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Learning Skills and Types of Temperaments as Discriminants between Intrinsically and Extrinsically Motivated Children



Intrinsic motivation as a personality orientation and its relationship to learning skills, types of temperament, and curiosity ratings was investigated at kindergarten age. 236 kindergarten children were given the picture motivation scale and the Adelphi parent administered readiness test. The teachers rated the children on Thomas, Chess, and Birch's types of temperament and on 9 categories of curiosity and creativity from the California Child Q set. A discriminant function analysis indicated significant discrimination between intrinsically and extrinsically motivated children on sex, writing ability, visual perception, vividness-energy, persistence, and attention span. A differential cognitive functions explanation is offered.
PsSrcbological, Reporti, L983, fi,59-69. @ Psychological Reports 1983
Ba.r llan Unitersity Qtrael)
Sumnary,-lntrinsic motivation as a perscnality orientation and its relation-
ship to learning skills, types of temperameot, and curiosiry ratings was investi-
gated at kindergarten age. 216 kindetganen children were given the Picture
Motivation Scale and the Adelphi Parent ddministered Readiness Test. The
teachers rated the children on Thomas, Chess, and Birch's types of temperameot
and on 9 categories of curiosiry and creativity from the California Child Q set.
A discriminant function analysis indicated significant discrimination berween
intrinsically and extrinsically motivated children on sex, writing ability, visual
perceptiofl, vividness-energy, persistence, and aftention span. A differential
cognitive functions explanation is offered.
Developmental theorists have long asserted rhat intrinsic motivation and
curiosity are inherent in information pro€essing aod cognitive development
(Harter, 1978; Haywood, L97l; Hunt, 1965; Vhite, 1,959). Intrinsic moti-
vation aod c.iriosity have been implicated in various cogoirive processes and
relaied concepts, i.e., attention ro srimuli (Berlyne, L966), processing of in-
formation (Munsinger & Kessen, 1964), generalization and discrimination
(Haywood & T7achs, 1964), variarions in IQ over time (Kagan, Sontag, Baker,
& Melson, 1958), overachievemenr (Haywood, 1958), and exploratory be-
havior (Tzuriel, 1977). Based on currert research intrinsic motivarion gen-
erally facilitates cognitive functioning, especially the use of intellecrual poten-
tial. Young children gain ioceasing masrery of their world by a process of
active expioratioo. As they explore and manipulare their imrnediate surround-
ing, they errcounrer more complex information and create more changes which
require adaptation to and assimilation of new schema.
Intriasically motivared behavior has been labeled by different conceprs
such as cornpetence or effectance motivation (\)7hite, 1959; Harter, 1974,
1978), curiosity (Maw & Maw, 1965), seeking of variation (Fiske & Maddi,
1961), aod exploration (Berlyne, T966). Each concepr suggesrs a different
empirical referent. In the currenr srudy Flayu.sod's conceptualization of in-
rrinsic rnotivation is adopted ro refer ro a personaliry dimension upon which
individuals differ in rhe exterr rhey are motivated by task-intinsic and task-
extrinsic factors (Haywood, l97l). Haywood's conceptualization is based on
'This research was supported by a grant from Bar Ilan University Internal Fund for
Research Gtants. The authors thank Shoshana Sharnir fon help with data collection
and Carl H. Haywood for helpfui commenrs. Requests for reprints should be sent to
David Tzuriel, School of Education, Bar Ilan University, Ramat,Gan, Israel 12100.
Herzbergs fwo-factor theory of iob satisfaction (Hlzbetgr lvfausler, a, s-u.iir;
* o, tiSg; Hezberg & Hamlio, 196L). According to this &*ty, the in-
tdnsiculty modvated-person is described as ooe who seels satisfactioa from
task-oriented activity and approach toward tension-ilducing situations aod chal-
lenges. The extriasically motivated person is described as ooe who avoids
disless by seeking satisfaction through physical cornfoft, safety, and securiry
of the environment.
Intrinsic motivation as a personaliry uait has been related to various asp€cts
of intellecnral development and efficienry of leatning and performance (Hay-
wood e'wachs, 1966; Haywood & \reaver, 1967; Switzky & Haywood, L974) -
Hapvood ( 1968), for example, has reported that individual differeaces in moti-
varion oriegtation account for higher variation in achievement scofes beyoad
the variance accounted for by intelligence for intellecnrally alefage groups and
for educable mentally retarded gfoups. Among the latter groups, inttinsically
motivated childrea achieved one of two yeafs ahead of matched extrinsically
motivard groups, when compared on a staodard test of school achievement.
Studiei of intrinsic motivarion have focused mainly on school-age children
with litde arenrion toward preschoolers. One of the few studies on intrinsic
motivatioo in young childrea was rePoftd by Haywood (1971)' Rural
project Head Start and middle-class preschool children wete given the Picnrre
Moiivation Scale (Kuoca & Haywood, 1969) and the Vane Kindergamen Test.
Middle-class children were significaotly more inuinsically motivated thao the
Head-Staft children. Hovrevef, these differeoces were oo longer statistically
significant when covariance adjustments wefe made for language level aod
* The present study was desigoed to explofe the relationship between lwel
oI inrinsic morivatioo and performance on cognitive tasks by kindergarten
children with different types of temperaments'
Temperament variables as coficep&ralized by Thornas, Chess, and Birch
(196g) iuu" b.e' related to the developrnent of pathology' match between
i-.o, and child, sryie of school perforrnance, and social behavior in school
(Gordoo & Thomas, 1957; Ross, t965). According to Thomas, et al,. individ'.nl
differences in temperament are determined biologicaliy and affect development
either by ,.pushing" the child through a ptedetermined style of his interaction
with the environment to develop in a particular direction ot eliciting different
reactions from the mother toward her child'
Based on srucnrred iorerviews at intervals staning Lt 2 or 3 mo.
of age, Thomas, et al,. identified the following nine characteristics which de'
fmel cUild,s te'rpefameor: (a) the leve1 and extent of motor activity; (b)
aod cicle of sleepingaod wakefulness; (c) the resPonse to a oew object or
p"r*i in terms of approach/withdrawal; (d) adaptability of behavior to
changes in the environment; (e) the threshold or,sensitivity to stimuli; (f)
the intensity, or eoergy level of responses; (g) the child's general mood or
"disposition;" (h) the degree of the child's distractibility from what he is
doing; (i) the span of the child's attention and his persistence in carrying
out any given rype of activiry. Thomas, et al. four,d that these clusters of the
above temperamental characteristics tend to hold together over rhe early child-
hood years and affect a child's cognitive and social emorional functioning. On
the basis of our theoretical approach roward intinsic motivation v/e expecr indi-
vidual differences in rhe child's capaciry to adapt to environmental changes
and the quality of his reactions to novelty and s*ess to be related to individual
differences in the child's task-inminsic or task-extrinsic motivational orienta-
Subjects were 236 kindergarten children, 118 boys and 118 girls, with a
meao age of 70.18 mo. (SD - 4.5A). The sample was drawo from seven
kindergartens in a middle-class urban area. Intrinsically aod extrinsically mo-
tivated children were drawn from the sampLe according ro their score oo rhe
Picnrre Motivatioo Scale (Haiwood, 1971). The criterion for classification
s/as a score of one-fourth of a standard deviation above or below the mean.
Childrea who did flot meer this criterion or for whom any paft of the data was
missing, were excluded from the srudy. The final sample included 58 extrin-
sically motivated aad 57 iotrinsically motivated children. The rest of the
children's data were excluded from further analysis either because scores were
around the meao on the Picnrre Motivation Scale or because data were missing.
It should be no'ted that the discriminant funcrion aoalysis used in this srudy
accepts only cases with full data.
The Picture Motivation Scale was designed by Kunca and N. Hay'wood
(Flaywood, 1971) especially for use with young children or persons of low
mental age. Children are presenred pairs of pictures describiog differenr rypes
of activities vrhich were also verbally explained. The children are asked to
select the one that represenm the activity they prefer. For each pair of the
picnrres otre activity represents intriosic motivation and the other activity rep-
reseflts extriosic motivation. The choice of activities scored as intrinsic mo-
tivation indicate challenge, responsibiliry, creariviry, opporrunry to learn, aes-
thetics, aod psychoJ.ogical satisfaction. The choice of activities scored as ex-
trinsic motivation indicate concern with health, safety, securiqr, familiatity,
earning money, ease, and practicaliry. Two examples are presented in Fig. 1.
For the purpose of adapting the scale for use by kindergarten children an
FIG. L. Exemplar item ftom the Picture Motivation Scale. (
permission of H. C.-llaywood) Note: instructigns fo1 It:m 3, " soroone Plving
an easy game (point). Here is someone playigs a hard game -(point). \trould you
rather'play an eisy game or play a hard garr.e?" Instructioos for Item 1,5, "Hete is
someorie climbing a mountaia (point). Here is someone staying inside (poiot).
STould you rather climb a high mountain or stay inside where it woq't rain on you?"
itern analysis was caffied out. Out of 20 items 12 iterns with significant re-
tiability coefficients (p < .0r) were selected for the final scale. The obtained
reliability coefficients for the selected items on the final scale ranged between
.15 ad .43. The Cronbach alpha of the 12 items cornputed on a sample of
419 kindergarten childreo was .66.
The Adelphi Parent-administered Readiness Test was especially con-
structed to assess children's cognitive ptofiles (Klein, 1981). The test which
was adapted for use in Israel requires only 20 to 25 min. for administration.
It provides a measure of children's performance on various types of cognitive
tasks rather thao ofle global IQ or DQ and requires little pre-admioistration
preparatiorL Although the test was originally designed for parental admin-
isuation, the effects of a stranger's administration versus a parent'$ admiois-
tration were examind (Klein, 1982) and takeo into coosideration in scoring.
The subtests are described below in the order in which they are admin-
istered: On concept formatioo the child is required to examine four pictures
or objects and decide on a common characteristic shated by three of the pic-
tures, excluding the fourth one. Fo,r lemer-form recognition the child is shown
one letter of the alphabet and asked to choose among four choices and under.
line a form just like the model preseoted. To assess writing ability the child
is asked m copy geomeffic and lener forms of models prinrcd on the test page
into predesignated spaces. On number coocept the drild is asked to respond
ro questions involviog decisioos of "more," "less," "as many as" and relations
between digits and numbers of objects they represent. For cornprehetrsion
and memory two brief, four-sentence stories are tead to the child followed by
four compreheosion questions for each story. To assess visual memory an
achromatic detailed line drawing of children playing is presented to the child
who is asked to srudy the picture so he can te1l later, when the picnrre 'is,re- t
moved, all the things he has seen. On visual perceftion to distinguish te-
tween verbal fluenry and memory, the same picture as in visual memory is
presented again. This time the child is asked to look at the picnrre and say
what he sees. On immediate sequeotial memory a series of digits, gradually
increasing in length, ale rcad to the child, one series at a time, and the child
is asked to repear them imrnediately following presentation. The rate of digit
presentation is two per second, as on rhe Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abil-
ities. Recognition of facial expression of emotion is assessed by the child
being asked to associate berween a verbal desciption of siruatioos arousing
emotions read to him, and the schematic lacial expression mosr commonly ex-
pressiog the emotions appropriate for the specific siruation described. In
creativity performance the child is asked to draw ^s maay things as he can
that look like circles or have circles in them. On verbal creativiry the child is
asked to tell (not draw) as many things as he can that look like squares or
have squares ia them.
It should be noted that readiness test (excluding the tes,ts of creativiry
and recognition of facial expressions) correlated moderately with the Metro-
politan Readiness Test (N - 383,r : .6!, p { .001; Klein, 1981). pear-
son correlation coefficieots ol .54 to .82 were obtained between teacher's and
parent's administration of all the sub-tests, supporting the reliability of parents'
The Type of Temperament Questionnaire was based on the original pro-
cedure described by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1968) for determining chil-
dren's type of temperament. The questioonaire has oine sections, each de-
lscribing a dilferent temperameotal characteristic and three choices of possible
levels of behavior that category. Pareots of 183 children were inter-
viewed and their children's type of temperamenr was determioed, once using
the original technique described by Thomas, Chess, and Birch, and then again
using the questionnaire. Since there is no single total scoie for the question-
naire, correlations were calculated separately for each of the nine types of
temperament as determined by the interview and the questionnaire. These
correlations tanged betweea .78 and .69 Q < .01). Test-retest reliability
s,as established at .81 for 120 parcnrs (Klein, 1980).
For curiosiry and creativiry nine items that represent various aspects of
intrinsic motivatioo were selected from the Cali{ornia Child Q-Test (Block
& Block, 1980). For each item there were five levels of raring ranging from
"most irappropriate" ( 1) to "most appropriate" ( 5 ) . Only items that address
directly issues of intrinsic motivation, curiosity and creativiry were selected.
The items were: (a) teud to be pleased with and proud of his products and
accomplishments, (b) is resourceful in initiating activities, (c) is curious, ex-
ploring, eager to learn, open to new experiences, (d) regponds to humor, (q)
has an effective fartasy life, (f) is vital, energetic, lively, (g) has uniisual
thought processes, thinks and petceives in uncommon ways, (h) is creative in
perception, thought, work, or play, (i) becomes involved in what he is doing.
The children were administered the two scales in the order above by
trained undergraduate students in one session. Both measures were given in-
dividually in a separate room in the kindergatten. Administration time of
both measures took about 30 min. in addition, teachers were asked to rate the
children on each of the Type of Temperaments and California Chiid Q Set
Rrsurrs AND DrscussroN
A stepwise discriminant functioo aoalysis v'as carried out for the cog-
nitive profiie, tfpes: of temperament, and cr:riosity variables with motivational
orientation as the ffiterion variable. Sioce we had no expecration which of
the variables contributes more to the separation among the intrinsically moti-
vated and exuinsically motivated groups, no hierarchy for the inclusion of vari-
ables in the analysis was preestablished. The means, standard deviations, and
the discrimioant function coefficients of the 11 variables that have entered
the discriminant function are presented in Table 1.
It shodd be noted that only five variables have emerged as significant
in discrirninating berween inrinsically mo'tivated aod extrinsically motivated
groups: Writing Ability, Visual Perception, Aftendon Span and Persistence,
Energy-Yitaliry, and Sex. Intrinsically mo'rivated children were higher than
the extrinsically motivated children on Persistence and Attention Span and otr
Energy-Vitality, but lower than the extrinsically motivated children on \(riting
Ability and Visual Perception. The significant discrimination of sex indi-
cares that boys were more intrinsically modvated than girls.
The over-aI1 lambda associated with the 11 variables is .71, with an equiv-
alent chi-squarcd of 17.21 (df : lI, p < .0001). The discrimioaor funcrion
based on the 11 variables provides 71% of correct classification into the two
morivario,n groups. Correct percentages of classification for the intrinsically
morivated and extrinsically motivated groups werc 73.37o artd 7L.4/6, respec-
Intrinsic motivation is commonly expeced to be associated with higher
problem-solving abilities and cognitive performance than extrinsic motiva-
tion. The discriminant function analysis of our data yielded quite differeot
results. Out of the 10 subtests of the readioess test, only two, i.e., \Triting
Abiiity and Visual Perception, emerged as significant. On both of these tests
it was extrinsically motivated children who demoostrated higher scores rhan
ConrFlcrrNts FoR LEARNTNG SKTLLS PRoFTLB, T?PBS or TrunrnatrrNt,
Measure Group
Fuaction r
Intrinsically Extrinsically
Motivated Motivated
(N:57) (N= 58)
Learning Skills
Ifiriting ability 6.$ L.46
Visual memory 8.79 3.05
Visual perceptior 12.88 4.7i
Types of Temperament
Disractibility 1.98 .64
attention span 1.58 .68
Curiosity (California Child Q Set)
Is curious and
exploring, eager to
learn, open to oew
experiences 3.61
Responds to humor ).49
Tends to be pleased
with and proud of
his products and
accomplishmerts 3.80 .93
Is vital, energetic,
lively 3.72 .96
Is creative io per-
ception, thought,
work or play 3.31 1.09
L.r2 .7L
).6, .98
3.61 .98
4.14 .87
1.13 .86
3.46 .99
12.941 .80
2.44 -.)4
,.84* .r1
4.L' .41
9.14+ .86
)<, -.65
4.67 .61
5.51* -.57
1.69 .3L
*p <.05. tp <.01.
the intrinsically morivated children. Although coorrary to rhe expected, the
prefered perfomance of the extrinsically motivated children on rhe rwo spe-
cific tesm could be at leasr parrially explained by the nature of the cognitive
performance required on both tests. Both the \Triting Abiliry and Visual Per-
ception tests iovotrve processing of visual information input and moror or vocal
output, requirements found in a number of other rests as well. However, the
proaess occuffing between the input and output oo borh the \Tritiog Abiiiry
and the Visual Perception tests required only mioimal absmact reasofliog, mem-
ory, or understanding of spatial relations as compared to all the orher tests.
In addition, it also appears that performaoces oo \Tritiag Ability and Visual
Perceptioo are more easily affected by tester-related variables and possibly by
social desirability than performance on rhe other tests (Klein, 1980). Since
the extrinsicaliy motivated children are, by definitioo, morivared by task ex-
trinsic factors, it is plausible to assume that they performed better in the "sim'-
ple" tasks than the intrinsically motivated children who were no't stimulared
by or saw no challenge in performing "simple" tasks.
Previous research has shown that intrinsically motivated and extrinsically
motivated children responded differendally to different task conditions; bet-
ter performances or more exploration were fo'r.rnd for intrinsicaily motivated
children under task-intrinsic conditions than under task-extrinsic conditions
whereas for extriosically motivated children better performance and more ex-
ploration were found under task-extrinsic cooditions than under task-intrinsic
conditions (Haywood, l97L; Haywood & \Veaver, 1967; Switzsky & Haywood,
1974; Tzuriel. I9l7). The results of the current study seem to support the
assumption that extrinsically motivated children perform better than intrin-
sically motivated children on simple cognitive tasks. It is also possible, though
without support io our study, that on more abstract or complex learning tasks
(i.e., concepts, problem solving) intinsically motivated children will perfotm
beter than extrinsically motivared children. The more abstract or complex
tasks are more likely to be perceived by the intrinsically motivated chiidren
as challenging and po entially self-rewarding thao simple cognitive tasks and
achieve higher performaoce and learning than extrinsically motivated children.
Support for our assumptions can be drawn from Haywood's (1968) study of
primary school srudents and frorn Kahoe aod McFarlaod's (1975) study of
college students. In Haywood's study the motivational orientation of under-
achievers and overachievers was compared for three grorlps: educable mentally
retarded children, intellectually average childreo, and superior children. Using
the Choice Motivation Scale as a rneasure of intrinsic motivation, the difference
between underachievers and overachievers was highest for the educable men-
tally retarded group. The difference decreased in the inteliecrualiy average
group and disappeared in the intellectually superior group. Haywood's con-
cLusion was that the contribution of intrinsic motivation to school achieve-
ments increases with decrease in iotelligence. The result was explained by
referring to task difficulry which varies inversely with intelligence, i.e., the
same academic task is more difficult for the educable mentally retarded group
than for average or superior groups. Intrinsic motivatioo contributed to school
achievements amorg the educable mentally retarded children more than other
children because they were challenged by the task difficulty. Kahoe and Mc-
Farland found that the correlation between intrinsic motivatioo score and GPA
for easy coiurses, as rated by each snrdenc, was 0 and for the hard courses was
.55. Intrinsic motivation seems to make more difference in performance as
the task becomes more difficult. Since Kahoe and McFarland's study and the
present study are correlative and since some of the conclusions and assur,lp-
tions are based on post facto explanations, it is suggested that an experimental
approach be used in further research. Task diffigulty and task con{itions
(inminsic vs extriosic rewards) should be systematically manipulated amoag
both inuinsically motivated and exrinsically motivated children. Methodolog-
ically, the research model should accounr for the task characeristics and sirua-
tional conditions as well as for ttrre motivational orienration.
The results of the discriminant function analysis show two noncognitive
vatiables that have emerged as significant in discriminating between intrinsi-
cally motivated and extrinsically motivated children: Persistence and Atten-
tion Span, a Type of Temperament category, and a category from California
Child Q curiosity ratirgs, "Is vital, eflergeric atrd lively." The emergence of
both variables indicates that each has a unique contribution with relatively
little overlap in variance predicing the criterion variable. S7hi1e on a first
glance one might think that being vivid, energetic, and lively conuadicts per-
sistence and attention span, it seems that both categories are compiementary.
The vividness and energy chatacterizing the inrinsically motivated child are
not "spread out" and expressed as a hyperactive type of behavior but are chan-
nelized into task-directed activity. Vividness and eoergy combined with per-
sistence and amention can be cornpared analogicaliy to a strongly powered bat-
tery activating an instrument. This anilo,gy of a "battery strength" seems ro
characteize many of the intrinsically motivated child's self-initiated and task-
directed activities as opposed to rhe exrrinsically motivated child's acrivities.
It is interestitrg ro note that these rwo categories have emerged as significant
even when other categories on face validiry look doser to intrinsic morivarion.
Further srudies are suggested to investigate wherher vividness-energy and per-
sistence-aftention discriminate between iorinsically morivared and extrinsically
motivated children at school age as weil as they discriminate in the preschool
age. It is possible that with development and especialiy with socializarion at
schoo,l different patterns of characteristics discriminate beween intrinsically
rootivated aod extrinsically motivated children.
As in other studies (Hutt, 1970; Tz,ariel, 1977) a relationship between
sex and intdnsic mo ivation was repomed: boys weie more inrinsically moti-
vated than girls. In most studies these differences were amibuted to socializa-
tion processes. It seems that as early as kindergarten age, individual dif-
ferences in motivational orieotation car, akeady be found. Further srudies are
required to explore specific socialization processes that enhance or restrict the
development of intrinsic morivarion in boys and gids.
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... Dieses Gefühl wird in einer Personen hervorgerufen wenn diese unter anderem intrinsisch motiviert ist (Wild & Möller, 2009). Nach einer Studie von Tzuriel und Klein (1983) können vor allem Kinder mit niedrigen Intelligenzwerten von der intrinsischen Motivation profitieren. In dieser Studie wurden die Schüler zunächst drei unterschiedliche Intelligenzstufen, darunter niedrig, mittelmäßig und hoch, zugeteilt. ...
... Interessanterweise scheinen besonders Kinder mit niedrigen Intelligenzwerten von intrinsischer Motivation zu profitieren. In einer Studie von Tzuriel und Klein (1983) ...
Das Kapitel befasst sich im ersten Teil aus theoretischer Sicht mit dem Begriff der Motivation und den wichtigsten in der Literatur bislang differenzierten Motivationskonstrukten. Im zweiten Teil wird über empirische Befunde zur Bedeutung zentraler Konstrukte für Lernen und Leistung berichtet. Dabei stehen die Leistungsmotivation, die Zielorientierungen, intrinsische vs. extrinsische Motivation und das Interesse im Vordergrund. Die Befunde unterstreichen die Wirksamkeit der Lernmotivation, auch wenn andere wichtige Einflussgrößen (z.B. Kompetenzniveau) kontrolliert werden. Schließlich behandelt der dritte Teil des Kapitels die Entwicklung und Förderung der Motivation. Insbesondere intrinsische Formen der Motivation nehmen im Laufe der Schulzeit ab und bedürfen der Förderung. Es wird eine Reihe von empirisch bewährten Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, die Lernmotivation zu fördern.
... The item-total reliability coefficients range from .16 to .43 (p< .05); the Cronbach-alpha coefficient was .66. Haywood (1971) and Tzuriel and Klein (1983) have reported validity of the test for prediction of academic achievement and cognitive performance. ...
... Significant relationships between temperament and achievement motivation have been shown in different age groups, including children (e.g. Guerin, Gottfried, Oliver, & Thomas, 2003;Krenn, 1997;Tzuriel & Klein, 1983), adolescents (e.g. Guerin et al., 2003), undergraduate students (e.g. ...
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Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 2 × 2 framework could be generalised to the Chinese context. Six of the nine temperament dimensions (e.g. activity level - general, flexibility-rigidity, and task orientation) significantly predicted mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Neuroticism, extroversion and conscientiousness significantly predicted all the above-mentioned four achievement goals; openness and agreeableness significantly predicted the mastery-orientated and performance-oriented achievement goals, respectively. Compared with temperament, personality was the stronger predictor for achievement goals. These results supported the posited relationship of 'hard-wiring' variables to achievement goals in the conceptual model of achievement motivation.
... The second measure was the Picture Motivation Scale for children (Haywood, 1971). We used a subset of this test comprising 12 pairs of pictures that depict internal motivation and external orientation of motivation (Tzuriel & Klein, 1983). Cronbach's reliability coefficient in the present sample was = 0.79 after three items were removed because they did not correlate with overall test score. ...
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C hildren with specific biologi-cal and developmental risk factors, such as those born with intrauterine growth re-striction (IUGR), are likely to experience adjustment difficulties. To date few re-search studies have been able to determine mech-anisms affecting school adjustment in these populations. Basic questions regarding school ad-justment of children with developmental disabili- ABSTRACT:This long-term, prospective study evaluated repeatedly school readiness and adjustment at kindergarten and first grade of children with extreme intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR; n = 20) in relation to controls (n = 19). Methods included individual testing of cognitive compe-tence, self-perception, motivation, loneliness and academic achievements; parental anxiety and family-functioning; and teacher ratings of cognitive, emotional and social adjustment. Children with IUGR had lower cognitive and achievement scores and frequent impulsivity. However, they experienced no socio-emotional difficulties. Children in this group, particularly boys, who had mild cognitive difficulties, rule breaking tendencies and social adjustment issues experienced aca-demic adjustment difficulties during the first school year. Findings underscore a susceptibility of children born with extreme IUGR to develop learning difficulties, and highlight their initial socio-emotional resilience.
Das Kapitel befasst sich im ersten Teil aus theoretischer Sicht mit dem Begriff der Motivation und den wichtigsten in der Literatur bislang differenzierten Motivationskonstrukten. Im zweiten Teil wird über empirische Befunde zur Bedeutung zentraler Konstrukte für Lernen und Leistung berichtet. Dabei stehen die Leistungsmotivation, die Zielorientierungen, intrinsische vs. extrinsische Motivation und das Interesse im Vordergrund. Die Befunde unterstreichen die Wirksamkeit der Lernmotivation, auch wenn andere wichtige Einflussgrößen (z. B. Kompetenzniveau) kontrolliert werden. Schließlich behandelt der dritte Teil des Kapitels die Entwicklung und Förderung der Motivation. Insbesondere intrinsische Formen der Motivation nehmen im Laufe der Schulzeit ab und bedürfen der Förderung. Es wird eine Reihe von empirisch bewährten Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, die Lernmotivation zu fördern.
A large body of research showed that exploration plays an important role in cognitive development, problem solving, thinking and creativity (e.g., Cagle, 1985; Gibson, 1988; Kagan, 1978; Singer & Singer, 1990; Voss & Keller, 1983). Thus, it is a major factor in the construction and maintenance of a cognitive system that comprises the contents and processes necessary for coping intelligently with a complex and changing external and internal environment. Therefore it is of great theoretical and practical importance to clarify the motivational and cognitive determinants of exploration. This is the major purpose of the present chapter. It summarizes empirical findings and theoretical conclusions obtained by applying to the study of curiosity and exploration two theoretical frameworks: the theories of cognitive orientation and of meaning (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1976a, 1990a). To be sure, these theories and the methodologies they have generated have been applied also to a broad range of issues other than exploration and curiosity. Yet it may be of interest to note that the investigations of exploration have played a seminal role in the development and refinement of these theories and methods. Exploration, motivational determinants and cognitive determants are the three major terms in the chapter’s title. We will deal with each in turn before we describe an empirically based theoretical attempt at their integration.
Motivationale Merkmale und Prozesse werden in der Pädagogischen Psychologie vor allem auf das Lernen bezogen. Der besondere Stellenwert der Motivation für Lernen und Leistung ist dabei durch zahlreiche empirische Studien belegt worden (► Abschn. 7.2). Diese zeigen, dass bestimmte Formen der Lernmotivation den Lernerfolg jeweils begünstigen, aber auch beinträchtigen können. Dabei sind direkte und indirekte Leistungseffekte der Motivation zu unterscheiden. Indirekte Effekte werden in der Regel durch bildungsbezogene Entscheidungen vermittelt (z. B. Kurs- und Studienfachwahlen), während direkte Effekte sich auf lernrelevante Verhaltensweisen (z. B. investierte Lernzeit) oder auf Aspekte der Informationsverarbeitung (z. B. Verknüpfung neuer Information mit Vorwissen) beziehen. Die Bedeutung der Motivation ergibt sich nicht nur aus ihrer leistungsförderlichen Wirkung. Vielmehr sind hoch motivierte Lerner bzw. Schüler auch deshalb wünschenswert, weil der Unterricht mit motivierten Schülern konfliktfreier, reibungsloser und effizienter abläuft. Die daraus resultierende Erhöhung von Lernzeit und Erlebensqualität kann wiederum den Lernerfolg begünstigen. Schließlich sind Motivation und (vor allem) Interesse wichtig, weil sie dafür sorgen, dass Schüler auch langfristig danach streben, sich mit bestimmten Fächern auseinanderzusetzen (z. B. in Studium und Beruf ). In Übereinstimmung mit dieser Sichtweise hat die neuere, konstruktivistische Instruktionsforschung (► Kap. 4) motivationale Variablen zunehmend als wichtige Kriterien erfolgreichen Unterrichts berücksichtigt.
A sample of 177 students from Grades 5 and 10 were given the Choice Motivator Scale, a measure of individual differences in motivational orientation, the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale, and the Parent-Child Relation Questionnaire. A stepwise regression analysis with the latter two scales, age, and sex as predictors was employed with motivational orientation as a criterion variable. Four variables significantly predicted intrinsic motivation: Love-Reject (father), Attention (father), Locus of Control (successes), and Age. Intrinsically motivated children tended to perceive their fathers as more loving and less rejecting, giving less attention (protecting), and were more internally controlled and older than externally motivated children. Effects of parental child-rearing practices have been related to the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. A social-personality explanation is offered to explain the prediction of motivational orientation by locus of control and age.
Two studies were done to investigate the effects of participation in a cognitive early education program, Bright Start, on teachers' use of mediated learning strategies and on children's cognitive modifiability and task‐intrinsic motivation. In Study 1,11 teachers who had been trained in and had taught Bright Start in their classrooms were compared to 11 teachers who had not had this training or experience, using an observation instrument to assess their use of mediational techniques in their classes, following one year of application of the program. There was evidence of greater use of mediation in the Bright Start group than In the control group, especially in the category of Mediation for Transcendence. In Study 2,51 socio economically disadvantaged children in kindergarten were randomly assigned to experimental (n=25) and control (n = 26) groups. Two of Bright Start's seven “cognitive small‐group” units were systematically applied, for 3 months, with the experimental children while children in a control group received a skills‐based but not cognitively oriented program. Both static and dynamic tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Children in the Bright Start group improved their performance on cognitive tasks and showed a higher level of task‐intrinsic motivation than did those in the control group. The change scores on dynamic assessment tasks were compared at post‐treatment. The experimental group showed an overall higher performance than did the control group at pre‐ and post‐teaching phases of the Children's Analogical Thinking Modifiability (CATM) and Complex Figure tests. Significant Treatment X Time (pre‐ and post‐teaching) interactions indicated that the Bright Start group improved its performance from pre‐ to post‐teaching more than did the control group. The results are discussed in relation to developmental aspects and previous findings.
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Compared behavior maintenance capability of self-monitored reinforcement to that of externally imposed reinforcement and to 2 noncontingent control conditions in 160 children in Grades 2-5. Half of the Ss at each grade level were intrinsically motivated and half were extrinsically motivated. Self-reinforcement Ss selected their own performance standards and rewarded themselves whenever they obtained their prescribed level; external-reinforcement Ss were yoked to them so that the same behavioral standards were imposed but the reinforcers were administered externally. Results show that intrinsically motivated Ss maintained their performance longer than did extrinsically motivated Ss under self-reinforcement, while extrinsically motivated Ss showed greater performance maintenance than did intrinsically motivated Ss under external reinforcement. It is concluded that individual differences in motivational orientation must be considered in order to predict patterns of self-reward behavior. (23 ref)
Tests of readiness have proliferated over the last two decades as professionals have developed an awareness of what basic abilities are necessary for academic success in the early school years (i.e., Bloom, 1963; Bryant, 1964; Butler, Gotts, Quisenberry & Thompson, 1971; Hammill & Bartel, 1975; Kirk, 1971; Wallace & Larsen, 1978). Most testing situations involve an interaction between the tester and the testee. Test administration procedures have been standardized in order to minimize the possible effects of different testers. However, variations in performance of young children in response to one tester as compared to another are to be expected, especially when the “other tester” is the child’s own parent. Since the practice of parent testing is relatively new, the question of differences in children’s performance in response to their parents as compared to strangers has not yet been explored.
617 adults and children served as Ss in 9 studies of the relation between expressed preference and differing amounts of variability of stimulation. Random shapes and different sequential approximations to English were used as variations in stimulus variability. The results supported the following generalizations. Human beings arc sensitive to amount of variability in stimulation. There is an intermediate amount of variability which was consistently most preferred by unsophisticated Ss. Preference for the stimuli used was jointly determined by number of independent characteristics of the stimuli and their meaningfulness. Preference for variability changed with Ss' experience with variable stimulation, whether the experience was induced experimentally or was the result of specific professional training. The tendency to increase preference for stimulation of high variability is related to Ss' ability to code or process variability.
Attempted to refine and extend R. White's (1959) model of effectance motivation, with particular emphasis on its developmental implications. This expanded model focuses on the following: the need to isolate components of effectance motivation at different developmental levels, an examination of the effects of failure as well as success, the relationship between task challenge and the degree of pleasure experienced, the role of social agents and the reinforcing environment, the developmental internalization of a self-reward system, the need to examine the relative strength of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations, certain correlates such as perceived competence and perceived control as consequences and mediators of one's motivational orientation. The need to translate theoretical concepts into researchable formulations which can be empirically tested within a developmental context is emphasized. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined effects of 3 levels each of personal intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions on grade point average (GPA) in college freshman courses rated by the 188 students as their most and least challenging. Extrinsic motivation was related to GPA by an inverted-U function, and the linear correlation coefficient was significant (p < .05) for low challenge, the factorial main effect was significant (p < .05) for high challenge. Intrinsic motivation was correlated with GPA only for high challenge (p < .05); main effect curves showed GPA equal for low and medium intrinsic motivation levels but higher for high intrinsic motivation. More important were significant (p < .05) interactions between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation for low challenge and overall between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and challenge. The interactions were related primarily to lower performance of high intrinsic motivation Ss when extrinsic motivation and challenge were both either high or low, which suggests that intrinsic motivation had a motivating effect only in a context of high challenge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The gratification which children derive from cognitive mastery on problem-solving tasks was examined as a function of task difficulty. Fifth and sixth graders were given a series of anagrams varying in difficulty. Greater pleasure, as reflected both in smiling and rated enjoyment, was manifest on the correct, compared to the incorrect, items. Among those correctly solved anagrams only, there was a positive linear relationship between smiling and difficulty level. Repetition of correctly solved anagrams produced a decline in smiling. Verbal data also supported the interpretation that the maximum gratification is derived from the active solution of challenging problems, whereas easily solved problems provide relatively little pleasure. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the concept of effectance motivation.