and working when the light comes on
and the blue dots begin moving.
II. Now right click on one of the wires connected to a light
bulb, and click remove.
Question A:
What did
you
observe?
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 6
Answer to Question A:
III. Return the wire you removed in II. Then, remove one of
the wires touching the battery.
Answer to Question B:
Question B:
What
happened to
the light bulbs
and the blue
dots in the
circuit?
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 7
IV. Return the wire you removed in III. Now, add a light bulb to
the circuit.
NOTE:
To add a light bulb, right click on one of the wires connected to the bulb, then press Split Junction
.
Then grab a light bulb and wire to complete the circuit.
Question C:
What happened to
the brightness of
the light bulbs?
How about the
flow of the blue
dots in the
circuit?
Answers to Question C:
V. Then, add two batteries to the circuit.
Question D:
What happened
to the light
bulbs? How about
the flow of the
blue dots in the
circuit?
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 8
Answers to Question D:
VI. Raise your hand and let your teacher check your working
series circuit.
Click the Reset All button to begin working on the next circuit.
Parallel circuits provide more than one path for electrons to
move. Create a parallel circuit in the Circuit Construction Kit,
using 10 wires, 2 batteries and 2 light bulbs.
Your circuit may look like the image below.
NOTE:
Your circuit is
complete and
working when
the light comes
on and the blue
dots begin
moving.
VII. Now, right click on one of
the wires connected to a light
bulb. Remove the wire.
Question E:
What did you
observe?
Answers to Question E:
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 9
0
VIII. Return the wire you removed in VII. Then, remove one of
the wires touching the battery.
Question F:
What
happened to
the circuit?
Answers to Question F:
Question G:
What is the difference between removing the first wire
and the second? Why is this significant?
Answers to Question G:
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 10
IX. Add two light bulbs to the circuit.
Your circuit now looks like this.
Question H:
What happened
to the light
bulbs? How about
the flow of the
blue dots in the
circuit?
Answers to Question H:
X. Remove the two light bulbs and add a switch to the circuit.
Your circuit now looks like this.
Question I:
What happens when
you turn on the
switch? How about
when you turn it off?
Answers to Question I:
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education, MSU-IIT Iligan City, Philippines Page 11
XI. Raise your hand and let your teacher check off your working parallel circuit.
Question J:
What do you think do the moving blue dots represent?
Answers to Question J:
How does changing the number or type
of component affect a circuit?
Thank you!
You have helped me bring light back
to Bright Town.
GREAT JOB!
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
We present the results of a study designed to provide insight into interactive simulation use during guided-inquiry activities in chemistry classes. The PhET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado develops interactive simulations that utilize implicit – rather than explicit – scaffolding to support student learning through exploration and experimentation. In the study, 80 students in a General Chemistry class were given ten minutes to explore the PhET simulation Molecule Polarity in self-selected groups, with no instructions on how to interact with the simulation. Using mouse click data, audio recordings and clicker question responses, we investigated: students' ability to use the simulation by analyzing the extent to which they explored the simulation, the discussions students engaged in during simulation use, and student perceptions of simulation use. We found effective simulation use, with the 22 groups exploring an average of 18 of the 23 available features in Molecule Polarity. Sixty-four percent of student utterances were part of on-topic (polarity) discussion segments, with most off-topic discussions being intermittent and brief. Students largely found the simulation useful for their learning and experienced either brief or no frustration during sim exploration. These results indicate that students in large classes can use interactive simulations designed with implicit scaffolding through exploration, and can do so without frustration overwhelming the perception of value brought by the simulation use. This work suggests that implicitly scaffolded interactive simulations can provide environments that support guided-inquiry learning and channel students into productive inquiry while minimizing the need for explicit guidance.
Article
Full-text available
We present studies documenting the effectiveness of using a computer simulation, specifically the Circuit Construction Kit (CCK) developed as part of the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET), in two environments: an interactive college lecture and an inquiry‐based laboratory. In the first study conducted in lecture, we compared students viewing CCK to viewing a traditional demonstration during Peer Instruction. Students viewing CCK had a 47% larger relative gain (11% absolute gain) on measures of conceptual understanding compared to traditional demonstrations. These results led us to study the impact of the simulation’s explicit representation for visualizing current flow in a laboratory environment, where we removed this feature for a subset of students. Students using CCK with or without the explicit visualization of current performed similarly to each other on common exam questions. Although the majority of students in both groups favored the use of CCK over real circuit equipment, the students who used CCK without the explicit current model favored the simulation more than the other group.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the effects of substituting a computer simulation for real laboratory equipment in the second semester of a large-scale introductory physics course. The direct current circuit laboratory was modified to compare the effects of using computer simulations with the effects of using real light bulbs, meters, and wires. Two groups of students, those who used real equipment and those who used a computer simulation that explicitly modeled electron flow, were compared in terms of their mastery of physics concepts and skills with real equipment. Students who used the simulated equipment outperformed their counterparts both on a conceptual survey of the domain and in the coordinated tasks of assembling a real circuit and describing how it worked.
Article
As the use of computer-based science simulations in educational environments grows, so too does the need for research on productive use of simulations. This paper presents ways to create effective assignments that accompany an interactive simulation in a variety of educational environments. A framework that supports the creation of assignments with simulations in any environment is provided, as well as a set of heuristics, or strategies, for how to create assignments based on the particular environment and simulation being used. Case studies of use in college and middle school science classes are provided to illustrate implementation of the heuristics, and how the heuristics can be used to promote productive use of a simulation.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Eric Winsberg
Winsberg, Eric. (2015). "Computer Simulations in Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/simulations-science/.
Interactive Simulations As Implicit Support For Guided-Inquiry. This article is part of themed collection: The Application of Technology to Enhance Chemistry Education
  • E B Moore
  • T A Herzog
  • K K Perkins
Moore, E. B., T. A. Herzog and K. K. Perkins. (2013). Interactive Simulations As Implicit Support For Guided-Inquiry. This article is part of themed collection: The Application of Technology to Enhance Chemistry Education. DOI: 10.1039/C3RP20157K
Computer Simulations in Science
  • Eric Winsberg
Winsberg, Eric. (2015). "Computer Simulations in Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/simulations-science/.