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Study background: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is an organic compound used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Methods: The control and treated DHBP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyser, surface area analyser, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. Results: The XRD study indicated a slight decrease in the volume of the unit cell and molecular weight of treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, XRD study revealed an increase in average crystallite size of the treated DHBP by 32.73% as compared to the control sample. The DSC characterization showed no significant change in the melting temperature of treated sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated DHBP was substantially increased by 11.67% as compared to the control. However, TGA analysis showed a decrease in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated DHBP (257.66ºC) as compared to the control sample (260.93ºC). The particle size analysis showed a substantial increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of the treated DHBP by 41% and 15.8% as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area by 9.5% in the treated DHBP, which was supported by the particle size results. Nevertheless, FT-IR analysis showed a downward shift of methyl group stretch (2885→2835 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control. The UV analysis showed a blue shift of absorption peak 323→318 nm in the treated sample (T1) as compared to the control. Conclusion: Altogether, the results showed significant changes in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated DHBP as compared to the control.
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Clinical Pharmacology
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ISSN: 2167-065X
Trivedi et al., Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 2015, 4:4
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Energy Treated
2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Rama Mohan Tallapragada1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Rakesh Kumar Mishra2 and Snehasis
Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Study background: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is an organic compound used for the synthesis of
pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the inuence of bioeld energy treatment on the
physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The
control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld energy treatment.
Methods: The control and treated DHBP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyser, surface area analyser,
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis.
Results: The XRD study indicated a slight decrease in the volume of the unit cell and molecular weight of treated
DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, XRD study revealed an increase in average crystallite size of the
treated DHBP by 32.73% as compared to the control sample. The DSC characterization showed no signicant change in
the melting temperature of treated sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated DHBP was substantially increased by
11.67% as compared to the control. However, TGA analysis showed a decrease in the maximum thermal decomposition
temperature (Tmax) of the treated DHBP (257.66ºC) as compared to the control sample (260.93ºC). The particle size
analysis showed a substantial increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of the treated DHBP by 41% and 15.8% as compared
to the control sample. Additionally, the surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area by 9.5% in the treated
DHBP, which was supported by the particle size results. Nevertheless, FT-IR analysis showed a downward shift of
methyl group stretch (2885→2835 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control. The UV analysis showed a
blue shift of absorption peak 323→318 nm in the treated sample (T1) as compared to the control.
Conclusion: Altogether, the results showed signicant changes in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of
treated DHBP as compared to the control.
Keywords: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone; X-ray diraction; ermal
analysis; Laser particle size analyser; Surface area analyser; Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy; Ultra violet-visible spectroscopy.
Abbreviations: XRD: X-Ray Diraction; DSC: Dierential
Scanning Calorimetry; TGA: ermo Gravimetric Analysis; FTIR:
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis: Ultra Violet-
Visible Spectroscopy Analysis; CAM: Complementary and Alternative
Medicine
Introduction
Benzophenone an aromatic ketone is an important class of organic
compounds used in perfumes and photochemicals. Benzophenones are
used as an intermediate for the synthesis of dyes, pesticides and drugs
[1]. ese compounds are widely used for the synthesis of various
drugs having anxiolytic, hypnotic and antihistaminic activities [2].
2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is used as UV-light absorber in
resinous and polymer compositions such as polystyrene, acrylonitrile
polymer and other copolymers [3]. Moreover, these UV light absorbers
are also used in the preparation of sunscreen agents for cosmetic
applications. DHBP has been used as promising sunscreen agent that
reduces the skin damage by blocking the ultra violet light [2].
e chemical and physical stability of the pharmaceutical
compounds are most desired quality attributes that directly aect its
safety, ecacy, and shelf life [4]. Hence, it is required to explore some
new alternate approaches that could alter the physical and chemical
properties of the compounds such as DHBP. Recently bioeld energy
treatment has been used as a plausible approach for physicochemical
modication of metals [5,6], ceramic [7], organic products [8]
and pharmaceutical drugs [9]. erefore, aer considering the
pharmaceutical applications of DHBP authors planned to investigate
the inuence of bioeld energy treatment on physical, spectral and
thermal properties of DHBP.
e National Centre for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM), a part of the National Institute of Health (NIH),
recommends the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(CAM) therapies as an alternative in the healthcare sector, and about
36% of Americans regularly uses some form of CAM [10]. CAM
includes numerous energy-healing therapies; bioeld therapy is one of
the energy medicine used worldwide to improve the health.
Fritz, has rst proposed the law of mass-energy interconversion
and aer that Einstein derived the well-known equation E=mc2 for
light and mass [11,12]. ough, conversion of mass into energy is fully
*Corre sponding author: Dr. Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt.
Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026,
Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006 E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received September 08, 2015; Accepted September 18, 2015; Published
September 25, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al.
(2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy Treated
2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-
065X.1000145
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 2 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
all atoms in a molecule multiplied by the Avogadro number (6.023
×1023).e percent change in molecular weight was calculated using
the following equation:
Percent change in molecular weight = [(Mt-Mc)/Mc]×100
Where, Mc and Mt are molecular weight of control and treated
powder sample respectively.
Percentage change in average crystallite size was calculated using
following formula:
Percent change in average crystallite size = [(Gt-Gc)/Gc] ×100
Where, Gc and Gt are the average crystallite size of control and
treated powder samples respectively.
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
DSC was used to investigate the melting temperature and latent
heat of fusion (∆H) of samples. e control and treated DHBP samples
were analysed using a Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC at a heating rate of
10ºC/min under air atmosphere and the air was ushed at a ow rate of
5 mL/min. Predetermined amount of sample was kept in an aluminum
pan and closed with a lid. A blank aluminum pan was used as a
reference. e percentage change in latent heat of fusion was calculated
using following equations:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
H H
% change in Latent heat of fusion 100
H
∆ −∆
= ×
Where, ΔH Control and ΔH Treated are the latent heat of fusion of
control and treated samples, respectively.
ermogravimetric analysis-dierential thermal analysis
(TGA-DTA)
e thermal stability of control and treated DHBP were analyzed
by using Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA and Dierential thermal
analyser (DTA). e samples were heated from room temperature to
400ºC with a heating rate of 5ºC/min under air atmosphere.
Particle size analysis
e average particle size and particle size distribution were
analyzed by using Sympetac Helos-BF Laser Particle Size Analyser with
a detection range of 0.1 to 875 micrometer. Average particle size d50 and
d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) were computed from
laser diraction data table. e percentage changes in d50 and d99 values
were calculated by the following formula:
Percentage change in d50 size = 100 × (d50 treated- d50 control)/ d50
control
Percentage Change in d99 size = 100× (d99 treated- d99 control)/ d99
control
Surface area analysis
e surface area of control and treated DHBP were characterized
by surface area analyser, SMART SORB 90 Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
(BET) using ASTM D 5604 method that had a detection range of
0.2-1000 m2/g. Percent change in surface area was calculated using
following equation:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
S S
% change in surface area 100
S
= ×
Where, S Control and S Treated are the surface area of control and treated
samples respectively.
validated, but the inverse of this relation, i.e. energy into mass is not
yet veried scientically. Additionally, it was stated that energy exist in
various forms such as kinetic, potential, electrical, magnetic, nuclear,
etc. which have been generated from dierent sources. Similarly,
neurons that are present in the human central nervous system have the
ability to transmit the information in the form of electrical signals [13-
16]. Hence, bioeld is dened as a bioenergetic eld that permeates and
surrounds living organisms. Recently Prakash et al. reported that this
inherent biomagnetic eld around the human body can be measured
by few medical techniques such as Kirlian photography, polycontrast
interference photography and resonance eld imaging [17].
erefore, it is envisaged that human beings have the ability to
harness the energy from the environment/Universe and can transmit
into any object (living or non-living) around the Globe. e object(s)
will always receive the energy and responding in a useful manner
that is called bioeld energy. Mr. Trivedi’s unique bioeld treatment
is also known as e Trivedi Eect®. It is known to transform the
characteristics of various living and non-living things. Moreover, the
bioeld treatment has caused signicant aect in dierent elds such
as agriculture [18-20] and microbiology [21-22].
e present work is focused to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’
bioeld energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties
of DHBP and characterized by XRD, DSC, TGA, particle size, surface
area, FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis.
Materials and Methods
2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) was procured from S D Fine
Chemicals Ltd, India. e sample was divided into two parts; one was
kept as a control sample while the other was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s
unique bioeld treatment and coded as treated sample. e treated
group was in sealed pack and handed over to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld
energy treatment under standard laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi
provided the energy treatment through his energy transmission
process to the treated group without touching the sample. e control
and treated samples were characterized by XRD, DSC, TGA, particle
size, surface area, FT-IR, and UV-visible analysis.
Characterization
X-ray diraction (XRD) study
e XRD analysis of control and treated DHBP was carried out on
Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system, which had a
copper anode with nickel lter. e radiation of wavelength used by
the XRD system was 1.54056 Å. e data obtained from this XRD were
in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity and a detailed table containing
peak intensity counts, d value (Å), peak width (θ°), relative intensity
(%) etc. e average crystallite size (G) was calculated by using formula:
G = kλ/(bCosθ)
Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation used, b is full width half-
maximum (FWHM) of peaks and k is the equipment constant (=0.94).
Percent change in unit cell volume = [(Vt-Vc)/Vc] ×100
e molecular weight of atom was calculated using following
equation:
Molecular weight = number of protons x weight of a proton +
number of neutrons x weight of a neutron + number of electrons x
weight of an electron.
Molecular weight in g/Mol was calculated from the weights of
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 3 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
FT-IR spectroscopy
e FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with the frequency range of 4000-500
cm-1. e analysis was accomplished to evaluate the eect of bioeld
treatment at an atomic level like dipole moment, force constant and
bond strength in chemical structure [23]. e treated sample was
divided into two parts T1 and T2 for FT-IR analysis.
UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
UV spectra of the control and treated DHBP samples were recorded
on Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer with 1 cm quartz
cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm. e analysis was carried out using
wavelength in the range of 200-400 nm and methanol was used as a
solvent. e UV spectra was analysed to determine the eect of bioeld
treatment on the energy gap of highest occupied molecular orbital and
lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO gap) [23]. e
treated sample was divided in two parts T1 and T2 for the analysis.
Results and Discussion
X-ray diraction
XRD was used to investigate the crystalline nature of the control
and treated DHBP. Figure 1 shows the XRD diractogram of the
control and treated DHBP. XRD diractogram of the control DHBP
showed intense crystalline peaks at 2θ equal to 12.98º, 14.83 º, 15.24
º, 18.13 º, 18.52 º, 25.64 º, 27.93 º, 34.85 º, 37.57 º and 44.34 º. However,
the treated DHBP showed XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 12.97 º, 14.85 º,
15.23 º, 18.13 º, 18.50 º, 25.63 º, 27.94 º, 34.75 º, 34.85 º, 37.56 º, and 44.34 º.
e intensity of XRD peaks present at Brags angle 2θ equal to 18.13 º,
18.50 º, 34.85 º, 37.56 º and 44.34 º were increased in the treated sample
as compared to the control. is showed an increase in crystallinity of
the treated DHBP with respect to the control sample. It is proposed
that bioeld energy treatment might increase the long-range order of
the DHBP molecules that lead to the formation of the symmetrical
crystalline pattern as compared to the untreated sample [24]. Based
on XRD peaks, control and treated samples were indexed with the
monoclinic crystal structure.
e unit cell volume, crystallite size and change in molecular
weight were computed from the XRD diractogram, and results
are presented in Table 1. e unit cell volume of control DHBP was
1063.70 10-24 × cm3 and it was minimally decreased to 1063.20 10-24 ×
cm3 in the treated sample. e treated DHBP showed a decrease in unit
cell volume by 0.05% as compared to the control sample. e molecular
weight (number of proton and neutrons) in control DHBP was 214.95
g/mol and it was minimally decreased up to 214.84 g/mol in the treated
sample. e treated sample showed 0.048 % change in molecular
weight with respect to control. It is hypothesized that bioeld energy
may be acted on the treated DHBP crystals at nuclear level and altered
the number of proton and neutrons as compared to the control, which
may lead to change in its molecular weight [25].
e crystallite size is known as a group of molecules or atoms
having the same orientation in one plane. Moreover, the crystallite
size is one of the crystallographic factors associated with the formation
of dislocations and point defects in the crystalline structure, which
directly inuences the material properties [26]. e crystallite size of the
control sample on the plane corresponding to most intense XRD peak
(i.e. 2θ = 27.9) was 78.08 nm, and it was remained unchanged in treated
DHBP sample (78.08 nm). Nevertheless, the average crystallite size was
also calculated from the XRD diractograms and data are presented
in Table 1. e average crystallite size of control DHBP was 62.19 nm,
and it was signicantly increased to 82.55 nm, in the treated sample.
e result showed an increase in average crystallite size by 32.73% in
treated sample as compared to the control. Caruntu et al. reported that
dielectric properties of barium powder could be varied by modulating
the crystallite size through an annealing process [27]. Vucinic-Vasic
et al. during their studies on zinc ferrite nanoparticles revealed that
crystallite size increases with elevation in annealing temperature [28].
Additionally, recently it was showed that introduction of ultrasound
to materials leads to substantial increase in crystallite size [29]. Hence,
it is assumed that bioeld treatment may provide waves similar like
ultrasound or thermal energy to treated DHBP atoms that led to a
decrease in dislocation densities and increase in crystallite size with
respect to control.
ermal analysis
DSC study: DSC was used to investigate the melting point and
latent heat of fusion of control and treated DHBP. DSC thermogram
of the control and treated DHBP are presented in Figure 2. DSC
thermogram of the control DHBP showed a sharp melting endothermic
peak at 146.39 ºC, and it indicated the crystalline nature of the control
DHBP. However, the treated DHBP showed a minimal decrease in
melting endothermic peak and it was observed at 146.21ºC.
e latent heat of fusion of control and treated samples were
obtained from respective thermograms and data are presented in
Figure 1: XRD diffractogram of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 4 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
Table 2. e control DHBP showed a latent heat of fusion of 109.99
J/g; however it was increased to 122.83 J/g in the treated DHBP. e
latent heat of fusion of DHBP was substantially increased by 11.67% as
compared to control. It was suggested that a material consists of strong
intermolecular forces that hold them tightly on their positions. e
energy needed to overcome the intermolecular force is known as latent
heat of fusion. is latent heat of fusion is stored as potential energy in
the atoms during its phase transition from solid to liquid [30-31]. It is
speculated that bioeld treatment may alter the intermolecular force in
the sample that leads to increasing in latent heat of fusion of the treated
DHBP.
TGA study: TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of
the control and treated DHBP sample. Figure 3 shows the TGA
thermograms of control and treated DHBP. TGA thermogram of
control DHBP showed one-step thermal degradation pattern. e
control sample started to degrade thermally at around 244ºC, and
it was terminated at around 285 º C. e control sample lost 55.51%
weight during this process. However, the treated DHBP sample started
to decompose at around 240ºC and stopped at around 282ºC. During
this thermal process, the treated sample lost 54.89% of its initial weight.
DTA thermogram of the control and treated DHBP are depicted
in Figure 3. e DTA of the control DHBP showed an endothermic
transition at 144.17ºC, which could be associated with melting
of the sample. Nevertheless, the treated DHBP showed the same
endothermic peak at 143.74ºC. is showed the minimal decrease in
melting temperature of the treated DHBP as compared to the control.
It was previously reported that solid-solid phase transformation
with large strain increases the driving force for melting and thus
reduces the melting temperature [32]. It is postulated that the bioeld
energy treatment possibly produced a strain that reduces the melting
temperature of the treated DHBP. e temperature at which maximum
thermal decomposition (Tmax) occurred was recorded with derivative
thermogravimetry (DTG) and data are presented in Table 2. e control
DHBP showed Tmax at 260.93 ºC; however it was decreased to 257.66 ºC
in treated sample. is indicated the decrease in thermal stability of
treated DHBP as compared to the control sample.
Particle size and surface area analysis
e average particle size (d50) and size exhibited by 99% particles
(d99) were computed from the particle size distribution curve, and
results are presented in Figure 4. e d50 of the control DHBP was 64.65
µm and aer bioeld treatment it was increased substantially to 91.14
µm in the treated DHBP. Whereas, the d99 of the control sample was
303.39 µm, and it was increased to 351.40 µm in the treated DHBP.
e result showed the substantial increase in d50 by 41% in the treated
DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, the d99 of the
treated DHBP was increased by 15.8 % as compared to the control
sample. Vinila et al showed that particle size of a ceramic material
increases with elevation in temperature [33]. Additionally, Iqbal et
al suggested that due to annealing the particles collide and coalesce
with one another to form a bigger particle [34]. Hence, it is assumed
that bioeld treatment may provide some thermal energy that caused
aggregation of particles leading to increase in particle size.
e surface area of control and treated DHBP was measured using
BET method and data are presented in Figure 5. e surface area of
control DHBP was 0.9487 m2/g and it was decreased to 0.8667 m2/g,
in treated sample. e result indicated the decrease in surface area
by 8.64% in treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. It was
reported that particle size is inversely proportional to surface area.
us, increase in particle size causes a decrease in surface area and vice
versa [35]. is was also supported by the XRD data where average
crystallite size of treated sample was increased that causes decrease in
the surface area.
FT-IR spectroscopy
FT-IR spectra of control and treated DHBP are shown in Figure
6. e FT-IR spectrum of control DHBP showed –OH stretching
vibration peak at 3178 cm-1. However, in the treated DHBP (T1 and T2)
the –OH stretching were observed at 3184 and 3180 cm-1, respectively.
e aromatic =C-H stretch was assigned at 3064 cm-1 in the control
and treated samples (T1 and T2). Likewise, the C-H methyl stretch was
observed at 2885, 2875 and 2835 cm-1 in control and treated samples
(T1 and T2), respectively. e aromatic C=C stretching of benzene
moiety was appeared in the region of 1597-1627 cm-1 in the control
and treated samples. e C-H asymmetrical bending peaks were
Compound Characteristics Control Treated
Unit cell volume (10-24 cm3) 1063.70 1063.20
Molecular Weight (g/mol) 214.95 214.84
Crystallite size (G’ × 10-9) 62.19 82.55
Table 1: XRD data (unit cell volume, molecular weight and crystallite size) of
control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Figure 2: DSC thermogram of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Parameter Control Treated
Latent heat of fusion ΔH (J/g) 109.99 122.83
Melting temperature (ºC) 146.39 146.21
Tmax (ºC) 260.93 257.66
Weight loss (%) 55.51 54.89
Tmax: maximum thermal decomposition temperature
Table 2: Thermal analysis data of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 5 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
Figure 3: TGA thermogram of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
appeared at 1446-1491 cm-1 in the control and T1 sample, whereas in
the T2 sample these peaks were observed at 1446-1489 cm-1. e C-O
stretching for ether linkage was appeared at 1166 cm-1 in all the control
and the treated samples. e C-H out of plane deformation peaks were
observed in the region of 742-850 cm-1 in the control sample. However,
these peaks were observed in the region of 750-850 cm-1 in the treated
samples (T1 and T2). Additionally, the C-C stretching was observed
at 1280 cm-1 in the control and T1 sample; whereas it was appeared at
1290 cm-1 in the T2 sample.
Overall, the FT-IR spectra of treated sample showed the downward
shi in methyl (C-H) stretch of the treated sample 2885→2835 cm-1 as
compared to control sample. It was previously suggested that increase in
the frequency of any bond causes a possible enhancement in force constant
of the respective bond [23]. Hence, it is assumed that bioeld energy
treatment might alter the dipole moment or force constant of the methyl
stretch bond in treated DHBP sample as compared to the control.
UV-visible spectroscopy
UV-visible spectra of control and treated DHBP are shown in
Figure 7. e UV spectrum of the control DHBP showed absorption
peaks at 204, 242, 289, and 323 nm. e UV spectrum of treated DHBP
(T1) showed absorption peaks at 203, 242, 290 and 318 nm. Whereas,
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 6 of 8
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Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Control d50 Treated d50 Control d99 Treated d99
Parti cle size (µm)
Figure 4: Particle size (d50 and d99) of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Control Treated
Surface area (m
2
/g)
Figure 5: Surface area of control and treated 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Figure 6: FTIR spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 7 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
Figure 7: UV visible spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.
the UV spectrum of DHBP (T2) showed absorption peaks at 203, 242,
289 and 322 nm. e result showed a blue shi of absorption peak
at 323 nm in the control sample to 318 nm in DHBP sample (T1). It
is speculated that the bioeld energy treatment may cause changes
in the energy gap of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest
unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO gap) of the treated
DHBP with respect to the control [23,36].
Conclusions
In summary, the XRD study showed a decrease in the volume of
the unit cell and molecular weight of treated DHBP as compared to
the control. However, average crystallite size was increased by 32.73%
in treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. It is assumed
that bioeld energy treatment might cause a reduction in dislocation
density that lead to an increase in crystallite size in treated sample. e
DSC analysis showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated
DHBP by 11.67% as compared to the control sample. TGA analysis
indicated the decrease in thermal stability of the treated compound as
compared to the control. A signicant increase by 41% and 15.8% was
observed in d50 and d99, respectively of the treated DHBP as compared
to control sample. Additionally, the BET analysis showed a reduction
in surface area (8.64%) of the treated DHBP that was due to increase in
particle size of the sample. e UV spectral analysis showed alterations
in absorption peak at 323→318 nm in treated sample as compared to
the control. us, the bioeld energy treatment has caused substantial
changes in physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Bioeld Energy
Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 4: 145. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
Page 8 of 8
Volume 4 • Issue 4 • 1000145
Clin Pharmacol Biopharm
ISSN: 2167-065X CPB, an open access journal
Acknowledgement
e authors would like to thank all the laboratory sta of MGV
Pharmacy College, Nashik for their assistance during the various
instrument characterizations. e authors would also like to thank
Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials for
their support during the work.
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doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000145
... This proposal is also strengthened by the similarity of spectroscopic data for 2,5-dihydroxyphenylethanone in the literature (K. Trivedi, Tallapragada, Branton, D. Trivedi, & Nayak, 2015). 2,5-dihydroxyphenylethanone known by other names 2',5'-dihydroxy acetophenone and used cosmetic agents. ...
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