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The Social Ecology of Knowledge Management

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... Emergence is made possible and encouraged when there is awareness of various factors. Among these are the ability of individuals and groups in the community to self-organize; the power of small changes, which have the potential to make a significant impact; the nonlinearity of community processes, which make cause-andeffect relationships less relevant; the importance of utilizing random opportunities; and the importance of passion and responsibility of the community actors (Corning, 2002;Snowden, 2000). ...
... Another way to understand the context of emergence in communities is through the Cynefin Framework, which distinguishes between simple, complicated, complex and chaotic situations or modes (Snowden, 2000). We suggest introducing the Cynefin Framework modes, which are usually applied in organizational contexts, to community practice. ...
... Global and local community changes challenge the roles, approaches, and skills of community practitioners, who are required to work in complex, uncertain and volatile environments (Weil et al., 2013). Inspired by the Cynefin Framework (Snowden, 2000), we can rephrase its message by saying that the community practitioner's work generally falls into the following categories. S/he responds to: (1) a simple community situation by acting according to a known procedure, and being a project manager of a well-orchestrated team of professionals and volunteers; (2) a complicated situation by analyzing the community/situation, formulating a proper response and being a multi-party conflict manager; (3) a complex situation by probing the field, looking for an emergence of unexpected opportunities, and being an engager and facilitator of community activists; and (4) a chaotic situation by improvising a response, checking the results and leading a decentralized crisis management process. ...
Article
Community practitioners are often challenged to work in complex environments and situations that naturally occur in communities. This article focuses on the theoretical and practical use of the Emergence-Based Approach that is relevant for work in complex community situations. Using this approach, the practitioner encourages the emergence of novel ideas and initiatives, and engages a decentralized network of activists, helping them develop their initiatives. Using a field study, we compare this approach to the traditional Outcomes-Based Approach. Although their mindsets are very different, and even contradict one another, we suggest practical ways to combine the two in an effective way.
... This broke with the prior scientific management approach of Taylor (1911) by showing that managers could not perfectly control organisations because they lacked perfect knowledge. In recent years, decision theorists (French, 2012;French et al., 2009) have found the Cynefin framework (Kurtz and Snowden, 2003;Snowden, 2000;Snowden and Boone, 2007) to be a useful summary of the role of simplicity and complexity underlying organisational decision making. It is a sense-making framework that provides a typology of knowledge to assist managers in interpreting the nature of the context of various decision problems. ...
... Decision theory and Cynefin framework As described below, decision theory is one relevant area of business and management studies to examine complexity, uncertainty and unpredictability, alongside strategic management (Mintzberg and Waters, 1985;Mintzberg and Westley, 2001). In their account of the different branches and the evolution of decision theory, French et al. (2009) highlight the Cynefin framework (Kurtz and Snowden, 2003;Snowden, 2000Snowden, , 2002Snowden and Boone, 2007) as a useful and effective summary model (see Figure 1). Cynefin is a Welsh word (pronounced ku-ne-vin) roughly meaning habitat, including social and cultural elements as well as environment. ...
... When a decision context is sufficiently structured and stable, it enables quantitative analysis. When it is characterised by dynamic change, plural and contested definitions, or non-linear complexity (Lorenz, 1963;Prigogine and Stengers, 1984), the space is unstructured (Kurtz and Snowden, 2003;Snowden, 2000). This offers a means to determine where it is possible to make rational decisions or where bounded rationality prevents this, and thus alternative methods are needed. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to apply the aspects of decision theory (DT) to performance measurement and management (PMM), thereby enabling the theoretical elaboration of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in the business environment, which are identified as barriers to effective PMM. Design/methodology/approach A review of decision theory and PMM literature establishes the Cynefin framework as the basis for extending the performance alignment matrix. Case research with seven companies explores the relationship between two concepts under-examined in the performance alignment matrix – internal dominant logic (DL) as the attribute of organisational culture affecting decision making, and the external environment – in line with the concept of alignment or fit in PMM. A focus area is PMM related to sustainable operations and sustainable supply chain management. Findings Alignment between DL, external environment and PMM is found, as are instances of misalignment. The Cynefin framework offers a deeper theoretical explanation about the nature of this alignment. Other findings consider the nature of organisational ownership on DL. Research limitations/implications The cases are exploratory not exhaustive, and limited in number. Organisations showing contested logic were excluded. Practical implications Some organisations have cultures of predictability and control; others have cultures that recognise their external environment as fundamentally unpredictable, and hence there is a need for responsive, decentralised PMM. Some have sought to change their culture and PMM. Being attentive to how cultural logic affects decision making can help reduce the misalignment in PMM. Originality/value A novel contribution is made by applying decision theory to PMM, extending the theoretical depth of the subject.
... eingegangen. (Snowden 2000). ...
... Hier ist von "guten Praktiken" die Rede (good practices). Die generelle Herangehensweise bei der Bearbeitung komplizierter Herausforderungen ist: Beobachtung, Analyse, Reagieren (Snowden 2000). ...
... simple und komplizierte Domäne) bewältigt werden und da sie sofortiges Handeln erfordern, bleibt auch keine Zeit für Experimente und inkrementelle Probierbewegungen (s. komplexe Domäne) (Snowden 2000). In Organisationen kann Snowden/Boone zufolge eine Methode darin bestehen, parallel Teams mit unterschiedlichen Aufgaben zu betrauen. ...
Chapter
Angesichts der wachsenden Sensibilisierung für die vielfältigen globalen Risiken und Herausforderungen heutiger Gesellschaften, wird in den letzten Jahren zunehmend die Frage nach vorbeugenden „Schutzfaktoren“ aufgeworfen, welche das gesellschaftliche System befähigen, mit mannigfaltiger Unvorhersehbarkeit umzugehen und unterschiedlichen Krisen zu widerstehen. Als Gegenbegriff zum jahrzehntelang vorherrschenden Begriff der Verwundbarkeit (Vulnerabilität) wird derzeit vor allem der durchaus unterschiedlich verwendete Resilienzbegriff diskutiert. Woher kommt der Resilienzbegriff und wie wird er verwendet? Welchen potenziellen Mehrwert bietet das Resilienzkonzept als „Ein-Wort-Antwort“ auf unterschiedliche Krisenarten (psychologische, politische, ökonomische, ökologische, soziale und andere Krisen) und über die Systemebenen (Individuen, Organisationen, Gesellschaften) hinaus?
... eingegangen. (Snowden 2000). ...
... Hier ist von "guten Praktiken" die Rede (good practices). Die generelle Herangehensweise bei der Bearbeitung komplizierter Herausforderungen ist: Beobachtung, Analyse, Reagieren (Snowden 2000). ...
... simple und komplizierte Domäne) bewältigt werden und da sie sofortiges Handeln erfordern, bleibt auch keine Zeit für Experimente und inkrementelle Probierbewegungen (s. komplexe Domäne) (Snowden 2000). In Organisationen kann Snowden/Boone zufolge eine Methode darin bestehen, parallel Teams mit unterschiedlichen Aufgaben zu betrauen. ...
Book
Was macht moderne Gesellschaften widerstandsfähig gegenüber völlig unterschiedlichen Herausforderungen von heute und morgen? Worin ähneln, widersprechen und ergänzen sich die vieldiskutierten Konzepte der resilienten, nachhaltigen und entwickelten Gesellschaft im Kontext gesellschaftlicher Zukunftssicherung im 21. Jahrhundert? Dieses Buch zeichnet eine disziplinübergreifende Perspektive und skizziert Orientierungsprinzipien für die weiterführende Forschung und politische Gestaltungspraxis. Der Inhalt • Rahmenbedingungen: Wahrscheinlichste und bedrohlichste Krisen im 21. Jahrhundert • Resilienz: Eine Universalantwort auf die Krisen unserer Zeit? • Zwei Zugänge zu einem universellen Resilienzmodell • Fünf systemische Prinzipien einer multiresilienten Gesellschaft • Die entwickelte Gesellschaft • Die nachhaltige Gesellschaft • Entwicklung vs. Nachhaltigkeit vs. Resilienz: Gemeinsamkeiten, Schnittpunkte und Widersprüche • Gesellschaftliche Zukunftssicherung im 21. Jahrhundert: Konturen eines integrativen Konzepts • Ausblick: Fünf Hebelpunkte zum Anstoßen nötiger Veränderungen Die Zielgruppen Forschende aller geisteswissenschaftlichen Strömungen, die sich mit gesellschaftlicher Zukunftssicherung, sozialem Wandel oder/und Krisenmanagement befassen. Expertinnen und Experten aus der Politikberatung (Stiftungen, Parteien, Think Tanks etc.) Aktivist/innen zivilgesellschaftlicher Initiativen, die sich mit gesellschaftlicher Zukunftssicherung, sozialem Wandel oder/und Krisenmanagement befassen. Der Autor Dr. Karim Fathi ist in Berlin forschend, beratend und lehrend zu den Themengebieten Multidisziplinarität, Resilienz, Konflikttransformation und Agilität tätig. Aktuell forscht er als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) zu den Themen „Transdisziplinäre Komplexitätsbewältigung“ und „Systemischer Wandel“ und berät den Zukunftskreis des BMBF.
... While simple and complicated contexts assume (more or less) obvious cause-and-effect relations and allow for fact-based problem solving, complex and chaotic contexts are unordered and ask for responses based on emerging patterns (Snowden and Boone, 2007). Snowden, 2011) While the most cited version of the Cynefin model is structured along more or less traceable cause-and-effect considerations or notions of knowledge, an earlier version of the framework includes two dimensions (see Figure 2): (codification of) language and knowledge on the one hand and organisational preconditions, especially (organisational) culture on the other one (Snowden, 2000, Snowden, 2010. In the dimension of culture, organisations either understand issues to be directly observable, documented, and measurable. ...
... These cultures are more oriented to what humans learn, not what they do, because they are experiencing ambiguity and uncertainty. With respect to sense-making, communities either share a common (expert) language that effectively excludes those who do not have that expertise, coined "restricted sense making", or expertise is not necessary or inappropriate, coined "open sense making" Snowden (2000). Snowden, 2000) This article combines and thus re-frame the two conceptions of the framework, acknowledging that they will not fit neatly together in all aspects. ...
... With respect to sense-making, communities either share a common (expert) language that effectively excludes those who do not have that expertise, coined "restricted sense making", or expertise is not necessary or inappropriate, coined "open sense making" Snowden (2000). Snowden, 2000) This article combines and thus re-frame the two conceptions of the framework, acknowledging that they will not fit neatly together in all aspects. Nevertheless, I believe that for our concern the practical advantage of considering both environmental and internal aspects to get a rich picture of growing complexity in projects outweighs calls for scientific accuracy and scholarly scruple. ...
Article
Recommendations for managing complexity in projects acknowledge different levels of complexity, but often neglect the importance of (non-)repetition. This paper uses the Cynefin framework, structuring problems along the levels of simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic, and the learning loop model as simple but practical tools to sort different project situations. Combining the degree of complexity with repeatability or uniqueness of the project allows a typology of projects to guide management. Single-loop and double-loop learning from past experiences is restricted to the occurrence of similar situations, slicing, project management guidelines and framework to complicated projects. The more complex and novel the problem, the more likely that non-standard, non-algorithmic ways such as sensemaking, trial-and-error, and whole-systems approaches will yield satisfactory results. Expertise is useful for simple and complicated projects; however, for new and complex projects, experience, authority and trust, and recognition of abstract patterns (deutero learning) are more important.
... eingegangen. (Snowden 2000). ...
... Hier ist von "guten Praktiken" die Rede (good practices). Die generelle Herangehensweise bei der Bearbeitung komplizierter Herausforderungen ist: Beobachtung, Analyse, Reagieren (Snowden 2000). ...
... simple und komplizierte Domäne) bewältigt werden und da sie sofortiges Handeln erfordern, bleibt auch keine Zeit für Experimente und inkrementelle Probierbewegungen (s. komplexe Domäne) (Snowden 2000). In Organisationen kann Snowden/Boone zufolge eine Methode darin bestehen, parallel Teams mit unterschiedlichen Aufgaben zu betrauen. ...
Chapter
Resilienz, Entwicklung und Nachhaltigkeit stellen im aktuellen Diskurs um gesellschaftliche Zukunftssicherung im 21. Jahrhundert die bestimmenden Leitkonzepte dar. Worin bestehen ihre Gemeinsamkeiten, aber auch wechselseitige Anknüpfungspunkte und Widersprüche?
... With respect to sense-making, communities either share a common (expert) language that effectively excludes those who do not have that expertise. Snowden (2000) coins this "restricted sense making". At the other pole, coined "open sense making", expertise is either not necessary or inappropriate. ...
... Membership, even if embedded in formal organisations, is often informally regulated and based on emotions, common experience, values or beliefs, with a long time of apprenticeship, (transition) rituals and enforcing myth form stories, and long tenure (Snowden, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Managing in turbulent fields was always an issue in projects, however, recommendations were often lacking understanding different degrees of complexity and neglecting the significance of (non-)recurrences of projects. In this paper, we use the Cynefin framework as simple, but practical tool to distinguish and sort distinct project settings. A 2x2 matrix spanning the dimensions of the level of complexity according to the Cynefin framework combined with the repetitiveness of the project content allows for a typology of projects to instruct decision-making behaviours in turbulent and surprising project situations. The article relates the perception and sense-making of these project conditions to action patterns, learning and training methods, and project management approaches. Grounded in social constructivism, we argue that there is no "one best way" to manage the unexpected in projects but successful actions depend on the sense-making of the incident, rooted in organisational history and professional identity, and the alignment of internal resources and external demands to this self-perception.
... Moreover, where each component has attributes with relationships and interdependencies. Whitty and Maylor (2009:305) describe a complex system as "a system formed out of many components whose behavior is emergent," which we may relate to the "complex" domain of the Cynefin framework for complexity (Snowden, 2000). The Cynefin framework has four main domains: simple, complicated, complex and chaotic. ...
... It emerges (probe-sense-response). The fourth domain is termed chaos by Snowden (2000). There you have lost control and it is about doing something to try to stabilize the situation (act-sense-response). Ballard and Koskela (2013) link the works on rhetoric and design by Kaufer and Butler (1996) to the concept of "wicked problems" (Churchman, 1967). ...
Article
Full-text available
The construction project being studied is a government investment related to the relocation of a biomedical institute delivering research-based knowledge and contingency support in the fields of animal health, fish health and food safety. The project covers a total of 63,000 square meters distributed over 10 buildings with a very high degree of complexity. The design alone has required 1 million hours, which relates to a client cost of about 100 million Euro. The purpose of this paper is to study the applied methodology for managing the detailed design to identify lessons learned from the project. The theory underlying the study is inspired by lean design management and design theory linked to design as phenomena, including reciprocal interdependencies, iteration, decomposition, design as a “wicked problem”, learning, gradual maturation, etc. The article is based on an abductive research design and has been implemented as a case study where both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used.
... He goes on to suggest a manager should function like a good community leader in what he calls an engaged and distributed management style, so anyone and everyone can work with initiative, the pre-requisite to innovations within the organization. Snowden (2000), a proponent of the theory of complex nature of organizations and the emergence of informal self-organizing communities within organizations, does not advise managers to form new communities for the purpose of achieving an organization's objectives. He argues that such artificially formed communities are rarely sustainable as employees who voluntarily participate in informal communities "can and do resist mandated behavior." ...
... Taking into consideration Snowden's (2000) and Wenger's (2000) cautioning on the delicate nature of communities within organizations, and Fischer and Ostwald's (2001) suggestion that we need to push the boundary of our understanding of the community in the innovation process, we conducted a qualitative research diving into the communities that are contributing to the innovation work in one university. The paper first develops a working concept for communities that are facilitating or that can potentially facilitate innovation, and consider the factors that affect their success. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to increase our understanding of the nature and role of communities within organizations with regard to innovation management, the drivers of community innovation and macro-processes of community innovation management. Design/methodology/approach The authors first use an inductive qualitative technique to analyze data gathered from a UK university to build up the concept of communities of innovation and then refine the concept of communities of innovation by contrasting it to the more established literature on communities of practice. Finally, with the aid of existing literature on collaborative innovation and the innovation processes, the authors induce from the data the drivers of community innovation and the three macro-processes of community innovation management. Findings The research findings suggest communities of innovation play a central and pivotal role in contributing to the generation of innovations within organizations. Drivers of innovation included corporate culture, money and time, intellectual property management, motivation, knowledge facilitators, activists and maintenance and opportunities to interact. The three macro-processes of community innovation management are identified as divergence management, gateway management and convergence management. Research limitations/implications As this is an exploratory research into communities of innovation, all the 11 communities of innovation analyzed belong to ABC University. It is necessary to expand on this research within the education industry, as well as into other industries to further test the reliability of the findings in this paper. Practical implications Business executives who have a better understanding of communities of innovation, the drivers of community innovation and the macro-processes of community innovation management will be better able to promote innovation within their organizations. Social implications Governments that have a better understanding of communities of innovation, the drivers of innovation and the macro-processes of community innovation management will be better able to promote innovation within their countries. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first research studies attempting to understand communities of innovation and the macro-processes of community innovation management.
... An important Welsh term explaining place attachment is cynefin which means "habitat" or "place" and implies place of humans' multiple experiences or personal belonging and endeavors to explain how humans process the world around them (Snowden 2000). Snowden (2000) explains that this is a social-cultural framework that makes these ideas of place rooted in cultural, religious, and geographical influences. ...
... An important Welsh term explaining place attachment is cynefin which means "habitat" or "place" and implies place of humans' multiple experiences or personal belonging and endeavors to explain how humans process the world around them (Snowden 2000). Snowden (2000) explains that this is a social-cultural framework that makes these ideas of place rooted in cultural, religious, and geographical influences. ...
Chapter
The power in language is palpable and yet is weakened by cultural differences, misunderstandings, and assumptions that can include and exclude individuals and groups. In this chapter, various terms are deconstructed that explore the human-ecological relationship, using landscape as the context to explore disciplinary discourses like the environment, nature, and place. Theoretical (e.g., biophilia, ngurra, cynefin, solastalgia, and sense of place) and Australian practical frameworks (e.g., exploring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and spiritual and religious traditions) are then explored. This exploration will be undertaken to break down language silos and bridge the gap between different discourses currently occurring in Australia. An attempt at developing a new model to understand the human-ecological relationship has been made. This is an ego-social-ecological determinant of health model that inverts previous perspectives of social-ecological models (e.g., Hancock and Perkins’ Mandala of Health, 1985) such that instead of the individual, the earth is the core. More specifically, this model will be presented, drawing on previous research on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island groups and Australian religious groups, with outer layers representing the individual, community and ecosystem, and the center representing the planet. This chapter is designed to prompt discussion on emerging language in this field to move away from human-centric perspectives of the Earth.
... Die restlichen zwei (A3, IT1) sind "Netzwerke" unterschiedlicher Qualität. In Anlehnung an Snowdens Kontexttypologie für das Wissensmanagement und Sensemaking unterscheiden wir (1) einfache, (2) komplizierte und (3) komplexe Kooperationen (Snowden 2007(Snowden , 2000. Diese Kontexttypologie hat sich für uns im Nachhinein als Bezugsrahmen für die Falldarstellung als hilfreich erwiesen. ...
... Aus der distanzierten Warte der Wissenschaft sind aber gerade sie auch Auslöser neuer gemeinsamer zwischenbetriebliche Reflexions-Sensemaking-und Lernprozesse. Informationspathologien und Paradoxien ermöglichen es Menschen (im Gegensatz zu Computern), sich mit Widersprüchen auseinanderzusetzen, ihnen eine neue Bedeutung zu geben und Sinn zu erzeugen (Snowden 2000). Sie erzwingen das Lernen. ...
... Trust among co-workers is an important cultural element for successful knowledge management (Issa & Haddad, 2008). Similarly, Snowden (2000) regards trust as a fundamental ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the knowledge transfer and retention challenges that result in knowledge loss in Nairobi City County Government (NCCG) and how this affects service delivery by the county government. The NCCG provided the contextual insight to the study leading to this pape, which adopted a convergent parallel mixed methods research design. The target population comprised 12,363 Nairobi City County government workers, of which 746 were sampled. The researcher used a multi-stage (stratified, information-oriented purposive and random) sampling technique to get the actual respondents. Quantitative and qualitative data was E-collected using questionnaires and key informant interviews respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using statistical analysis using SPSS and presented by means of descriptive statistics, while qualitative data was analysed thematically using ATLAS.ti. The findings of the study indicate that NCCG staff experience the fear of job loss when knowledge is transferred; technophobia, especially for those who are unable to use emerging technologies; lack of sensitisation, and lack of user needs assessments as challenges for knowledge transfer and retention. The results of the study can be used by the NCCG and other county governments to identify hindrances to knowledge transfer and retention. This may lead to appropriate mitigations to make sure they leverage on knowledge they have.
... Many approaches to knowledge management exist. In this chapter, only the early seminal research of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) and Davenport and colleagues (for example, Davenport, De Long and Beers 1998) is mentioned, as well as the research by Snowden and others (for example, Snowden 2000;Snowden 2002;Kurz andSnowden 2003, extended in Snowden 2013). A vast research literature on knowledge management has appeared since the earliest research, and the reader is referred to Bolisani and Handzic (2015) for an overview of past and current research and predictions for the future. ...
Chapter
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The discipline of information science per definition deals with data, information and knowledge, in the broadest sense of the terms. There are a number of sub-disciplines in information science, and the focus of this chapter will be on the sub-discipline of information organisation and retrieval. Common to all the sub-disciplines is that the relationship or interaction between data/information/knowledge, humans and technology is studied. The emphasis can be on the relationship between all three components, between only two components, or on the context of the relationships. Humans typically refer to end-users, that is, the people that eventually use the information for work, leisure, study and so forth. Technology currently refers mostly to information and communication technologies in the form of modern e-technologies. Theory in information science usually links to practice – such theories are often reflections on how data, information and knowledge are managed, stored, retrieved etc. in practice, trying to systematise practice, or abstract rules from practice that explain practice and that can be generalised to other situations. Lexicography in essence also deals with data, information and knowledge (even though the definitions of these concepts may differ from those of information science), humans and technology and the interaction between these three components. The data may essentially be data about words, word combinations and descriptions of usage, i.e., a defined subset of all data (compared to information science). Humans are typically end-users, as is the case in information science, and technology currently also refers to modern e-technologies. Theory in lexicography relates to practice, and practice to theory, as in information science. From this very brief discussion, it is evident that there are a number of commonalities between information science and lexicography and a number of researchers have pointed this out in the recent past. In both cases, the eventual use of the data by end-users is the reason why the data are organised; in both cases the data are retrieved by end-users and in both cases, especially currently, e-technologies play an important role in how the data are organised and retrieved. Both disciplines have used computers since their popularisation in the 1980s to organise and retrieve data/information, in both cases moving from paper-based systems to digital systems, in both cases using database systems for organising the data and search algorithms for retrieving the data. This chapter will explore the relationship between information science and lexicography in more detail and will focus on how e-technologies can be used to organise and retrieve data in response to end-user information needs. It will start by discussing the commonalities briefly mentioned above in more depth. It will then show how advanced searching and filtering technologies, commonly used in information science can provide more relevant information to end-users in terms of their specific information needs, within the framework of the Function Theory of lexicography. Information presentation can further be enhanced through adaptive hypermedia techniques, interactive tools based on Web 2.0 and social media concepts, and other user support tools. Through incorporating such features in e-dictionaries, more advanced e-dictionaries can be developed. The discussion will close with suggestions on how theory in both disciplines can be refined through critical reflection on how these two disciplines are related.
... Rather, what is needed in dealing with complex problems is an adaptive guide. For example, a theory of complex adaptive systems can lead probing experimentation and principles of adaptive governance to guide inter- vention ( Ison et al., 2014), linking to double-and triple-loop learning and adaptation (Patton, 2011;Snowden, 2000). ...
Article
Food insecurity persists in many parts of Africa and Asia, despite ongoing agricultural research for development (AR4D) interventions. This is resulting in a growing demand for alternative approaches to designing and evaluating interventions in complex systems. Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach which may be useful because it enables stakeholders to present and test their theories and assumptions about why and how impact may occur, ideally within an environment conducive to iterative reflection and learning. However, ToC is yet to be appropriately mainstreamed into development by donors, researchers and practitioners. We carried out a literature review, triangulated by interviews with 26 experts in African and Asian food security, consisting of researchers, advisors to programs, and donors. Although 17 (65%) of the experts had adopted ToC, their responses and the literature revealed four challenges to mainstreaming: (i) different interpretations of ToC; (ii) incoherence in relationships among the constituent concepts of ToC; (iii) confused relationships between ToC and project “logframes”; and (iv) limitations in necessary skills and commitment for enacting ToC. A case study of the evolution of a ToC in a West African AR4D project over 4 years which exemplified these challenges is presented. Five recommendations arise to assist the mainstreaming of ToC: (i) select a type of ToC suited to the relative complexity of the problem and focal system of interest; (ii) state a theory or hypotheses to be tested as the intervention progresses; (iii) articulate the relationship between the ToC and parallel approaches (e.g. logframe); (iv) accept that a ToC is a process, and (v) allow time and resources for implementers and researchers to develop ToC thinking within projects. Finally, we suggest that communities of practice should be established among AR4D and donor organisations to test, evaluate and improve the contribution that ToCs can make to sustainable food security and agricultural development.
... 3 SIGECAD Research Group is created in 1998, in which domain topics are information system, knowledge management, and decision aid. Snowden [28] consolidates our research when writing about developing practices of knowledge management (pp. 241-242). ...
... Learners also need to be able to work independently, as well as on teams. Chattopadhyay (2104) has elegantly linked the Cynefin model (Snowden, 2000) to learning needs. Cynefin distinguishes between four work environments: simple, which requires best practice; complicated, needs good practice; complex, requires emergent practice; and chaotic, which demands novel practice. ...
Chapter
Heutagogy, a form of self-determined learning, is a holistic, learner-centered approach to learning and teaching, in formal and informal situations. The theory is grounded in humanistic and constructivist principles and brings together numerous threads of early learning theories into a composite picture of learning that is suitable for and much needed in today’s educational systems. With its learner-centered approach, heutagogy shifts the focus from the teacher back to the learner and learning. This chapter discusses the principles, processes, and design of heutagogic learning environments with a specific emphasis on digital technologies.
... We believe that the concept of 'intervening to achieve an improvement' better reflects the iterative and negotiated process required to test multiple interventions whilst noticing and responding to local system requirements over an extended period of time (cf. Snowden's probe-sense-response) [81]. ...
Article
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Background: Ensuring patients benefit from the latest medical and technical advances remains a major challenge, with rational-linear and reductionist approaches to translating evidence into practice proving inefficient and ineffective. Complexity thinking, which emphasises interconnectedness and unpredictability, offers insights to inform evidence translation theories and strategies. Drawing on detailed insights into complex micro-systems, this research aimed to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the reality of making and sustaining improvements in complex healthcare systems. Methods: Using analytical auto-ethnography, including documentary analysis and literature review, we assimilated learning from 5 years of observation of 22 evidence translation projects (UK). We used a grounded theory approach to develop substantive theory and a conceptual framework. Results were interpreted using complexity theory and 'simple rules' were identified reflecting the practical strategies that enhanced project progress. Results: The framework for Successful Healthcare Improvement From Translating Evidence in complex systems (SHIFT-Evidence) positions the challenge of evidence translation within the dynamic context of the health system. SHIFT-Evidence is summarised by three strategic principles, namely (1) 'act scientifically and pragmatically' - knowledge of existing evidence needs to be combined with knowledge of the unique initial conditions of a system, and interventions need to adapt as the complex system responds and learning emerges about unpredictable effects; (2) 'embrace complexity' - evidence-based interventions only work if related practices and processes of care within the complex system are functional, and evidence-translation efforts need to identify and address any problems with usual care, recognising that this typically includes a range of interdependent parts of the system; and (3) 'engage and empower' - evidence translation and system navigation requires commitment and insights from staff and patients with experience of the local system, and changes need to align with their motivations and concerns. Twelve associated 'simple rules' are presented to provide actionable guidance to support evidence translation and improvement in complex systems. Conclusion: By recognising how agency, interconnectedness and unpredictability influences evidence translation in complex systems, SHIFT-Evidence provides a tool to guide practice and research. The 'simple rules' have potential to provide a common platform for academics, practitioners, patients and policymakers to collaborate when intervening to achieve improvements in healthcare.
... 3 SIGECAD Research Group is created in 1998, in which domain topics are information system, knowledge management, and decision aid. Snowden [28] consolidates our research when writing about developing practices of knowledge management (pp. 241-242). ...
Chapter
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In a world overwhelmed with pervasive digital technologies, the organization is transformed and becomes a socio-technical system which is constantly renewed. Organization needs specific skills, adapted to the values and to the cultures peculiar to each location. The cooperation and the mobility become a shape of inescapable work which rests on a permanent personal and collective learning. Beyond the information handled in the digital information systems, the role of the tacit knowledge, which is in each individual’s head, cannot be ignored. A constructivist attitude replaces a determinist attitude strongly deep-rooted in our educational modes. The managers have to pass from a posture of authority and of control to a posture of incitation, of support, and of accompaniment. The notions that are introduced in this chapter result from a managerial and socio-technical vision of knowledge management. They arouse essential reflections to develop a mode of management adapted to the digital transformation of the organizations called management based on knowledge.
... The assumption of intentional capability means that each partner of the Trio would concentrate on its talents and strengths and rely on them but would also accept accidental acts and ways to proceed. At its most obvious dimension, the Trio would involve a division of work, roles and responsibilities, but along the disruptive journey, new roles and actions would come up (Snowden 2000;Kurz et al. 2003). ...
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Over the last 20 years, a very large number of startups have been launched, ranging from mobile application and game providers to enormous corporations that have started as tiny startups. Startups are an important topic for research and development. The fundamentals of success are the characteristics of individuals and teams, partner investors, the market, and the speed at which everything evolves. Startup's business environment is fraught with uncertainty, as actors tend to be young and inexperienced, technologies either new or rapidly evolving, and team-combined skills and knowledge either key or fatal. As over 90 per cent of software startups fail, having a capable and reliable team is crucial to survival and success. Many aspects of this topic have been extensively studied, and the results of the study on human capital are particularly important. Regarding human capital abilities, such as knowledge, experience, skills, and other cognitive abilities, this dissertation focuses on design skills and their deployment in startups. Design is widely studied in artistic and industrial contexts, but its application to startup culture and software startups follows its own method prison. In the method prison, old and conventional means are chosen instead of new techniques and demanding design studies. This means that when a software startup considers design as a foundation for creativity and generating better offerings, they can grab any industry with a disruptive agenda, making anything software-intensive.
... The assumption of intentional capability means that each partner of the Trio would concentrate on its talents and strengths and rely on them but would also accept accidental acts and ways to proceed. At its most obvious dimension, the Trio would involve a division of work, roles and responsibilities, but along the disruptive journey, new roles and actions would come up (Snowden 2000;Kurz et al. 2003). ...
Thesis
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Over the last 20 years, a very large number of startups have been launched, ranging from mobile application and game providers to enormous corporations that have started as tiny startups. Startups are an important topic for research and development. The fundamentals of success are the characteristics of individuals and teams, partner investors, the market, and the speed at which everything evolves. Startup’s business environment is fraught with uncertainty, as actors tend to be young and inexperienced, technologies either new or rapidly evolving, and team-combined skills and knowledge either key or fatal. As over 90% of software startups fail, having a capable and reliable team is crucial to survival and success. Many aspects of this topic have been extensively studied, and the results of the study on human capital are particularly important. Regarding human capital abilities, such as knowledge, experience, skills, and other cognitive abilities, this dissertation focuses on design skills and their deployment in startups. Design is widely studied in artistic and industrial contexts, but its application to startup culture and software startups follows its own method prison. In the method prison, old and conventional means are chosen instead of new techniques and demanding design studies. This means that when a software startup considers design as a foundation for creativity and generating better offerings, they can grab any industry with a disruptive agenda, making anything software-intensive. The concept of design can be expanded and deepened to a new level. Business can escape the method prison if it adopts artistic design to help stagnant industries and uses disruptive methods with realistic self-efficacy. Through five partially overlapping articles with varying details, this dissertation clarifies the daily themes and interests of startups required to survive and succeed. This dissertation is a reflective practitioner’s investigation of startup practices using a mixed-methods approach. With design-based creativity, startups will be stronger and more successful in the future. They can cause or protect themselves from disruption. Startup can retain customers and its self- efficacy strengthen.
... 3 SIGECAD Research Group is created in 1998, in which domain topics are information system, knowledge management, and decision aid. Snowden [28] consolidates our research when writing about developing practices of knowledge management (pp. 241-242). ...
Chapter
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In a world overwhelmed with pervasive digital technologies, the organization is transformed and becomes a socio-technical system which is constantly renewed. Organization needs specific skills, adapted to the values and to the cultures peculiar to each location. The cooperation and the mobility become a shape of inescapable work which rests on a permanent personal and collective learning. Beyond the information handled in the digital information systems, the role of the tacit knowledge, which is in each individual's head, cannot be ignored. A constructivist attitude replaces a determinist attitude strongly deep-rooted in our educational modes. The managers have to pass from a posture of authority and of control to a posture of incitation, of support, and of accompaniment. The notions that are introduced in this chapter result from a managerial and socio-technical vision of knowledge management. They arouse essential reflections to develop a mode of management adapted to the digital transformation of the organizations called management based on knowledge.
... Besides of that, The Cynefin is explicitly about complexity. Snowden and Kurz (2003) and Snowden (2000) has been central in developing the model, which like any good model is quite simple in terms of focusing on central characteristics. Cynefin is a welsh word meaning habitat, habitus, familiar, accustomed. ...
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to present three different contributions to a general model theory which the authors think as relevant to systems research based on systems theory, cybernetics and constructivism. This also implies that the three contributions are shown to be of use both in the study of systems that operate by models, as well as in the practice of designing models. Design/methodology/approach The text is conceptual and mainly of a descriptive and referring character. Besides the sections on the three contributions to a model theory, the authors have inserted sections that relate them to systems theory. This is also achieved by the help of some simple models. Findings The paper also points to models as important instruments in constructing and selecting information to observing systems, and the authors hope that the text can be helpful in developing better knowledge of how models work. Originality/value The text is about observing systems that observe by models, and that is probably a somewhat new perspective. It is hoped that the paper can be inspiring to further studies on this matter.
... Such challenges refer to the variability and stability (and predictability) across and within organizations, the range of solutions applicable to any given problem, the multiple mechanisms involved, the differing ability of the individual/organization to affect these mechanisms, and the varying relationships between mechanisms and outcomes (in terms of linearity and impact). 26 Equally, evidence is often weighed alongside other clinical factors and experiential knowledge can be privileged. 27,28 As a result, the production of evidence in its own right is not sufficient per se to influence change. ...
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Chapter
Requirements elicitation plays a vital role in building effective software. Incorrect or incomplete requirements lead to erroneous software and costs a huge amount of rework. Rework costs in terms of money and efforts are usually higher than the early detection of potential flaws in the requirements. This happens because most of the techniques employed to extract requirements fail to understand end user goals. Understanding your users and their goals is important to build a capable, viable and desirable product or software system. This paper attempts to suggest and evaluate an alternative approach to understand your potential users and their goals so that correct and complete requirements can be formulated resulting in a successful software. We introduce the concept of a tool-guided elicitation process, classify elicitation techniques in term of their suitability in such a tool-guided process, and present an initial study of the usability und usefulness of our prototype called Vision Backlog.
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Chapter
The final chapter of this book will revisit the evidence, perspectives and approaches presented in the previous chapters and draw out key messages for the future. It will address existing needs both in policy and practice in order to align perspectives and address health, safety and well-being (HSW) in its totality and in a multi and interdisciplinary manner. The chapter will discuss how the complementarity and synergies among different perspectives can be enhanced in research and practice. It will also highlight how aligning perspectives and mainstreaming HSW can be achieved in policy making and at the organizational context to promote sustainability. Examples of key good practice holistic models will be presented to this end. Finally, important actions needed by policy makers, managers, workers, HSW professionals/practitioners and researchers will be highlighted and key directions for the future in terms of research and practice will be identified.
Chapter
This chapter is about mainstreaming, i.e. embedding and integrating health, safety and well-being (HSW) into the strategies, activities and practices of organizations, i.e. into their business processes, systems, and culture as well as into the mind-set of managers and workers. This is important for successful HSW policies and management, especially over time. It requires the active involvement of key stakeholders, and may require adaptations in communication and mind-sets of HSW experts. There are, however, many different organizational contexts and mainstreaming therefore needs to be ‘tailor made’: it is always influenced by the context.
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The published version is available at https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-981-10-0468-1_6-1 Abstract In the twenty-first century, teachers in postgraduate education are, consciously or otherwise, attempting to prepare students to operate in “complex” contexts where outcomes are often unknown. The teaching role and task for academics is evolving from content provider and knowledge guardian into process designer and professional coach. Conversely, the learning role and task for students is emerging as one that requires engaging with personal “attributes” and developing capacities for knowledge integration as part of a lifelong learning strategy. To prepare graduates for a rapidly changing world and workplace, this chapter demonstrates future-proofed teaching and learning strategies together with attribute-based approaches to assessment using innovative software. The implementation of these in different postgraduate degrees at two Australian universities is used to demonstrate how these changing paradigms can be embraced by students, academics, and external accrediting bodies.
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The Cynefin scheme is a concept of knowledge management, originally devised to support decision making in management, but more generally applicable to situations, in which complexity challenges the quality of insight, prediction, and decision. Despite the fact that life itself, and especially the brain and its diseases, are complex to the extent that complexity could be considered their cardinal feature, complex problems in biomedicine are often treated as if they were actually not more than the complicated sum of solvable sub-problems. Because of the emergent properties of complex contexts this is not correct. With a set of clear criteria Cynefin helps to set apart complex problems from “simple/obvious,” “complicated,” “chaotic,” and “disordered” contexts in order to avoid misinterpreting the relevant causality structures. The distinction comes with the insight, which specific kind of knowledge is possible in each of these categories and what are the consequences for resulting decisions and actions. From student's theses over the publication and grant writing process to research politics, misinterpretation of complexity can have problematic or even dangerous consequences, especially in clinical contexts. Conceptualization of problems within a straightforward reference language like Cynefin improves clarity and stringency within projects and facilitates communication and decision-making about them.
Chapter
Chapter 6 provides a summary of the contribution made by the Hydrothermal Vent (HTV) Ecosystem model in providing a new strategic perspective. It reviews the weaknesses of the classical approach to strategy and discusses how the new HTV model dovetails with chaos and complexity theory and the platform, ecosystem concepts discussed in the earlier chapters. It also discusses how the Internet can be viewed as an ecosystem in its own right and provides examples of the waves of innovation that have flowed from the platform and the likely trends in the future. The chapter concludes with evidence of how data, information and innovation have become the new factors of production – as well as second-order competences (Danneels 2008) – and the extent to which a new paradigm may be starting to emerge.
Chapter
Too often, designers rely on rationalist notions of their work: from planning to execution, from theory to practice, from strategy to execution, from problems to solutions, from thinking to making, etc. While these sharp distinctions can serve to hyper-focus individual designers on their unique role and responsibilities, the confusion they create outweighs any potential benefits. Rigid distinctions between modes of practice often create confusion and illusions of certainty, especially when two poles come together, even rely on and co-construct one another. Much of the rationalist sentiment in contemporary design stems from a bias in Western philosophy that introduces a hierarchical relationship between mind and body – the mind dictates and the body executes. But there is no designer equivalent to cogito ergo sum – no positivist statement we can make to delineate and prioritize mental functions over bodily engagement. As an alternative to these dualisms, this paper will take a phenomenological and arational perspective on the components of design, with the end goal of articulating an arational understanding of design. It will examine the emergence of design from a rationalist epistemology and contemporary practices that are attempting to break the boundaries of reason-based methods.
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This paper aims to examine entrepreneurship at the border, more specifically in the Portugal-Spain border, particularly the Alentejo-Extremadura, since this is one of the regions with the worst socioeconomic indicators of the whole European Union. As part of a major investigation, this paper has as main objective the description of a model developed to evaluate the frontier effect in the entrepreneurial initiatives of the region under study. To justify and validate the proposed model, were performed: literature revision; analysis of regional indicators; case studies with interviews to the managers, employees and customers. The main contributions are to assist all those involved in the process of entrepreneurship, to assess the real conditions of the different border territories, as well as assisting academics in the study and creation of scientific knowledge on the promotion of entrepreneurship in peripheral and low-density areas as a way of developing regional and territorial cohesion.
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The application of the scaled lean agile methodologies within a traditional domain, based on an appreciation of neuroscience and human interaction, to improve the delivery of valuable outcomes.
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The study researches the use of the hybrid project management approach in practice. The challenges of both agile and traditional project management models represented by 15 established project management Critical Success Factors (CSF) were used to examine the differences between traditional, agile and hybrid project management practices. Although other studies have investigated the CSF in traditional and agile project management, this study is the first to review 15 CSF for hybrid project management. The research takes a quantitative approach using a survey as the research method. The primary data for the present study were collected in Germany by an online survey. These primary data were collected with the participation of project management professionals from the German Chapters of the Project Management Institute (PMI). In the subsequent analysis of the online survey data, 15 hypotheses for hybrid project management were formulated, in addition to the existing body of knowledge of traditional and agile project management. Project management models make change possible where simple, complicated and complex kinds of project management are required and academia benefits from this work through its insight into the increased need for flexibility in this context. This research shows that neither traditional project management nor agile project management is wholly similar to hybrid project management. The main finding of this research is that its similarity depends on the CSF. As a research outcome, the guiding principles have been formulated for showing which situations merit hybrid project management. The research also benefits practitioners, since it will guide project managers who are not sure when and where to use a certain project management paradigm. As an outcome, the research implies that project managers will better understand why and in which situation traditional approaches should be chosen, and why and when agile or hybrid project management approaches should be preferred.
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Knowledge process is created for information circulation and it's transfer between individuals who have assembled together with common characteristics, and knowledge management ,regardless social capital concept ,will lose own effectiveness. As this process will not be produced except with the members trust together, the good group relations and reciprocal cooperation feeling. This article examines and studies the social capital and knowledge management relationship between employees at three dimensions: individual, group and management at one university unit. Research information and data have been collected by using questionnaire. Research findings indicate that there is a close relation between social capital and knowledge at this university unit. Findings indicate that social capital has a direct and positive effect on process, individuals group and management dimensions, and knowledge management. It is worthy to mention at this article we have attempted to explain social knowledge management concept correctly, too and to provide a pattern for its better understanding.
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Knowledge process is created for information circulation and it's transfer between individuals who have assembled together with common characteristics, and knowledge management ,regardless social capital concept ,will lose own effectiveness. As this process will not be produced except with the members trust together, the good group relations and reciprocal cooperation feeling. This article examines and studies the social capital and knowledge management relationship between employees at three dimensions: individual, group and management at one university unit. Research information and data have been collected by using questionnaire. Research findings indicate that there is a close relation between social capital and knowledge at this university unit. Findings indicate that social capital has a direct and positive effect on process, individuals group and management dimensions, and knowledge management. It is worthy to mention at this article we have attempted to explain social knowledge management concept correctly, too and to provide a pattern for its better understanding.
Chapter
„Alles, was erfunden werden kann, wurde bereits erfunden“, sagte Charles Duell als Chef des amerikanischen Patentamts im Jahr 1899. Bill Gates wiederum sah auf jedem Schreibtisch, in jedem Haus einen Personal Computer. Vision und Tradition standen sich immer schon polarisierend gegenüber: Das Thema „Arbeiten nach agilen Werten“ spaltet nicht nur die Energiebranche in gleicher Weise. Für die eine Fraktion ist es schon nicht mehr neu und für die andere immer noch ein Reizthema. Die einen arbeiten mit diesen Methoden nachgewiesen erfolgreicher und wollen oder können sich arbeiten „ohne agil“ gar nicht mehr vorstellen. Die Konventionellen und Veränderungsaversen sind skeptisch. Agile „Experimente“ in technisch sensiblen Bereichen können nicht nur lebensgefährlich sein, sondern können unser tägliches Leben total lahmlegen. Das hat nicht nur Marc Elsberg in seinem Buch „Blackout“ (Elsberg 2013) eindrücklich beschrieben. Die Agilen leben und arbeiten nicht nur sprachlich in einer für die anderen scheinbar eigenen Welt von Scrum, Kanban, Product Owner und Scrum Master. Die Beständigen halten sie für arrogant und besserwisserisch. Sie arbeiten lieber, anstatt Zettel zu kleben. Um es vorwegzunehmen, beides hat seine Berechtigung. An den Schnittstellen kommt es zu Spannungen. Wie lebt und arbeitet also die Quantum als Energiedienstleister agil, während ihre Gesellschafter und Kunden das nicht tun? Warum arbeiten wir heute nach agilen Werten und Konzepten? Wie machen wir was anders? Einige dieser Fragen versuchen wir mit dem nachfolgenden Beitrag zu beantworten.
Conference Paper
Privacy is a crucial issue to be discussed, defined, and specified in any system. There is a lack of resources offering a decision-making context that enables identification of the perceived situation according to users' data contained by the systems. All the available data should be understandable for all stakeholders; many of them have no technical background. This paper proposes a framework based on a traditional psychological tool and discusses its application to a real case to evaluate its practical application. It recognizes that there are four privacy domains to improve how systems stakeholders explore, perceive, and understand privacy situations, supporting decisions about access to personal data. The perceived situation has multiple views, according to who accesses and uses other people's personal data, and according to the person who provides the data, even if this person has explicitly granted access to them. There are different purposes and values involved, which demands a clear and deliberate approach.
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Among the key factors that researchers in organizations have singled out as the key challenge to managing complex organizations was the ability to cope with uncertainty (for instance Ansoff, 1965; Burns & Stalker, 1961; Thompson, 1967). This study sought to determine the level of interest of strategic management researchers in the topic of uncertainty, and to get an idea about the trends of publications on the topic. A preliminary analysis conducted on 337 articles collected from four journals over 35 years showed the trend to be increasing in two of the journals. Furthermore, while US researchers had authored 80 percent of the research papers through 1999, more recently the number of non-US researchers had grown to almost half of those doing research in this area. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Chapter
Die Sozialdimension definiert, wen die Organisation beachtet, und legt Erwartungen fest, wie Personen handeln sollen. Hierarchien und Kommunikationswege bestimmen, wer wem gegenüber rechenschaftspflichtig ist und wer mit wem worüber reden und woran zusammenarbeiten muss. Weiters werden die Beziehungen zwischen den Mitgliedern und externen Gruppen abgesteckt. Die Strukturen werden meist als Rollen, Hierarchien, Organigramme, Berichtslinien und alle Arten von formaler und informeller Über- und Unterordnung dargestellt. Dazu kommen persönliche Charakterisierungen, insbesondere die Art und Weise, wie eine Organisation einzelne Akteure und Akteurinnen beschreibt und welches Verhaltensrepertoire zu erwarten und angemessen ist. Die Organisations- oder Teamkultur definiert, was innerhalb der Organisation als offensichtlich und selbstverständlich betrachtet wird und was jeder, der mit der Organisation vertraut ist, versteht und akzeptiert.
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Komplexität ist ein Begriff, der in Unternehmen und der Wirtschaftswelt häufig, fast alltäglich, verwendetet wird, zugleich wird er gerade wegen dieser weiten Verbreitung sehr oft ungenau verwendet, daher ist zunächst eine Klärung des Inhaltes notwendig. Auf der Basis eines konstruktivistischen Zuganges und der Betonung der Beobachterperspektive werden der Begriff Komplexität und damit im Zusammenhang stehende Konzepte geschärft. Als praktische Anwendungen werden bekannte Modelle des Umganges mit Komplexität wie das Cynefin-Framework vorgestellt. Speziell für Projekte stellen wir ein Modell vor, das neben Komplexität die eingeschränkte Möglichkeit des Lernens aus der Erfahrung bei nicht-repetitiven Projekten betont.
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Der einführende Beitrag geht zunächst auf die grundlegenden Unterschiede zwischen der klassischen, projektbasierten und der agilen Entwicklung digitaler Produkte ein und stellt dabei die Vorteile einer agilen Vorgehensweise dar. Im Anschluss daran wird Scrum, als die in der Praxis dominierende agile Entwicklungsmethode, im Detail erläutert. Mit Kanban wird danach eine andere, ebenfalls sehr populäre Methode beschrieben, bevor zum Schluss im Überblick auf weitere genutzte Mischformen sowie Weiterentwicklungen agiler Methoden zur digitalen Produktentwicklung eingegangen wird.
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A current osteopathic tenet inherited from Native American principles involves viewing each person as a dynamic interaction of body-mind-spirit (BMS). Because of its traditional medicine heritage and current evidence-based approach, the osteopathic profession is, arguably, uniquely positioned to promote evidence-informed person-centered approaches that transcend improvements in pain and musculoskeletal function. It may be particularly relevant in the context of integrating the BMS tenet into osteopathic care according to the diversity of patients’ values and sociocultural assumptions towards health, symptoms, and subsequent care, which range from the typical Western to complementary and alternative medicine perspectives. There is currently a lack of robust clinical practice frameworks in this area, confusing patients and practitioners and blurring professional identities. The current commentary provides an opportunity to initiate discussions in the profession with a rationale for creating a roadmap to develop an evidence-informed framework for osteopathic care that integrates the BMS tenet.
Chapter
In the previous chapter, the concept of information in design was introduced. It was shown how the Information AxiomAxiomInformation could be applied to increase the robustnessRobustness of processes. It was also shown that the axioms in Axiomatic Design (AD) should be addressed in a distinct order. In this chapter, four different kinds of complexity in AD are explained that can be applied for typical situations. Also, a way to visualize complexity in design is introduced; the “Functionality DiagramFunctionality diagram.” After studying this chapter, the reader should know the following: The reader will understand the particular but powerful definition complexity of in AD, which kinds of complexity in AD have been defined, and how they can be applied. The reader will also learn how to apply complexity in functionality diagramsFunctionality diagram, that offers a powerful way to visualize the design processDesignprocess as it evolves over time.
Chapter
The previous chapters in this section have addressed the who, the what, the why, and the where questions associated with messes and their constituent problems. This chapter will address the how question. When we refer to how, we are interested in the specific means used in the attainment of specific, purposeful goals. The means are the mechanisms utilized in moving from the current problem state toward a new desired state where the goals and associated objectives have been satisfied. Mechanisms produce the effects that, when taken in concert, move a mess from the current state to the desired state.
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