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... Smoking and curing can be responsible to form NOC and PAH. While cooking may end in the production of suspected or known carcinogens counting HAA and PAH along with improving the palatability and digestibility of meat (Bouvard et al., 2015). ...
... Also, there's a concern about other cancers like prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer (Thavamani et al., 2020). The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), after an inclusive review of epidemiologic evidence, has classified processed meats (i.e., sausages, bacon, and hot dogs) as carcinogenic for colorectal cancer as well as unprocessed red meats (i.e., pork and beef) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans (Bouvard et al., 2015). Studies reported that an increased risk of diabetes in humans is associated with the consumption of processed meats. ...
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The discussion about the development and consumption of plant-based meat alternatives has been raised since numerous decades and has become the topic of prime concern these days. Recently, the market of plant-based meat alternatives has enormously expanded. With the aim of investigating the present scenario of research on meat analogs and defining the future research areas, reasons for shifting the trends towards consumption of meat analogs due to several health and environmental issues, potential sources and technologies needed for the development of meat analogs, physicochemical properties of meat analogs, functionality of ingredients used for manufacturing plant-based meat analogs, gastrointestinal fate of meat analogs and resulting consumer acceptability are summarized in this review. Studies have revealed that various health and environmental concerns are associated with the meat production which is the key driving force for the development of meat analogs. Recently, modern structuring techniques of plant-based meat alternatives have improved their functionality, however, a need exists to focus on improving the functionality, sensory characteristics, safety, and selection of suitable ingredients for the production of meat analogs. Additionally, the consumers’ acceptability towards meat analogs is quite unsatisfactory which needs to be improved through proper research and creating awareness. Moreover, the gastrointestinal fate of the plant-based meat analogs needs further investigation in order to have a better understanding regarding the nutrient bioavailability of these products. The present review will be helpful in highlighting the current situation regarding the fate of meat analogs and opening new horizons of research in this domain.
... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent malignancy in both men and women worldwide [1], and ranks second in terms of mortality, causing 880,000 deaths in 2018 [2]. The significant increase in morbidity from CRC in China may be due to changes in risk factors, including poor diet [3,4] (low consumption of fruits, fiber and vegetables, and high consumption of processed meats), lack of physical activity [5], and the increasing prevalence of obesity [6]. In addition, data from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical investigations supports the concept that metabolic syndrome (MetS) plays an important role in the development ...
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Background Inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may act synergistically and possibly accelerate the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We prospectively examined the joint effect of MetS and inflammation on the risk of CRC. Methods We studied 92,770 individuals from the Kailuan study. MetS was defined based on the presence of three or more of the following components. (1) high glucose: FPG > 5.6 mmol/L; (2) high blood pressure: SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg; (3) high triglycerides: triglycerides > 1.69 mmol/L; (4) low HDL-C: HDL-C < 1.04 mmol/L in men or 1.29 mmol/L in women; and (5) visceral adiposity: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm in men or 80 cm in women. Inflammation was defined as hs-CRP ≥ 3 mg/L. We divided participants into four groups for the primary exposure according to the presence/absence of inflammation and presence/absence of MetS. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of MetS and/or inflammation with the risk of CRC. Results Compared with metabolically healthy noninflammatory individuals, inflammatory participants without MetS and inflammatory participants with MetS were associated with a 1.3-fold and 4.18-fold increased risk of CRC with corresponding HRs (95% CI) of 1.34 (1.09, 1.64) and 4.18 (3.11, 5.62), respectively. The combination of MetS and inflammation was associated with the highest risk of CRC in all subgroups, especially among participants who were female, in younger age, and obese. Sensitivity analyses further validated our primary findings. Conclusions We found the combination of MetS and inflammation could significantly increase the risk of CRC. Including CRP in the diagnosis of MetS may help to identify additional high-risk participants who should be targeted for early diagnosis and prevention of CRC. Trial registration Kailuan study, ChiCTR–TNRC–11001489. Registered 24 August, 2011-Retrospectively registered, http:// www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=8050
... Beef provides macro and micronutrients, such as protein, vitamins B6 and B12, iron, and zinc, and eaten in moderation, beef can contribute to human health. However, especially in the form of processed meats, red meat is associated with increased risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, and increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as total mortality (Bouvard et al. 2015;Pan et al. 2012;Tilman and Clark 2014;You and Henneberg 2016). Thus, while beef consumption is an important source of nutrients and protein for some populations, particularly children under the age of five who are developing, in high-income countries with other sources of adequate nutrition, the healthiest level of beef consumption may be very little or no consumption (Willett et al. 2019, page 455). ...
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This paper argues that individuals in many high-income countries typically have moral reasons to limit their beef consumption and consume plant-based protein instead, given the negative effects of beef production and consumption. Beef production is a significant source of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts, high levels of beef consumption are associated with health risks, and some cattle production systems raise animal welfare concerns. These negative effects matter, from a variety of moral perspectives, and give us collective moral reasons to reduce beef production and consumption. But, as some ethicists have argued, we cannot draw a straight line from the ethics of production to the ethics of consumption: even if a production system is morally impermissible, this does not mean that any given individual has moral reasons to stop consuming the products of that system, given how miniscule one individual’s contributions are. This paper considers how to connect those dots. We consider three distinct lines of argument in support of the conclusion that individuals have moral reasons to limit their beef consumption and shift to plant-based protein, and we consider objections to each argument. This argument applies to individuals in high beef-consuming and high greenhouse gas-emitting high-income countries, though we make this argument with a specific focus on the United States.
... In addition, red meat serves as a significant source of choline, an important compound that serves as a precursor to many molecules, such as neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids [45,46]. Despite all the nutritional value, research studies have continuously associated red meat with different diseases and disorders [47][48][49][50][51]. This is mainly due to the metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc into human tissues from red meat. ...
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Humans frequently interact with pigs, whose meat is also one of the primary sources of animal protein. They are one of the main species at the center of sialic acid (Sia) research. Sias are sugars at terminals of glycoconjugates, are expressed at the cell surfaces of mammals, and are important in cellular interactions. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) are notable Sias in mammals. Cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) encodes the CMAH enzyme that biosynthesizes Neu5Gc. Although humans cannot endogenously synthesize Neu5Gc due to the inactivation of this gene by a mutation, Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into human tissues from red meat consumption. Interactions between Neu5Gc and human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies have been associated with certain diseases and disorders. In this review, we summarized the sialic acid metabolic pathway, its regulation and link to viral infections, as well as the importance of the pig as a model organism in Sia research, making it a possible source of Neu5Gc antigens affecting human health. Future research in solving the structures of crucial enzymes involved in Sia metabolism, as well as their regulation and interactions with other enzymes, especially CMAH, could help to understand their function and reduce the amount of Neu5Gc.
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Recent controversies about dietary advice concerning meat demonstrate that aggregating the available evidence to assess a putative causal link between food and cancer is a challenging enterprise. We show how a tool developed for assessing putative causal links between drugs and adverse drug reactions, E‐Synthesis, can be applied for food carcinogenicity assessments. The application is demonstrated on the putative causal relationship between processed meat consumption and cancer. The output of the assessment is a Bayesian probability that processed meat consumption causes cancer. This Bayesian probability is calculated from a Bayesian network model, which incorporates a representation of Bradford Hill's Guidelines as probabilistic indicators of causality. We show how to determine probabilities of indicators of causality for food carcinogenicity assessments based on assessments of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We find that E‐Synthesis is a tool well‐suited for food carcinogenicity assessments, as it enables a graphical representation of lines and weights of evidence, offers the possibility to make a great number of judgements explicit and transparent, outputs a probability of causality suitable for decision making and is flexible to aggregate different kinds of evidence.
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Introduction The United States has among the highest per capita red meat consumption in the world. Reducing red meat consumption is crucial for minimizing the environmental impact of diets and improving health outcomes. Warning messages are effective for reducing purchases of products like sugary beverages but have not been developed for red meat. This study developed health and environmental warning messages about red meat and explored participants’ reactions to these messages. Methods A national convenience sample of US red meat consumers ( n = 1,199; mean age 45 years) completed an online survey in 2020 for this exploratory study. Participants were randomized to view a series of either health or environmental warning messages (between-subjects factor) about the risks associated with eating red meat. Messages were presented in random order (within-subjects factor; 8 health messages or 10 environmental messages). Participants rated each warning message on a validated 3-item scale measuring perceived message effectiveness (PME), ranging from 1 (low) to 5 (high). Participants then rated their intentions to reduce their red meat consumption in the next 7 days. Results Health warning messages elicited higher PME ratings than environmental messages (mean 2.66 vs. 2.26, p <0.001). Health warning messages also led to stronger intentions to reduce red meat consumption compared to environmental messages (mean 2.45 vs. 2.19, p< 0.001). Within category (health and environmental), most pairwise comparisons of harms were not statistically significant. Conclusions Health warning messages were perceived to be more effective than environmental warning messages. Future studies should measure the impact of these messages on behavioral outcomes.
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Background Dietary patterns developed by the USDA provide modest levels of protein (14–18% energy) within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) of 10–35% for adults, though diets providing a higher percentage of energy may be beneficial for some individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to modify the Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern (“HEP”) to provide a higher percentage of energy from protein. Methods Using the framework implemented by the USDA in developing the HEP, energy from protein was set at 20%, 25%, and 30%. Amounts of protein foods were proportionally increased while amounts of other foods were adjusted iteratively within specified parameters. The models also disaggregated total meat/poultry into fresh and processed forms to develop patterns maintaining current proportions, current levels, reduced, or no processed meat/poultry. Nutrient intakes were compared with nutrient goals for representative U.S. populations with 2,000 kcal needs (females 19–30 years, males 51–70 years), with 90% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake regarded as sufficient. Results Dietary patterns with 20% energy from protein were constructed with minor deviations from the current 2,000 kcal HEP. Dietary patterns with 25% energy from protein were constructed for all levels of processed meat/poultry excluding the current proportion model, though relative to the current HEP the constructed patterns reflect substantial reductions in amounts of refined grains and starchy vegetables, and substantial increases in protein foods consumed as beans and peas, seafood, and soy products. It was not possible to develop a pattern with 30% energy from protein without reducing the percentage of energy from carbohydrate below the AMDR or non-compliance with other modeling constraints. Stepwise reductions in processed meat/poultry reduced sodium intake. Conclusions It is feasible to develop dietary patterns in a 2,000 kcal diet while mirroring the HEP that meet recommended intakes of nutrients with 20% or 25% energy from protein, though the pattern with 25% energy from protein may be more idealistic than realistic. Reduced levels of processed meat/poultry may translate to lower sodium intake.
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The article presents a synthetic analysis of the most pressing challenges associated with food security in the context of changes induced by global development and the generated problems. The study demonstrated that a more effective model of food production and management is needed to counteract anthropogenic pressure on the natural environment and excessive exploitation of limited resources caused by rapid population growth. Policies aiming to increase the efficiency of production and conversion of raw materials into finished food products of plant and animal origin (including feed conversion into high-energy and high-protein foods), promote the use of novel protein sources for feed and food production, and prevent excessive food consumption and waste are needed. At present and in the future, demographic, social, environmental, and geopolitical factors as well as the availability of natural resources should be taken into account by world leaders who should act together, with solidarity, to provide food to countries suffering from food shortage. Adequate food availability, including both physical and financial access to food, cannot be guaranteed without a holistic approach to global food security.
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Protein oxidation and oxidative stress are involved in a variety of health disorders such as colorectal adenomas, inflammatory bowel's disease, neurological disorders and aging, among others. In particular, the specific final oxidation product from lysine, the α-amino adipic acid (α-AA), has been found in processed meat products and emphasized as a reliable marker of type II diabetes and obesity. Currently, the underlying mechanisms of the biological impairments caused by α-AA are unknown. To elucidate the molecular basis of the toxicological effect of α-AA, differentiated human enterocytes were exposed to dietary concentrations of α-AA (200 μM) and analyzed by flow cytometry, protein oxidation and proteomics using a Nanoliquid Chromatography-Orbitrap MS/MS. Cell viability was significantly affected by α-AA (p < 0.05). The proteomic study revealed that α-AA was able to alter cell homeostasis through impairment of the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase pump, energetic metabolism, and antioxidant response, among other biological processes. These results show the importance of dietary oxidized amino acids in intestinal cell physiology and open the door to further studies to reveal the impact of protein oxidation products in pathological conditions.
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Although the association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association across subsites of the colon and rectum remains uncertain, as does time of consumption in relation to cancer development. As these relationships are key for understanding the pathogenesis of CRC, they were examined in two large cohorts with repeated dietary measures over time, the Nurses' Health Study (n = 87,108 women, 1980-2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 47,389 men, 1986-2010). Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. In combined cohorts, there were 2,731 CRC cases (1,151 proximal colon, 816 distal colon, and 589 rectum). In pooled analyses, processed red meat was positively associated with CRC risk (per 1 serving/day increase: HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32; P for trend 0.03) and particularly with distal colon cancer (per 1 serving/day increase; HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.69; P for trend 0.006). Recent consumption of processed meat (within the past 4 years) was not associated with distal cancer. Unprocessed red meat was inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer and a weak non-significant positive association between unprocessed red meat and proximal cancer was observed (per 1 serving/day increase: distal HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68-0.82; P for trend
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Epidemiological studies have identified increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk with high red meat (HRM) intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake appears to be protective. In the present study, we examined whether a HRM diet increased rectal O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O6MeG) adduct levels in healthy human subjects, and whether butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (HAMSB) was protective. A group of twenty-three individuals consumed 300 g/d of cooked red meat without (HRM diet) or with 40 g/d of HAMSB (HRM+HAMSB diet) over 4-week periods separated by a 4-week washout in a randomised cross-over design. Stool and rectal biopsy samples were collected for biochemical, microbial and immunohistochemical analyses at baseline and at the end of each 4-week intervention period. The HRM diet increased rectal O6MeG adducts relative to its baseline by 21 % (P< 0·01), whereas the addition of HAMSB to the HRM diet prevented this increase. Epithelial proliferation increased with both the HRM (P< 0·001) and HRM+HAMSB (P< 0·05) diets when compared with their respective baseline levels, but was lower following the HRM+HAMSB diet compared with the HRM diet (P< 0·05). Relative to its baseline, the HRM+HAMSB diet increased the excretion of SCFA by over 20 % (P< 0·05) and increased the absolute abundances of the Clostridium coccoides group (P< 0·05), the Clostridium leptum group (P< 0·05), Lactobacillus spp. (P< 0·01), Parabacteroides distasonis (P< 0·001) and Ruminococcus bromii (P< 0·05), but lowered Ruminococcus torques (P< 0·05) and the proportions of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques and Escherichia coli (P< 0·01). HRM consumption could increase the risk of CRC through increased formation of colorectal epithelial O6MeG adducts. HAMSB consumption prevented red meat-induced adduct formation, which may be associated with increased stool SCFA levels and/or changes in the microbiota composition.
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Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat-induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteer s (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526.
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We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various grilled and smoked foods and estimated the dietary exposure of Kuwaiti children, adolescent and adult populations. Results indicated that non-carcinogenic PAHs were present at high proportions (60–100%) with phenanthrene showing the highest mean concentration (54.9 μg kg−1, 37.1% of the total PAH concentrations). Among the genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), chrysene (4.88 μg kg−1, 3.29%) and benz[a]anthracene (2.27 μg kg−1, 1.53%) showed the highest mean values. Meat tikka contained the highest mean concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (2.48 μg kg−1), total genotoxic PAHs (42.9 μg kg−1), total PAHs (ΣPAHs) (648 μg kg−1) and total benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (ΣBaPeq) (6.02 μg kg−1). High levels of genotoxic PAHs were detected in grilled vegetables (21.1 μg kg−1), shish tauk (20.5 μg kg−1) and whole grilled chicken (20.3 μg kg−1) samples. However, meat and chicken shawerma samples had low levels of PAH8. Meat tikka (437 ng/day, 641 ng/day), whole grilled chicken (160 ng/day, 241 ng/day), grilled vegetables (120 ng/day, 166 ng/day), meat burger (114 ng/day, 92.7 ng/day) were the major contributors to the daily intake of PAH8 in children/adolescent and adult populations, respectively. The total mean dietary intakes for children/adolescents and adults for BaP (8.09 ng/day, 9.20 ng/day), PAH8 (84.2 ng/day, 95.7 ng/day), ∑PAHs (974 ng/day, 1108 ng/day) and ∑BaPeq (14.8 ng/day, 16.8 ng/day) were comparable. Cancer risks for Kuwaiti children/adolescents and adults from dietary intake of ΣBaPeq from the animal-origin foods were determined to be 2.63/107 and 9.3/107, respectively.
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BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas as part of the Continuous Update Project of the World Cancer Research Fund. DESIGN: PubMed and several other databases were searched for relevant studies from their inception up to 31 December 2011. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Nineteen case-control studies and seven prospective studies were included in the analyses. The summary RR per 100 g/day of red meat was 1.27 (95 % CI 1.16-1.40, I (2) = 5 %, n = 16) for all studies combined, 1.20 (95 % CI 1.06-1.36, I (2) = 0 %, n = 6) for prospective studies, and 1.34 (95 % CI 1.12-1.59, I (2) = 31 %, n = 10) for case-control studies. The summary RR per 50 g/day of processed meat intake was 1.29 (95 % CI 1.10-1.53, I (2) = 27 %, n = 10) for all studies combined, 1.45 (95 % CI 1.10-1.90, I (2) = 0 %, n = 2) for prospective studies, and 1.23 (95 % CI 0.99-1.52, I (2) = 37 %, n = 8) for case-control studies. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between red meat (p (nonlinearity) < 0.001) and processed meat (p (nonlinearity) = 0.01) intake and colorectal adenoma risk. CONCLUSION: These results indicate an elevated risk of colorectal adenomas with intake of red and processed meat, but further prospective studies are warranted.
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The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk. Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI  =  1.11-1.34) and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI  =  1.04-1.24). Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR(for 100 g/day increase)  =  1.17, 95% CI  =  1.05-1.31) and processed meat (RR (for 50 g/day increase)  =  1.18, 95% CI  =  1.10-1.28). Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed. High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer.
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Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat.
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The tumour suppressor APC is the most commonly altered gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Genetic and epigenetic alterations of APC may therefore be associated with dietary and lifestyle risk factors for CRC. Analysis of APC mutations in the extended mutation cluster region (codons 1276-1556) and APC promoter 1A methylation was performed on 185 archival CRC samples collected from participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study, with the aim of relating these to high-quality seven-day dietary and lifestyle data collected prospectively. Truncating APC mutations (APC+) and promoter 1A methylation (PM+) were identified in 43% and 23% of CRCs analysed, respectively. Distal CRCs were more likely than proximal CRCs to be APC+ or PM+ (p = 0.04). APC + CRCs were more likely to be moderately/well differentiated and microsatellite stable than APC- CRCs (p = 0.05 and 0.03). APC + CRC cases consumed more alcohol than their counterparts (p = 0.01) and PM+ CRC cases consumed lower levels of folate and fibre (p = 0.01 and 0.004). APC+ or PM+ CRC cases consumed higher levels of processed meat and iron from red meat and red meat products (p = 0.007 and 0.006). Specifically, CRC cases harbouring GC-to-AT transition mutations consumed higher levels of processed meat (35 versus 24 g/day, p = 0.04) and iron from red meat and red meat products (0.8 versus 0.6 mg/day, p = 0.05). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex and cigarette-smoking status, each 19 g/day (1SD) increment increase in processed meat consumption was associated with cases with GC-to-AT mutations (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03-2.75). In conclusion, APC+ and PM+ CRCs may be influenced by diet and GC-to-AT mutations in APC are associated with processed meat consumption, suggesting a mechanistic link with dietary alkylating agents, such as N-nitroso compounds. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  This review compiles the contents of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in foods and beverages, collected from literature data along the period from 1992 up to 2009. Also, it describes the factors that affect the formation of HAAs in foods, such as the cooking method, including temperature, time, and frequency of turning of meat, during cooking. Other factors depending on the type of food and the recipe followed are pH, amounts of HAA precursors, types of amino acids, presence of certain divalent ions, and content of substances with enhancing or inhibiting effects on the formation of HAAs. In addition, there are other factors, which depend on the type of food, such as muscle tissue and the presence of certain genes, since the RN− allele in pigs increases the glycogen content of muscle. The dispersion of the bibliographic data is evident, and there are scarce data, even no data, referred to individual HAAs. Considering that the diverging results can be due to several causes, possible recommendations are given in order to prevent the dispersion of the results and to achieve more valuable information, applied to determine the HAAs exposure. Although there are not direct indications that HAAs represent a serious health risk to the population, and common cancers are produced by many factors including xenobiotics, all measures to minimize the formation of HAAs should be foreseen, some of which are indicated.
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Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for estimating intake of mutagens formed in meats cooked at high temperatures (heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, nitrate, and nitrite. During 7 years of follow-up, 2,719 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained from a cohort of 300,948 men and women. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) comparing the fifth to the first quintile for both red (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42; P(trend) < 0.001) and processed meat (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P(trend) = 0.017) intakes indicated an elevated risk for colorectal cancer. The potential mechanisms for this relation include heme iron (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.29; P(trend) = 0.022), nitrate from processed meats (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32; P(trend) = 0.001), and heterocyclic amine intake [HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34; P(trend) < 0.001 for 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P(trend) <0.001 for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)]. In general, the elevated risks were higher for rectal cancer than for colon cancer, with the exception of MeIQx and DiMeIQx, which were only associated with colon cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association for red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer; heme iron, nitrate/nitrite, and heterocyclic amines from meat may explain these associations.