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Evaluation of anticancer potential of Bacopa monnieri L. against MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell line

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Background: The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains bacoside A and B, brahmin, cucurbitacins, and betulinic acid. Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their strong anti-tumorigenic and anti-proliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation of multiplied cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of dichloromethane (DCM) fraction of B. monnieri on two different cell lines. Materials and methods: The ethanolic extract of B. monnieri was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and different fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone, and water) of ethanolic extracts were prepared. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic extract and of all fractions was carried out on MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. The presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in these fractions was confirmed by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Results: The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines were 72.0 μg/mL and 75.0 μg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri showed maximum cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was found to be 57.0 μg/mL and 42.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in both the cell lines may be due to the presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in DCM fraction.
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© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 325
1Department of
Pharmacognosy and
Phytochemistry, Bioactive
Natural Product
Laboratory, Faculty
of Pharmacy, Jamia
Hamdard (Hamdard
University), 2Department
of Biotechnology, Human
Genetics Laboratory,
Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi, India
Address correspondence:
Dr. Sayeed Ahmad,
E‑mail: sahmad_jh@
jamiahamdard.ac.in
C
ancer is a genetic disease that arises from an accumulation
of mutations in critical genes. This allows a cell to escape
the normal growth control and proliferate until it becomes
a clinically evident tumor. The six essential alterations in
cell physiology have been identified, which collectively
dictate malignant growth; (i) Self‑sufficiency in growth
signals; (ii) insensitivity to growth‑inhibitory (antigrowth)
signals; (iii) evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis);
(iv) limitless replicative potential; (v) sustained angiogenesis;
and (vi) tissue invasion and metastasis. These properties
give the cancer cells a growth advantage over the general cell
population.[1] Bacopa monnieri (Family‑Scrophulariaceae) it
is commonly known as Brahmi. It has been used in Ayurvedic
and Unani systems of medicine for the treatment of various
ailments and diseases. All the parts of the plant have been used
for their therapeutic beneficiary effects from ancient times.
It is used as memory enhancer,[2] antidepressant, adaptogenic
agent,[3] analgesic and anti‑inflammatory,[4] anti‑epileptic
agent,[5] nervine tonic,[6] anti‑Parkinson’s agent,[7] protective
effect,[8] cardiotonic agent,[9] anti‑Alzheimer’s drug,[10]
anti‑amnesic agent,[11] anti‑tumor agent,[12] anti‑oxidant
effects,[13] for the presence of bacoside A and B, brahmin,
different types of cucurbitacins,[14] and betulinic acid.[15]
Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their
Evaluation of anticancer potential of
Bacopa monnieri L. against MCF‑7 and
MDA‑MB 231 cell line
Md. Nasar Mallick1,2, Md. Salman Akhtar2, Mohd. Zeeshan Najm2, E. T. Tamboli1,
Sayeed Ahmad1, Syed Akhtar Husain2
ABSTRACT
Background: The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains bacoside A and B, brahmin, cucurbitacins,
and betulinic acid. Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their strong anti‑tumorigenic and
anti‑proliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation of multiplied cells. The present
study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of dichloromethane (DCM)
fraction of B. monnieri on two different cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. monnieri
was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and different fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone, and
water) of ethanolic extracts were prepared. The 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide
assay of ethanolic extract and of all fractions was carried out on MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB 231 cell lines. The
presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in these fractions was confirmed by high‑performance thin layer
chromatography. Results: The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB 231 cell
lines were 72.0 µg/mL and 75.0 µg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri showed maximum
cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was found to be 57.0 µg/mL and 42.0 µg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in both the cell lines may be due to
the presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in DCM fraction.
KEY WORDS: Bacoside, betulinic acid, cucurbitacins, MCF‑7, MDA‑MB 231 cells
Received : 15‑04‑14
Review completed : 05‑01‑15
Accepted : 15‑02‑15
How to cite this article: Mallick MN, Akhtar MS, Najm MZ, Tamboli ET, Ahmad
S, Husain SA. Evaluation of anticancer potential of Bacopa monnieri L. against
MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB 231 cell line. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2015;7:325‑8.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
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DOI:
10.4103/0975‑7406.168038
Symposium ‑ Herbal Drugs and Botanicals ‑ Research Article
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Mallick,
et al
.:
In vitro
anticancer potentials of
Bacopa
326 Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences October-December 2015 Vol 7 Issue 4
strong anti‑tumorigenic and anti‑proliferative activity by
inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation
of multiplied cells by signal transducer and activator of
transcription‑3 (STAT‑3) independent but reactive oxygen
species dependent mechanisms.[16] The present study was
carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of
ethanolic extract of an extract of dichloromethane (DCM)
fraction of B. monnieri on human breast cancer (MCF‑7 and
MDA‑MB 231) cell lines.
Materials and Methods
Chemicals
Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI‑1640), fetal calf
serum (FCS), and phosphate buffer saline were procured
from Gibco, USA. The trypsin‑ethylenediaminetetraacetic
acid, trypan blue, penicillin‑streptomycin solution,
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑
2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) were purchased
from Sigma‑Aldrich, USA. All other solvents and chemical
used were of analytical grade and procured from Merck India
Ltd.
Plant material
The drug samples were purchased from local market
of Delhi, India and the specimen (Ref. NISCAIR/
RHMD/Consult/‑2010‑11/1563/161/27/10‑10) authenticated
by botanist Dr H. B. Singh, Scientist F and Head Raw Material
Herbarium and Museum, NISCAIR, New Delhi.
Preparation of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri and
its fractionations
The extraction was done by taking 500 g of powdered drug and
extracting it using 70% alcohol as a solvent in soxhlet extractor on
a water bath for 5 h. It was filled and evaporated to dryness under
reduced pressure. Further, the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri,
whole plant thus obtained was suspended in double distilled water
and sonicated for 15 min at 45ºC. Further, it was subjected to
partitioning with different solvent viz. hexane, DCM, and acetone.
The extract, left after partitioning, was evaporated to dryness
and residue was sonicated with acetone, methanol and water for
20 min separately, to prepare different fractions. All the fractions
were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure, and the dried
extract and fractions were further used for analysis and bioactivity.
Cytotoxicity assay of Bacopa monnieri extract and its
fractions
Sample preparation for in vitro activity
It was prepared by dissolving 500 mg of each extract/fraction in
DMSO and volume was made upto 10 mL in a volumetric flask,
separately. These solutions were passed through 0.45
µ
membrane
filtered and stored at 4°C until used. The 50 mg/mL solution of
every extract/fraction as prepared above was diluted 50 times
using RPMI‑1640 media (1–50 mL) to get concentration of
1,000 µg/mL of every extract/fraction. It was passed through
0.22 µ membrane filter before using for in vitro activity on two
different cell lines. Similarly, DMSO control was also prepared
and used in both the cell line.
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 24 Hrs in MDA-MB 231 Cell line
Percentage inhibition
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 48 Hrs in MDA-MB 231 Cell line
Percentage inhibition
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 72 Hrs in MDA-MB 231 Cell line
Percentage inhibition
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 24 Hrs in MCF-7 Cell line
Percentage inhibition
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
Hexane
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 48 Hrs in MCF-7 Cell line
Percentage Inhibition
0123
0
20
40
60
80
100
Mother Extract
Hexane
DCM
Methanol
Acetone
Log concentration of Bacopa extract and its
fraction (µg/ml) at 72 Hrs in MCF-7 Cell line
Percentage Inhibition
Figure 1: Dose response curve of Bacopa monnieri in MCF 7 cell line; (a): At 24 h; (b): At 48 h; (c): 72 h and in MDA‑MB 231 cell line; (d): At 24 h;
(e): At 48 h; (f): 72 h
d
c
b
f
a
e
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Mallick,
et al
.:
In vitro
anticancer potentials of
Bacopa
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences October-December 2015 Vol 7 Issue 4 327
3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide
assay
The cells culture was trypsinated, and the cell count was
adjusted to 1.0 × 105 cells/100 µL in RPMI‑1640 containing
10% FCS. To each well of the 96‑well microtiter plate,
(approximately 100 µL media contain 10,000 cells) was added
and kept it in the CO2 incubator overnight for adhering of
cells on plate. Next day, the media was replaced with fresh
complete media (100 µL). The drug (100 µL) was added in
triplicate well (for one concentration). Then, serial dilution
of the drug was done, again 100 µL of complete media was
added to get the total volume of 200 µL (100 µL + 100 µL).
After completing the treatment, the 96‑well microtiter plate
was kept in a CO2 incubator. After 24 h study, 20 µL of MTT
was added and left for 3–4 h in a CO2 incubator and after that
the media was discarded from the wells carefully. The vehicle
(100 µL DMSO) was added for dissolving the formazan crystals
formed after addition of MTT, and left for 30 min in the CO2
incubator. The plate was read spectrophotometrically done at
570 nm at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.
Percentage cytotoxicity of these extracts was calculated by
using the formula:
([Ac – As]/Ac) × 100
Where, Ac is the absorbance of the control and As is the
absorbance of the sample.
Results and Discussion
Cytotoxicity assay
The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in
MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB 231 cell lines were 72.00 µg/mL and
75.00 µg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri
showed maximum cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto
72 h and the found 57.00 µg/mL and 42.00 µg/mL, respectively
24 and 48 h summarized in Table 1, show dose response curve
in Figure 1 and microphotograph of MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB
231 cells after treatment with DCM fractions of B. monnieri
Figure 2.
Conclusion
The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in
both the cell lines may be due to the presence of cucurbitacins
and betulinic acid in DCM fraction.
Acknowledgments
SAH and SA acknowledge the financial support from CCRUM,
Department of AYUSH (Ministry of Health and family welfare)
File No. 3‑6/2009‑CCRUM/EMR.
Financial support and sponsorship
CCRUM, Department of AYUSH (Ministry of Health and
family welfare).
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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b
a
Table 1: Effect of ethanolic extract/fractions of
Bacopa
monnieri
on MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB 231 cell lines
Extract/fractions Cell lines IC50 (μg/ml)
24 h 48 h 72 h
Hydro alcoholic extract MCF‑7 128.0 106.0 72.0
MDA‑MB 231 175.0 91.0 75.0
Hexane MCF‑7 NC 420.0 383.0
MDA‑MB 231 NC NC NC
DCM MCF‑7 72.0 65.0 57.0
MDA‑MB 231 61.0 45.0 42.0
Acetone MCF‑7 136.0 105.0 92.0
MDA‑MB 231 84.0 77.0 56.0
Methanol MCF‑7 110.0 84.0 72.0
MDA‑MB 231 70.0 56.0 49.0
Water MCF‑7 NC NC NC
MDA‑MB 231 NC NC NC
NC: Noncytotoxic up to 500 μg/mL, DCM: Dichloromethane
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Mallick,
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.:
In vitro
anticancer potentials of
Bacopa
328 Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences October-December 2015 Vol 7 Issue 4
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... Anti-ageing effect of Bacopa monnieri and Ashwagandha was studied by Patnaik., et al. [13] and showed positive results. Another study by Mallick., et al. [14], showed the anticancer potential of Brahmi against MCF-7 and MDAMB 231 cell line. ...
... Isolated alkaloidal compound bacoside A is a major compound of B. monnieri responsible for neuropharmacological activities. Bacosides have been isolated from the chloroform fraction of ethanol extract and well characterized by several techniques as IR, NMR, and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy [113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120]. ...
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Using combined chromatographic methods, two new triterpenoid glycosides, bacopasaponin K (1) and bacopasaponin L (2), along with eight known compounds, bacopaside IV (3), bacopaside VII (4), bacopasaponin E (5), bacoside A3 (6), bacopasaponin F (7), bacopasaponin C (8), bacopaside I (9), and bacopaside II (10) were isolated from the methanol extract of the Bacopa monnieri. Their structures were elucidated by 1D-, 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis, HR-ESI-MS and comparing with the NMR data reported in the literature. All these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 4, 6, 8, and 10 exhibited potential cytotoxic effects against human lung cancer cells (PC9) and human colon cancer cells (SW620).
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Many treatment modalities have been developed and the need for plant derived therapeutic is growing due to the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents. The present study aims to discover the potential of two herbs Plectranthus amboinicus and Bacopa monnieri. Screening for the bioactives in the methanolic extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus and Bacopa monnieri stem showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, saponins, carbohydrates. A comparative study on the cytotoxicity of methanolic extracts of the stem of these plants on lung epithelial cancer cell line A549 and normal fibroblast cell line L929 revealed that both extracts possess cancer cell specific cytotoxic activity. However, Bacopa monnieri stem extracts were found to be more effective in inducing cytotoxicity than Plectranthus amboinicus.
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Environmental exposure to the oxidant-producing herbicide, paraquat (PQ) (1, 1’-dimethyl-4, 4’-bipyridinium dichloride) has long been implicated as a risk factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PQ-induced oxidative stress has been exploited as a model to screen putative neuroprotective compounds employing Drosophila. In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic efficacy of Bacopa monnieri (BM) against PQ-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and lethality. Exposure of adult male flies (Oregon K) to PQ alone (40 mM in 5% sucrose) resulted in 50% mortality at 48 h. Prophylaxis (7 days) with BM extract (0.1%) offered significant protection (40%) against PQ-induced mortality. Further, oxidative impairments and mitochondrial dysfunctions were monitored among Drosophila exposed to PQ (20, 40 mM) for 24 h. Significant induction of oxidative stress was observed in terms of enhanced malondialdehyde and hydroperoxide levels, and elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and SOD). Mitochondrial dysfunctions included of significant reduction in the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (23%), complex I-III (26%), and complex II-III (30%) enzymes. Interestingly, prophylaxis with BM extract prevented the oxidative stress induction by PQ and restored the activity of ETC complexes, suggesting clearly its specific effect on the mitochondria. While the precise mechanism of action of BM needs further investigations, it may be related to its ability to enhance antioxidant defences and thus mitigate PQ-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila. © 2010, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All right reserved.
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Brahmi (Bacopamonnieri) leaves, known as nervine tonic in Ayurveda, and its aqueous (BA), methanolic (BM) and aqueous–methanolic (BAM) extracts were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Fe, Na, K, Ca, P, Cl) and 18 trace (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) elements by INAA. BAM extract showed maximum contents of Na, K, Cl and significant amounts of Mn, Co, Zn. It was also found as effective scavenger of DPPH radicals with 33.5% total phenolic content, highest γ-ray radioprotective effect and higher anti lipid peroxidation activity.
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The present study was undertaken to compare medicinal plants against mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MAD) to evaluate their potency in combating MAD disorders. Previous studies from our lab have shown that Bacopa monniera (BM), and Panax quniquefolium (PQ) have significant adaptogenic properties. Hence, we have further confirmed their activity in stress related disorders like anxiety and depression in animal model, rodents and assessed their efficacy. In our experimental protocol, gross behaviour was observed through Digiscan animal activity monitor. Anxiety was studied through light dark test, elevated plus maze test and holeboard test. Depression experiments were conducted following tail suspension test and forced swim test. Further, rotarod test was also used to study any defects in motor in-coordination in mice. It was observed that BM at the dose of 80 mg/kg (po) and PQ at 100 mg/kg (po) were effective as an anti-anxiety as well anti-depressant activity and had no motor in-coordination in mice. Hence, these extracts can be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MAD).
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bacopa monnieri Linn. for improvement of memory performance in healthy older persons. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The trial took place in Lismore, NSW, Australia between February and July 2005. Ninety-eight (98) healthy participants over 55 years of age were recruited from the general population. Participants were randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri called BacoMind(TM) (Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd.), 300 mg/day, or an identical placebo. Following screening, neuropsychologic and subjective memory assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Audioverbal and visual memory performance were measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and the Reitan Trail Making Test (TMT). Subjective memory performance was measured by the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). One hundred and thirty-six (136) subjects volunteered; 103 met entry criteria, 98 commenced, and 81 completed the trial. Bacopa significantly improved verbal learning, memory acquisition, and delayed recall as measured by the AVLT: trial a4 (p = 0.000), trial a5 (p = 0.016); trial a6 (p = 0.000); trial a7 (delayed recall) (p = 0.001); total learning (p = 0.011); and retroactive interference (p = 0.048). CFT, MAC-Q, and TMT scores improved but group differences were not significant. Bacopa versus placebo caused gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side-effects. Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention in healthy older Australians. This concurs with previous findings and traditional use. Bacopa caused GIT side-effects of increased stool frequency, abdominal cramps, and nausea.
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Environmental exposure to the oxidant-producing herbicide, paraquat (PQ) (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) has long been implicated as a risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). PQ-induced oxidative stress has been exploited as a model to screen putative neuroprotective compounds employing Drosophila. In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic efficacy of Bacopa monnieri (BM) against PQ-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and lethality. Exposure of adult male flies (Oregon K) to PQ alone (40 mM in 5% sucrose) resulted in 50% mortality at 48 h. Prophylaxis (7 days) with BM extract (0.1%) offered significant protection (40%) against PQ-induced mortality. Further, oxidative impairments and mitochondrial dysfunctions were monitored among Drosophila exposed to PQ (20, 40 mM) for 24 h. Significant induction of oxidative stress was observed in terms of enhanced malondialdehyde and hydroperoxide levels, and elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and SOD). Mitochondrial dysfunctions included of significant reduction in the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (23%), complex I-III (26%), and complex II-III (30%) enzymes. Interestingly, prophylaxis with BM extract prevented the oxidative stress induction by PQ and restored the activity of ETC complexes, suggesting clearly its specific effect on the mitochondria. While the precise mechanism of action of BM needs further investigations, it may be related to its ability to enhance antioxidant defences and thus mitigate PQ-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila.
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Bacopa monniera (Linn.) commonly known as Brahmi is well known as medhyarasayana in the traditional system of Ayurveda. It is used to improve memory and intellect since long. It has also been suggested that Brahmi is helpful in treating the nervous disorders related with aging. The present investigation deals with the study of effect of Brahmi on activity of acetyl Cholinesterase, in the brain of mice of both sexes during natural aging. It was observed that with the increase in age there was concomitant increase in the level of peroxidation in the brain tissues in both male and female mice. Activity of acetylcholinesterase was found reduced gradually with the advent of age. Treatment of ethanolic extract of Brahmi reduced the peroxidation reactions in brain to a significant level and also elevated the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain region of male and female mice.
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In the present study, alterations of the General GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri and its active component Bacoside-A were investigated. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Scatchard analysis of [³H]GABA and [³H]bicuculline in the hippocampus of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in B(max) (P < 0.001) compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of GABA(A) receptor sub-units such as GABA(Aά₁), GABA(Aά₅) GABA(Aδ), and GAD were down regulated (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus of the epileptic rats compared to control. GABA(Aγ) subunit was up regulated. Epileptic rats have deficit in the radial arm and Y maze performance. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses all these changes near to control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management of epilepsy.
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Cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been reported in a number of cardiovascular disorders, including myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion, end-stage heart failure, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Prevention of myocyte apoptosis has emerged as a potential new target in a multimodel therapeutic approach to cardiac disease. Herbal therapy may be an alternative strategy for the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The present review summarizes the list of plants/herbal formulations studied for their antiapoptotic activity in cardiovascular disorders. However, despite extensive positive research data from experimental studies for herbal drugs in cardiovascular disorders, and the anecdotal clinical experience of many practitioners and patients, its potential in the field of cardiac apoptosis remains largely untapped, and large scale clinical trials are needed to explore the potential of herbal medicines as a new treatment regime for targeting cardiovascular apoptosis.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory function and mechanism(s) of action of an active component-betulinic acid isolated from Bacopa monniera. Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced IL-6 production in blood mononuclear cells both in vivo and in vitro. Betulinic acid also prevented LPS induced nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB in hPBMCs. LPS induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and IL-6 production was also abolished by p38 and ERK MAPK inhibitors PD98059 and SB203580. Addition of each of these inhibitors to cell cultures along with betulinic acid caused significant downregulation of IL-6 production and inhibition of p65 NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. The inhibitory effect of both betulinic acid and the inhibitors was higher than that of cells treated with inhibitors alone. These results suggest that betulinic acid inhibited IL-6 production by preventing p65 NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and there is a possibility that this prevention of p65 nuclear translocation may involve p38 and ERK MAPKs as cross talks occur between MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties of betulinic acid.
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Amnesia is characterized by the inability to form memories or total or partial loss of memory secondary to cerebral malfunction following degenerative diseases, cerebral infections, traumatic injuries and emotional events which could be differentiated from dementia. However, no effective treatment for amnesia is currently available. Much research effort has been focused on developing new drugs from herbal medicines which have multifunctional properties. Novel plant extracts and their major or bioactive components including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and saponins with promising antioxidant effects, various effects on cholinergic, GABAergic, glutaminergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and histaminergic systems, enhancement of cerebral blood flow and elevation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as well as protein levels have been studied. In this review, we discuss the research findings on novel plant extracts and their bioactives with anti-amnesic effects on different neurotransmitter systems. Developing new drugs from herbal medicines for the treatment of amnesia is a hopeful attempt to meet the unmet medical needs.