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Voicing linguistic heritage on Jersey: Popular music, language revitalisation and intervention



This paper discusses cultural sustainability in the context of linguistic heritage on the island of Jersey (one of the Channel Islands just off the north of France) in three spheres of analytical and critical enquiry: language revitalisation, intervention and popular music. Over the past century, the island’s indigenous language, called Jèrriais, has undergone a period of rapid decline because of increased anglicisation, and the number of native speakers of Jèrriais is now so low that the language might be labeled as severely endangered (UNESCO, 2012). While song has been a long tradition of entertainment amongst Jèrriais speakers, and in the twentieth century became a tool for helping to celebrate the language (Johnson, 2008), in 2012, local Jèrriais educators commissioned a local musician to arrange a selection of old and recent songs using the local language, and to produce recordings in a pop music style that would accompany an educational resource (L'Office du Jèrriais, 2012). A folk-pop band was soon created, and not only did the band record upbeat songs in Jèrriais for use in the educational resource, but later in the same year it also released an album, and continues to create transformed and original music in the local language. The cultural transformation that took place through the commissioning and assemblage of the band (the first on Jersey to sing upbeat songs in Jèrriais in a pop music style), as well as the production of the recordings, helps show intervention in a small island context where linguistic heritage is at the core of a notion of cultural sustainability in this sphere of local identity.
Communities, Places, Ecologies
Proceedings of the
2013 IASPM-ANZ Conference
Edited by
Jadey O’Regan and Toby Wren
IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
The papers in this collection were subjected to a double blind peer review process
and only those that were deemed satisfactory were published. Peer reviewers were
chosen according to their expertise in the authors’ areas of investigation and proven
publication records in the field of popular music.
This volume is © 2014 International Association for the Study of Popular Music
(Australia/New Zealand Branch). Authors retain individual copyright over their
original intellectual property. Papers re-printed from this volume should
acknowledge the original source.
All images, lyrics, and other copyrighted materials included in this volume appear on
the understanding that permission for the reproduction of these materials has been
obtained individually by the author in whose work they appear.
The opinions expressed in this volume are those of the authors alone, and do not
necessarily represent the views of IASPM or IASPM Australia/New Zealand.
Cover image: Cover design by Jodie Taylor
Published by: IASPM Australia/New Zealand, Brisbane
ISBN: 978-0-9757747-7-9
2013 Conference Committee
Sarah Baker (Organising Committee)
Kate Barney (Advisory Committee)
Dan Bendrups (Conference Convenor)
Andy Bennett (Organising Committee)
Gavin Carfoot (Advisory Committee)
Narelle McCoy (Advisory Committee)
Jadey O’Regan (Advisory Committee)
Jodie Taylor (Organising Committee)
Donna Weston (Organising Committee)
Table of Contents
Jadey O'Regan and Toby Wren.............................................................................. vi!
Musical entanglements at the contact zone: Exploring Indigenous and non-
Indigenous Australian collaborations through contemporary music!
Katelyn Barney......................................................................................................... 1!
“Why not here?” Pinoy metal and peripheral communities!
Catherine Hoad...................................................................................................... 13!
Live music performance in virtual worlds: Six musicians' experiences
Matthew Hills, Sarah Hartshorne and Lisa Jacka…………………………………… 23
Re-sounding Coranderrk: connecting past, place, and present-day
communities through a commemorative Indigenous music festival!
Aline Scott-Maxwell............................................................................................... 32!
The tango in Australia as popular entertainment and music of ‘place’ before
1970s Latin-American immigration!
John Whiteoak .......................................................................................................48!
Devolving folk: Re–establishing Britishness/Englishness!
Robert G. H. Burns ................................................................................................65!
Voicing linguistic heritage on Jersey: Popular music, language revitalisation
and intervention!
Henry Johnson....................................................................................................... 76!
Breaking down dominant conceptualisations of place: The transgressive
potential in 143 Liverpool Street Familia's engagement with the 'Downing
Centre Courts'!
Rachael Gunn ........................................................................................................ 84!
Process and intimacy in home recording: A consideration of music and place!
John Encarnacao ................................................................................................... 96!
Studio hubs: Changing recording environments!
Pat O’Grady ......................................................................................................... 103!
Is classical music ‘boring’? A discussion of fidelity, virtuosity and performance
in classical music recording!
Eve Klein ..............................................................................................................112!
Pinching (or taking back) ideas from popular music: Placing the concept
album in contemporary classical music!
IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
Dawn Bennett and Diana Blom............................................................................126!
The ecology of ‘sacred space’: Indie music’s exploration and construction of
sacred space in the context of contemporary digital music!
Laura Glitsos........................................................................................................138!
Under the covers: Copyright, cover versions and the Internet!
Matthew Bannister............................................................................................... 147!
Cognitive ecology: Music, gesture and cognition!
Bruce Johnson..................................................................................................... 155!
Making ‘Soundmarks’: Places and ecologies in contemporary sound art!
Linda Kouvaras .................................................................................................... 164!
vi IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
The papers in this proceedings came from the 2013 annual conference of the
International Association for the Study of Popular Music (Australia and New Zealand
Chapter), which was held in Brisbane from 24-26 November at the Queensland
Conservatorium Griffith University. 2013 marked 20 years since the first national
IAPSM conference in Australasia, convened by Tony Mitchell at UTS, and provided
an opportunity to reflect on the achievements that have been made in popular music
studies in our region over these two decades. The conference brought together a
range of emerging and established scholars of popular music, around the theme of
‘Communities, Places, Ecologies’. It is our hope that the diverse and stimulating
atmosphere of that conference is captured in this selection of papers.
The conference and this volume would not have been possible without the
organisation and planning of the Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University staff,
and the IASPM-ANZ executive. We would particularly like to thank the 2013
Conference Convenor Dan Bendrups and IASPM-ANZ Publications Officer Liz Giuffre
for their guidance and support throughout the process of putting this volume
together. We also thank Jodie Taylor for her cover design. The papers have been
subject to a double blind peer review process by an international team of reviewers.
We, and the authors are very grateful for their detailed and constructive feedback.
Finally, the editors wish to thank the authors for their contributions to this volume.
The theme of Communities, Places, Ecologies has been used as a structural spine
although it should be noted that these themes are confluent and that each paper
contributes to our understanding of the interdependence of these concepts. Authors
have engaged notions of community and identity, and the formation of identity
around performance, participation and consumption; the ways that collective
practices derive from, contribute to and help to define places; and the ways in which
cultural practices operate within human, economic and environmental ecologies.
Each paper provides a valuable contribution to popular music scholarship, and
collectively progress our understanding of global music making and cultural identity.
In the Communities section, papers examine a range of contexts for collective
practices and the meanings they hold for a group of people. Katelyn Barney’s paper
on contact zones in Australian indigenous communities asks whether music can be a
methodology for reconciliation, drawing on recent work that shows the kinds of
understandings that can be gained from thoughtful music-making across cultural
boundaries. Catherine Hoad explores a very different context, the local ‘Pinoy’
(Philippino) metal scene, examining how even in contemporary popular music
contexts, exoticisation and othering of Philippino metal musicians creates a sense of
frustration for local musicians struggling for recognition and identity. Matthew Hill,
Sarah Hartshorn, and Lisa Jacka explore the sense of community around live music
performance within the online Second Life, and contribute to our understanding of
the differences that might exist between real and virtual communities. Aline Scott-
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Maxwell’s writing deals with the complex intersections of different communities
around the former Corranderkk Aboriginal station in Victoria and issues of cultural
identity and appropriation in regards to Australian Indigenous musics. And John
Whiteoak gives us new historical research on the origins of Tango in Australia and
how that provided a point around which diverse musicians and audiences could
In the Places section, the focus is on places real, virtual and imagined. Rob Burns
explores the idea of ‘Britishness’ as represented in the recent work of Billy Bragg,
weaving together musical and historical information, alongside interviews and
reflections. Henry Johnson contributes an ethnomusicological study of the history,
language and pop music of the island of Jersey, located off the coast of France. The
paper by Rachel Gunn examines her participation in the hip-hop and breakdancing
community through a Deleuzian framework that unpacks the ways in which meaning
coalesces and transforms public spaces. A ‘place’ need not only be found on a map:
John Encarnacao’s exploration of the ‘home’ as a recording space and Pat
O’Grady’s contribution on the changing space of recording studios and the cultural
capital of small scale production contextualise the concept of ‘place’ in unique ways.
Eve Klein’s paper on the ‘fidelity, virtuosity and performance’ of Classical music
recording explores not only the ‘space’ and ‘place’ of recording, but the place of
Classical music alongside the ‘popular’. Similarly, Dawn Bennett and Diana Blom’s
paper explores the idea of the ‘concept’ album, a term often reserved for popular
music analyses, and places it within the context of Classical music.
In the Ecologies section, interdependence and influence is explored in several ways.
Laura Glitsos’ paper explores the ‘sacred space’ of indie music in the digital era,
through a localised study of the long-standing relationship between popular music
and drug use, particularly halucinogens. Matthew Bannister’s paper examines the
ecology and sustainability of musicians within the music industry and asks whether
copyright has become a way of protecting corporations rather than protecting
musicians. Both of these articles express the idea of an ecology existing in a digital
space. Bruce Johnson’s paper investigates the ecology of live music performance
and its continuing relevance, proposing a cognitive framework for understanding the
relationship between performers and audiences. And Linda Kouvaris explores
contemporary sound art through the notion of ‘soundmarks’ (as opposed to
‘landmarks’) and the way that an ecology of sound and place is established in four
different sound works.
We hope you enjoy this collection of papers. From Jersey to Australia, from popular
to classical, from the home to the virtual space, this proceedings reflects how flexible
the ideas of communities, space and ecologies can be in the study of popular music.
Bust a move [drops mic]
Jadey O’Regan and Toby Wren
November 2014
Voicing linguistic heritage on Jersey: Popular
music, language revitalisation and intervention
Henry Johnson
University of Otago / Te Whare Wānanga o Otāgo
This paper discusses cultural sustainability in the context of linguistic heritage on
the island of Jersey (one of the Channel Islands just off the north of France) in three
spheres of analytical and critical enquiry: language revitalisation, intervention and
popular music. Over the past century, the island’s indigenous language, called
Jèrriais, has undergone a period of rapid decline because of increased anglicisation,
and the number of native speakers of Jèrriais is now so low that the language might
be labeled as severely endangered (UNESCO, 2012). While song has been a long
tradition of entertainment amongst Jèrriais speakers, and in the twentieth century
became a tool for helping to celebrate the language (Johnson, 2008), in 2012, local
Jèrriais educators commissioned a local musician to arrange a selection of old and
recent songs using the local language, and to produce recordings in a pop music
style that would accompany an educational resource (L'Office du Jèrriais, 2012). A
folk-pop band was soon created, and not only did the band record upbeat songs in
Jèrriais for use in the educational resource, but later in the same year it also
released an album, and continues to create transformed and original music in the
local language. The cultural transformation that took place through the
commissioning and assemblage of the band (the first on Jersey to sing upbeat
songs in Jèrriais in a pop music style), as well as the production of the recordings,
helps show intervention in a small island context where linguistic heritage is at the
core of a notion of cultural sustainability in this sphere of local identity.
The methods and theoretical influences found in this research draw primarily from
ethnomusicology and popular music studies. The ethnographic part of the research
has included fieldwork on the island on several occasions over the past few years,
which has mainly involved working with language educators, as well as carrying out
key-informant interviews as a way of gaining qualitative data for the study. The main
theoretical orientation of this research takes a critical approach to popular music
studies in connection with intervention in popular music. Such a topic has featured
prominently in pop musicology, especially in connection with the often contradictory
binary of intervention vis-à-vis the marketplace economy. Scholarly research in this
field has taken several approaches. While Kong (2000, p. 389) has called for more
debate on this topic, Shuker (2001, p. 67) has summarised key issues connected
with state music policy, cultural imperialism and globalisation in the context of state
intervention (cf. Scott and Craig, 2012). Issues regarding intervention and
IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
marketplace economy have also been stressed by Cloonan (1999), who theorises
the connection between pop music and the nation-state, especially regarding
cultural policy. Indeed, "the results may be contradictory but it is hard to see what
other mechanisms to promote domestic talent might be available" (Cloonan 1999, p.
In the context of this paper, while one side of the binary involves intervention, which
in this case is based on cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1997) in the form of linguistic
heritage, the other side is far removed from promoting a successful commercial
recording, but more to do with the recontextualisation of (neo-) traditional music
through a pop music genre with the aim of popularising language rather than only
the music. Moreover, income from the band’s album was directed back into
language education and to help support aspiring musical talent:
50% of the proceeds from the sale of ‘Hècque Badlabecques!’ [the album’s
title] will go to local community projects in Jersey 25% to L’Assemblieé
d’Jèrriais [an organization that promotes Jèrriais], for the promotion and
development of the Jèrriais language, and 25% to La Motte Street Studios,
to help support local young musicians (Badlabecques, 2013).
The transformations of traditional music has been the subject of much scholarly
research, but in the context of this study, the aim of revitalising a severely-
endangered language is at the core of this particular band’s raison d'être. Drawing
on studies on the interconnection between language and music, especially
endangered or minority languages, including the work of Grant (2010), Donaghy
(2011), and Kuznetsov (2009), this paper focuses on the promotion of a language
through a style of popular music. In such a context, while the production and
distribution of the music has intervention at its core, the consumption of what
appears to be a pop music style offers a further parameter that contradicts much to
do with popular music in a global perspective. That is, the number of listeners who
would actually understand the lyrics of the band’s songs is very few, and those who
do understand the lyrics are usually of an older generation. Such a process might be
interpreted as offering a type of unpopular pop music to a limited audience who
might not always consume such a style of music in the first place. Here, cultural
heritage is linguistic heritage, which itself is a type of cultural capital. The theme of
popular music as cultural heritage has been explored in special issue of Popular
Music and Society in 2008. In that issue, and writing on Aboriginal music,
Neuenfeldt notes that "the interplay of contemporary music and cultural heritage . . .
is not only a major site for artistic expression but also helps embody social memory"
(2008, p. 453). In Jersey, and in this study, an example of amateur popular music
has become a site of cultural recontextualisation and creation as a product of
intervention and linguistic activism.
The first part of the paper explores local identity in connection with the history of
Jèrriais, language decline and language revitalisation. The second part introduces
the idea of intervention and the use of popular music as a revitalisation tool that on
78 IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
the one hand aims to promote cultural sustainability, yet at the same time may
culturally transform or recontextualise the linguistic heritage it aims to sustain. In this
part of the discussion, a case study is shown where the band is attached to a site of
contested natural heritage, and how linguistic activism through song is used as part
of an ecological campaign to voice political concerns to the local community and
government. The paper shows Badlabecques as a site of music and linguistic
activism, and a band that links to community, place and ecology.
Jersey and Jèrriais
Jersey was already a Norman territory when the Normans conquered England in
1066, and it has maintained a version of the Norman language to the present day.
Once the everyday spoken language of the island, anglicisation over the past few
centuries, along with an historical context of disrespect in such contexts as
compulsory school education, meant that Jèrriais entered a period of rapid decline
in the twentieth century. By 2012, it was estimated that while two thirds of the
island’s nearly 100,000 population could understand some words or phrases, less
than 100 people could actually speak the language fluently (States of Jersey
Statistics Unit 2012, p. 56).
Jersey now has a number of organisations that help to promote Jèrriais, many of
which were established in the latter half of the twentieth century, and some of these
also make inter-island and island-mainland links to connect with other branches of
the Norman language (i.e., to Guernsey and mainland France). Also, some scholars
have shown an interest in the language and helping to promote revival (e.g. Jones
2000; 2001). Currently, the language is being actively promoted by L’Office du
Jèrriais, which receives funding via the government’s Department of Education,
Sport and Culture to support 2.8 full-time staff.
In the twenty-first century, Jèrriais faces a major challenge. Fluent and native
speakers are few, and while the promotion of the language is being supported in
some sectors, there is still no official policy of widespread language promotion that
embraces the support of producing a culture of new speakers. However, the
government document, Development of a Cultural Strategy for the Island (States of
Jersey, Education, Sport and Culture Committee, 2005), notes the importance of
island culture and the need to maintain Jèrriais in the present day, which is an
indication that the language is part of the island’s cultural heritage and cultural
capital: “Language brings distinctiveness, a sense of localness and a whole new set
of skills all of which are important qualities in attracting the creative economy. It is
fundamental to the Island’s identity” (States of Jersey, Education, Sport and Culture
Committee, 2005; see also Le Rendu, 2004; Riddell, 2007).
Over the past 50 years or so, adults have been able to learn Jèrriais at evening
classes. Language classes in schools were only made available from 1999, and
mainly on a voluntary basis with students learning during lunchtime or after school.
In fitting with the policy of promoting the language, from 2012 there has been a
IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
series of classes as part of a citizenship strand in the curriculum that extends Jersey
Studies, which is taught to Year 4 (8 and 9 year olds) students.
Popular Music, Intervention and Heritage
In 2012, L’Office du Jèrriais collaborated with local musician Kit Ashton, who had
recently returned to the island from the UK, to produce some recordings of songs in
Jèrriais for use in school education. The plan was to commission Ashton to record
six songs to be used in conjunction with a newly produced booklet on Jèrriais which
would form part of the curriculum in Jersey Studies (L'Office du Jèrriais, 2012). The
booklet and songs were attached to specific island themes that had been identified
as important for students to learn about at the same time as learning Jèrriais,
including landmarks, traditions and celebrations. The context of teaching and
learning Jèrriais in island schools points to a close association with the notion of
cultural heritage. As noted above, Jèrriais is supported by the island’s government
in the development of a cultural strategy, and by linking the language to island
studies in the school curriculum with themes on island history and identity, the
connection of the language with the notion of heritage is strengthened.
The band that was formed as part of this intervention process is called
Badlabecques, which is a Jèrriais term meaning ‘chatterboxes’. The pop-folk band
is a group of nine amateur musicians who share the aim of playing their style of
music to a wider island community. Since their formation, they have released an
album, Hécque Badlabecques! (Long Live the Chatterboxes), and have performed
regularly on Jersey. The band has even performed on the neighbouring island of
Sark at a folk festival, and on mainland France as part of a broader celebration of
Norman language.
The type of venue that Badlabecques performs at adds strength to the band’s links
with island heritage and the promotion of Jersey’s endangered language. As the
band’s vocals are primarily in Jèrriais, the band is faced with a conundrum: if the
language is endangered then who will understand the songs? As noted above, many
islanders understand a few Jèrriais words, but less than a hundred islanders can
speak Jèrriais fluently. Moreover, fluent speakers are generally of an older
generation and might not be comfortable attending the type of pop music contexts
so often associated with pop bands. Nevertheless, one of Badlabecques objectives
is to promote Jèrriais to a broader public as part of its collaboration with L’Office du
Jèrriais, and by doing this through the pop-folk genre is a way of encouraging a new
generation of potential Jèrriais speakers, or at least exposing a greater number of
listeners to Jèrriais through song.
Rather than only performing in bars, nightclubs or other venues that are typically
associated with pop bands, the type of performance context chosen by
Badlabecques tends to be linked with heritage sites, especially where there is a link
with Jèrriais, either in terms of linking the language to the past or by social
80 IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
connection in terms of those who are present at the events. An exploration of
several such events shows this connection. For example, the band has played at the
Nièr Beurre (Black Butter) event that is organised by Jersey Heritage, which is “a
local charity that protects and promotes the Island’s rich heritage and cultural
environment” (Jersey Heritage, 2013); at La Fête Nouormande (Norman Fête), which
is an inter-Norman language festival held annually at one of the main Norman
locations (e.g. Jersey, Guernsey or Normandy); and at La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (Cider
Festival), which is sponsored by Jersey Tourism and held at Hamptonne Country
Life Museum, which is run by the National Trust for Jersey. The band has performed
at numerous similar events that further consolidate its connection with a cultural
heritage theme, and especially linguistic cultural heritage.
One of Badlabecques most publicly visible actions in alignment with heritage
politics on Jersey was its involvement in the Plémont (place name) campaign that
was championed by the National Trust for Jersey in an attempt to restore an area on
the north coast of the island after decades of use as a holiday camp during Jersey’s
days of mass tourism (Pontins Holiday Camp dates from the 1920s and closed in
2000). There was a possibility that Jersey’s government would acquire the land for
preservation, but after a robust debate, island politicians voted 25 to 24 in favour of
not purchasing the land, thus giving the developers permission to built 28 new
homes on the site. However, since the vote, there have been renewed calls to save
the land by various activists and organisations, and the situation seems to continue
to be debated for some time more.
In the last few months of 2012, Badlabecques became increasingly involved in the
campaign to save the Plémont headland from development, and a press release by
the National Trust for Jersey on 25 November referred to the band’s involvement as
“Singing To Safeguard Plémont” (National Trust for Jersey, 2012). The following day,
Badlabecques released a song, “Little Green Shoots”, as a download available
through iTunes for 79p (about NZ$2), the proceeds of which were donated to the
campaign. The band was helped by 1970s pop star Gilbert O’Sullivan, who lives on
Jersey, who provided free use of his recording studio. A video of the song was
produced as part of the promotion of the song (Badlabecques, 2012).
While linking to island heritage and environment, the song is interestingly sung in a
mixture of Jèrriais and English. The song was co-written by Kit Ashton (band leader)
and Geraint Jennings of L’Office du Jèrriais (Jersey Office). None of the members of
Badlabecque speak Jèrriais fluently, and Ashton relies on the help of Jèrriais
activitist, educator and poet, Geraint Jennings, for help with pronunciation. As part
of L’Office du Jèrriais, Jennings has also been pivotal in helping to promote the
band around the island and beyond as part of the ongoing campaign to promote
Jèrriais more widely and to a younger sector of the island.
The video of “Little Green Shoots” shows many island themes that link the band to
the save Plémont campaign. As noted by Ashton:
IASPM-ANZ 2013 Proceedings
It’s really special for us to contribute to the Love Plémont campaign in this
way, and we hope we’ve got the right balance between the genuine message
and a positive, inclusive sound as well as between English and Jèrriais!
There used to be a beacon at Plémont, and the song focuses on this as a
metaphor for hope that taking this unique chance to undo the mistakes of
the past will also show how Jersey’s public does really value and respect
nature, and our legacy for future generations the ‘Little Green Shoots’ of
tomorrow’s community (Ashton, 2012).
The song is a plea for help and its lyrics are loaded with this message along with the
theme of the site’s natural beauty. On the video, the band performs at Plémont, and
includes a person dressed as giant Atlantic puffin, which is an endangered species
that is known on the north coast of Jersey. The mix of English and Jèrriais in the
song makes it more accessible to a wider audience, and allows the band to move
away from only using traditional Jèrriais songs.
This paper has discussed an example of language intervention using a popular
music style. In this case study, the pop-folk style of an amateur band is underpinned
by linguistic activism, not for any sense of financial gain, but with a mission to
promote an endangered language that is a part of the cultural capital of this small
island’s identity. Intervention has produced pop-folk musical culture that offers a
counter-cultural perspective of popular music’s raison d'être; it foregrounds a
linguistic objective over a purely musical purpose; and it provides a site for the
recontexualisation of island heritage in a popular culture context as a form of
cultural capital.
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Badlabecques. (2012). “Little Green Shoots”, Retrieved from
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Cloonan, M. (1999). Pop and the nation-state: Towards a theorisation. Popular Music 18(2),
Donaghy, K. (2011). The language is the music: Perceptions of authority and authenticity in
Hawaiian language composition and vocal performance. Unpublished Ph.D.
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dissertation. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Grant, C. (2010). The links between safeguarding language and safeguarding musical
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Jersey Heritage. (2013). Who we are. Retrieved from
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Kuznetsov, N. (2009). The role of pop music and other phenomena of modern culture in the
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Neuenfeldt, K. (2008). Aboriginal contemporary music as Australian cultural heritage: The
Black Image's CD, Beautiful Land and Sea. Popular Music and Society 31(4), 453-
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Scott, M. & Craig, D. (2012). The promotional state ‘after neo-liberalism’: Ideologies of
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Shuker, R. (2001). Understanding popular music. 2nd edition. New York, USA: Routledge.
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strategy for the island. Lodged on 19 July 2005 by the Education, Sport and Culture
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States of Jersey Statistics Unit. (2012). Jersey in figures, 2012. St Helier, Jersey: States of
Jersey Statistics Unit.
UNESCO. (2012). Atlas of the world's languages in danger. Retrieved from
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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This article responds to Frith and Cloonan's (2008) call for researchers considering the relationship between the state and popular music to analyse more closely the ideologies of governance that undergird music policy. Building on Cloonan's ‘promotional state’ and drawing on recent New Zealand experience, this paper shows how New Zealand's Labour government (1999–2008) developed policies to support the export of ‘Kiwi’ pop which requires a reconsideration of state music policy as interventions in the market. The work of the New Zealand Music Commission in generating and coordinating working partnerships with diverse music industry actors illustrates emerging forms of ‘after neo-liberal’ ideology and governance, wherein state-related actors and musicians each and together adapt to market arrangements through supply side, social inclusion and new institutional policy settings and modalities. This article offers points of comparison to types of ideological and governing/institutional formations we can expect to see emerging in promotional states elsewhere.
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The interplay of contemporary music and cultural heritage is of particular salience to Indigenous peoples in Australia. It is not only a major site for artistic expression but also helps embody social memory. This article explores a CD, Beautiful Land and Sea, by the Black Image Band1. The Black Image Band. 2007. Beautiful Land and Sea CD View all references from Aboriginal communities on Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, and argues that it is a tangible artifact of cultural heritage. The analysis draws upon Martin's framework of an identity narrative to show how the songs weave notions of the past, space, and culture into their musical expressions of “caring for country,” a key aspect of Indigenous Australian cultural heritage.
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This study is about the use of a local language in music. It shows how music is used in Jersey as a tool to propagate the local language, Jèrriais, to maintain heritage and to create culture and community. In this context, some island activists, and especially local institutions within the heritage industry, are campaigning for the survival of Jèrriais through social, cultural and political means. As a study that is grounded in the field of ethnomusicology, this research looks at the sources, methods and findings of studies of songs using Jèrriais. Within this framework, the sources of tradition are investigated, giving particular attention to a recently instigated (invented) tradition of a Norman fête held annually at a Norman location. The paper shows the use of a minority yet highly significant language in the realm of music making that has the aim of helping sustain cultural heritage in the contemporary age. Music is engaged with the language of the locale, and in contexts that are enmeshed with meanings relating to local heritage, Jèrriais is foregrounded through song as a way of maintaining and developing identity.
In 2005 Jersey's government approved a 'Cultural Strategy' document. This paper traces how the Cultural Strategy document was developed and offers an analysis of what its contents mean for Jersey's cultural identity and cultural organisations. The author looks at the problems that were encountered in the development of the Cultural Strategy and offers his views on where these problems originated, suggesting that some of the difficulties arose from Jersey's island status. An acute awareness of the Island's own traditions, heritage and cultural values together with its often complex relationships with what lies beyond its shores, (ie 'the external'), are some of the concepts discussed. By referring specifically to the various cultural organisations, the paper also offers an overview of Jersey's cultural sector. The practical manifestations of the Cultural Strategy document are analysed in terms of what they might indicate for the future development of Jersey's cultural sector.
The relationships between culture, economy and policy are described, followed by an overview of how cultural economic policies have developed from the 1950s onwards, particularly in the west. Two main sets of conditions have led to the development of cultural economic policies: changes in cultural consumption and social class have led to a general rise in the consumption of cultural products; and a loss of jobs in in traditional industrial sectors have led to the need to adapt to the processes of economic restructuring of the 1970s and early 1980s. and growing competition in the new post-industrial service economy prompted governments to reexamine their cultural policies and mine the potential role of cultures for economic gain.
A variety of Romance has been spoken on Jersey for some two thousand years. However Jèrriais, the Norman dialect spoken on the Island today, is now obsolescent. Its decline in fortune has recently prompted a number of corpus and status planning initiatives which, largely devoid of State support, lie in the hands of a small, non-linguistically trained, group of enthusiasts. This paper examines the different agencies of language planning on Jersey and the progress they have made hitherto, comparing the corpus and status planning undertaken in this context with that which occurs in countries where more support is forthcoming from the State, and situating the position of Jèrriais within the contemporary language planning literature. It also suggests some possible avenues for the future and discusses the factors which are likely to determine the success or otherwise of the outcome. The paper highlights the fact that, by themselves, high-prestige domains such as the school do not necessarily hold the key to successful language maintenance.