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Relationship between body composition and vertical jump performance in young Spanish soccer players

Pérez-López A, Sinovas MC, Álvarez-Valverde I, and Valades D. Relationship between body
composition and vertical jump performance in young Spanish soccer players.
J Sport Human Perf 2015; 3(3):1-12.
DOI: 10.12922/jshp.0063.2015
Pérez-López A, Sinovas MC, Álvarez-Valverde I, and Valades D
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain
Keywords: jump ability, body size, children and adolescents
The development of motor skills in
pre-adolescence and adolescence is affected
by a wide variety of factors, one of which is
training (26). Jump ability is a motor skill that
depends on muscle contractile capacity,
stretch-shortening cycle (SCC), and high
power production (6, 15).
In childhood and adolescence, lower
levels of vertical jump performance have been
found to be a predictor of inactivity (14).
Thus, jump ability (both vertical and long
jumps) is a common test in schools (7), but
jump tests have also been used in sport
performance. In soccer, the vertical jump has
been used to monitor performance (30), to
The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of body composition to vertical jump
performance in young Spanish soccer players. Seven hundred and twenty-three soccer players aged
7 to 19 years (156 ± 17 cm; 47.8 ± 15.1 kg) who had prior soccer experience (≥ 3 yrs) and had
trained for ~2 h·day-1, 4 days·week-1 were selected. Anthropometric measurements were taken and
three vertical jumps were performed: squat jump (SJ); counter-movement jump (CMJ); counter-
movement jump with arm swing (CMJa). Multiple regression equations revealed that age (SJ, =
0.635; CMJ, = 0.687, CMJa, = 0.674) and fat mass (SJ, = -0.203; CMJ, = -0.215, CMJa, =
-0.196) in children and age (SJ, = 0.431; CMJ, = 0.496; CMJa, = 0.536), appendicular lean
body mass (SJ,  0.214; CMJ,  0.160) and waist circumference (SJ,  -0.187; CMJ, 
-0.119) in adolescents were the body composition variables that better explained vertical jump
height. Thus, in addition to age and fat mass for children, we observed for the first time that
appendicular lean body mass and waist circumference in adolescents could be taken into
consideration as body composition predictors to assess and improve vertical jump performance in
young soccer players.
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ISSN: 2326-6333
compare training loads (3, 17), and to prevent
injuries (23), though for young players, it has
been mainly utilized to identify talented
athletes (35, 39). Moreover, squat jump (SJ)
and counter-movement jump (CMJ) height
have been associated with performance
success in this sport (5, 12).
Nonetheless, the interpretation of
jump ability performance during childhood
and adolescence in educational or sport
performance environments is often based
simply on a chronological age assessment.
However, maturation status should be taken
into consideration (25) by taking into account
other biological or body composition
parameters (8).
Body size has been described as a
confounding variable in vertical jump
performance (22), and several studies have
attempted to categorize those body
composition variables which better explain
jump ability during childhood and
adolescence. Markovic and Jaric (20, 21)
identified six variables as jump predictors:
maturation, age, gender, race, physical
activity level, and motor skills. Further,
several studies have attempted to identify
novel body composition variables from a
variety of young populations: Serbians, aged
12 to 17 years (25); Norwegians, aged 7 to 11
years (13); French youth, aged 11 to 16 years
(38); and English youth, aged 10 to 15 years
(37). Finally, Aouichaoui et al. (4) found a
positive correlation between total fat free
mass (FFM) and vertical jump performance in
a Tunisian population between the ages of 7
and 13 years, supporting the body size
paradigm (22).
Therefore, the aims of this study were
first to quantify the relationship between body
composition variables and vertical jump
performance. Secondly, to establish reference
values for vertical jump in young Spanish
soccer players between the ages of 7 and 19
years. We hypothesized that the
anthropometric measurement of skeletal
muscle and/or appendicular lean body mass
could be predictors of vertical jump
performance in childhood and/or adolescence.
Furthermore, these variables would serve as
non-invasive measurements to take into
consideration when assessing vertical jump
performance of young soccer players.
Seven hundred and twenty-three
Spanish males between 7 and 19 years of age
took part in the present study. The
participants had at least 3 years of prior
soccer experience and had trained for ~2
h·day-1, 4 days·week-1 (including a weekly
competition) in Madrid, Spain. Further, they
were familiarized with vertical jump tests,
and those without previous experience or who
were unable to properly perform any of the
required tests were excluded. No participants
had any previous history of metabolic disease,
and no participants were taking any type of
Participants were divided into the
following age groups, accordingly to age
categories of the Spanish young soccer
leagues: (A) under the age of 10 (n = 130),
(B) between the ages of 10 and 12 (n = 147),
(C) between the ages of 13 and 14 (n = 205),
(D) between the ages of 15 and 16 (n = 130),
(E) between the ages of 17 and 19 (n = 111).
Before agreeing to participate in the study,
prospective participants’ guardians were fully
informed of the procedure and any possible
discomforts associated with the study. They
then gave their written informed consent. The
study was in accordance with the University
of Alcala´s Ethics Committee and the latest
version of the Declaration of Helsinki.
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Participants were tested during their
regular training schedules (between 6 and 9
PM) in the preparation period of the season.
Environmental conditions were maintained
(20 ± 1 ºC; 56 ± 5 %), and participants were
encouraged not to eat or drink for 2 hours
before the study.
Body composition assessments
Anthropometry was the method used
to measure body composition. Standing
height was measured by a stadiometer to the
nearest 0.1 cm, and body mass was measured
on a digital scale with an accuracy of 0.1 kg
(Harpenden Portable Stadiometer, Holtain
Ltd, Crosswell, Crymych, Pembs, United
Kingdom). Skinfold thicknesses on the right
side of the body were measured to the nearest
0.2 mm using a Holtain Ltd skinfold caliper
(Crosswell, UK). All materials were
calibrated, and the same ISAK accredited
specialist took all measurements. In order to
assess the reliability of each measure,
technical error of measurement (TEM%) was
calculated for all skinfolds, triceps (1.1%),
subscapular (1.6%), biceps (2.0%), iliac crest
(1.9%), supraspinale (2.2%), abdominal
(2.1%), front thigh (2.3%), medial calf
(1.2%); and circumferences taken, relaxed
arm (0.3%), waist (0.3%), hips (0.4%), gluteal
(0.3%), and calf (0.6%).
Fat mass (FM) (R2 = 0.77) (31, 32,
34), appendicular lean body mass (corrected
muscle girth model) (ALBM) (R2 = 0.93)
(28), and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (R2 =
0.97) (27) were obtained from previously
reported formulas.
Vertical Jump Tests
After anthropometric measurements, a
warm-up routine consisted of low-intensity
aerobic exercises (3 minutes), dynamic
stretching (5 minutes), and single and
rebound jumps (2 minutes) was completed.
Then, participants performed three protocols
of vertical jump tests with proven reliability
and validity (19): squat jump (SJ), counter-
movement jump (CMJ), and Abalakov test or
counter-movement jump with arm swing
(CMJa). Based on a pilot study performed
previously, two attempts were carried out for
each type of test, allowing 1 minute of rest
between attempts of the same test and 2
minutes between different vertical jump tests
to ensure total recovery.
The SJ is composed of a concentric
phase preceded by an isometric phase with
90º knee flexion. To prevent the use of elastic
energy, participants stayed in the isometric
phase for 3 seconds. Also, they kept their
hands on their hips to avoid arm swing
impulse when they were required to perform a
maximal jump (15). No sinking or
countermovement was allowed.
The CMJ is composed of an initial
negative or eccentric phase that finishes with
the subject in the squat position with 90º knee
flexion and is followed by an immediate
concentric or positive phase to perform a
maximal jump. Participants kept their hands
on their hips.
Finally, the CMJa consists of a CMJ
in which arm swing is permitted. All
participants performed the swing by
beginning with their arms extended in the
anatomical position. Any other arm swing
was not permitted.
All trials were video recorded to
ensure proper technique. Vertical jump
performances were collected by an infrared
photocell system called Optojump (Microgate
SRL, Bolzano, Italy) which was connected to
a portable computer with the adequate
software (Optojump software, version
3.01.0001) (11).
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Statistical Analysis
The SPSS statistical software package
(version 17.0) was used, and all results
obtained were presented as mean ± SD. The
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess
the normality of the anthropometric and
vertical jump variables (p> 0.05). One-way
ANOVA was used to analyze the
comparisons between age groups and
Bonferroni was used as post hoc test.
Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were
also calculated to confirm the concordance of
the measurements.
Pearson correlation and partial
correlation controlling for age were used to
assess association between anthropometric
and vertical jump parameters (p< 0.01; p<
0.05). Subsequently, a linear regression
between vertical jump performance variables
and body composition (SMM, ALBM, and
FFM) was performed. Finally, three multiple
regressions were calculated to obtain the body
composition variables (p< 0.05) that predict
vertical jump height performances for
children, adolescents, and both.
Effects of categories on Anthropometric and
Vertical Jump variables
Mean and standard deviation data
from the anthropometric and vertical jump
variables were calculated and are presented in
Table 1. Children and adolescents showed
statistically significant differences for
demographic variables (age, height, and
weight) (p< 0.05) between all categories, as
well as for SMM, ALBM, and FFM (p<
0.01). Nevertheless, the FM variable was not
statistically different between groups A, B,
and C, but significant relationships were
found between these groups and the
remaining ones (D and E; p< 0.05). Also,
waist circumference (WC) showed a
progressive and significant increase between
categories A, B, C, and D, whereas no
significant differences were found between
categories D and E.
Finally, vertical jump repeatability
(ICC; 95% CI) was calculated for all
protocols: SJ (0.995, 0.994-0.996), CMJ
(0.994; 0.993-0.995), and CMJa (0.996;
0.995-0.997), and significant differences were
also found in all vertical jump tests among all
age groups (p< 0.001) (Table 1).
Associations between Anthropometric and
Vertical Jump variables
Relationship between the
anthropometric and vertical jump variables
was calculated through a Pearson correlation
coefficient (data not presented). Given that
Pearson correlation showed strong
correlations between anthropometric and
vertical variable measurements (p< 0.01), a
partial correlation was performed controlling
for age (Table 2). In partial correlation, a
reduction in all coefficients was detected
compared to Pearson’s correlation. Also, a
significant association between heights of the
three vertical jump tests and body
composition variables of height, weight, FM,
and FFM (p< 0.01) was observed. SMM,
ALBM, and waist circumference were also
significantly related, though this relationship
was less pronounced (p< 0.05).
Linear Regression model for Vertical Jump
Figure 1 showed linear contribution of
the independent body composition variables
(SMM, ALBM, and FFM) to the vertical
jump tests (SJ height, CMJ height, and CMJa
height) of the whole cohort of participants. A
moderate to strong relationship (R2 = 0.44 to
0.61) between the SMM, ALBM, and FFM
and the vertical jump tests was observed,
though the FFM has the strongest relationship
with the tests when compared to the SMM
and ALBM.
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Table 1. Mean ± SD of anthropometric and vertical jump variables compared by category.
(N = 130)
(N = 147)
(N = 205)
(N = 130)
(N = 111)
(N = 723)
Age (yr)
9.1 ±0.7
11.1 ±0.6
12.9 ±0.6
15.1 ±0.7
17.3 ±0.9
13.3 ±3.1
Height (cm)
130 ±7
144 ±7
156 ±9
169 ±7
174 ±7
156 ±17
Weight (kg)
31.2 ±6.1
37.1 ±6.4
45.7 ±9.2
57 ±10
66.0 ±7.6
47.7 ±15
17.3 ±2.3
17.8 ±2.2
18.5 ±2.5
19.9 ±2.3
21.7 ±2.1
19 ±2.5
WC (cm)
64.3 ±8.5
68.0 ±9
72.6 ±11
78.1 ±11
80.8 ±10
72.8 ±11
17.3 ±6.4
18.5 ±5.9
18.4 ±6.7
15.0 ±4.5
13.9 ±4.7
16.7 ±6.1
FM (kg)
5.7 ±3.2
7.1 ±3.3
8.7 ±4.4
8.8 ±4.3
9.3 ±4.0
8.0 ±3.9
FFM (kg)
13.9 ±4.7
18.6 ±5.1
27.2 ±8.6
42.0 ±8.7
52.1 ±7.0
31 ±16
SMM (kg)
15.8 ±3.1
19.0 ±3.4
22.9 ±6.6
28.3 ±4.9
32.9 ±3.7
24 ±7.7
ALBM (kg)
14.4 ±2.8
17.1 ±3.0
20.6 ±6.7
25.2 ±4.4
29.2 ±3.4
21.5 ±7
SJ Height (cm)
17.0 ±2.6
19.5 ±3.1
21.6 ±3.4
25.6 ±5.1
31.0 ±3.7
22.9 ±6.0
CMJ Height (cm)
19.3 ±3.0
22.7 ±3.8
25.0 ±3.8
29.8 ±4.9
36.2 ±4.2
26.6 ±7.0
CMJa Height (cm)
22.5 ±3.7
27.0 ±4.6
29.6 ±4.9
35.9 ±5.6
42.9 ±4.9
31.6 ±8.4
A, under 10 yrs; B, under 13 yrs; C, under 15 yrs; D, under 17 yrs; E, under 19 yrs.
SD, standard deviation; Sig. statistical significance ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.05.
BMI, Body Mass Index; WC, waist circumference; FM, fat mass; FFM, fat free mass; SMM, skeletal muscle
mass; ALBM, appendicular lean body mass; SJ, squat jump; CMJ, counter-movement jump; CMJa, counter-
movement jump with arm swing.
Table 2. Partial correlation coefficient controlling for age.
SJ Height (cm)
CMJ Height (cm)
CMJa Height (cm)
Significance: ** p < 0.01; * p <0.05.
WC, waist circumference; FM, fat mass; FFM, fat free mass; SMM, skeletal muscle mass; ALBM,
appendicular lean body mass; SJ, squat jump; CMJ, counter-movement jump; CMJa, counter-movement jump
with arm swing.
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Figure 1. Single linear regression between SMM, ALBM, and FFM and (A) SJ height, (B) CMJ height, and (C) CMJa.
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Multiple Regression model for Vertical
Jump Height
Finally, the relative contribution of
each independent body composition variable
in the groups of children, adolescents, and the
two combined to vertical jump height in the
SJ, CMJ, and CMJa tests was examined
(Table 3). Multiple prediction models for
children indicated that age and fat mass were
the best variables for explaining height
changes in the three vertical jump tests, while
the models for adolescents showed that age,
ALBM, and waist circumference were the
best predictors of the SJ and CMJ height. But,
WC and ALBM was excluded from the CMJa
height model. Finally, the prediction model
from the whole cohort of players (7 to 19)
years showed that age, FM, ALBM, and waist
circumference were the variables which best
predicted SJ and CMJ height. However,
ALBM and waist circumference were
excluded from the CMJa height model.
Table 3. Multiple regression equations predicting vertical jump height variables
SJ Height
CMJ Height
CMJa Height
(7-13 yrs)
(13-19 yrs)
(7-19 yrs)
SJ, squat jump; CMJ, counter-movement jump; CMJa, counter-movement jump with arm swing; SEE, Standard error of
estimate; FM, fat mass; ALBM, appendicular lean body mass; WC, waist circumference.
Function 1 (children): Vertical jump (SJ, CMJ or CMJa) = constant + (age coefficient x age) + (FM coefficient x FM).
Function 2a (adolescents): Vertical jump (SJ or CMJ) = constant + (age coefficient x age) + (ALBM coefficient x
ALBM) + (WC coefficient x WC).
Function 2b (adolescents): Vertical jump (CMJa) = constant + (age coefficient x age).
Function 3a (7-19 yrs): Vertical jump (SJ or CMJ) = constant + (age coefficient x age) + (FM coefficient x FM) +
(ALBM coefficient x ALBM) + (WC coefficient x WC).
Function 3b (7-19 yrs): Vertical jump (CMJa) = constant + (age coefficient x age) + (FM coefficient x FM).
* p<0.001
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ISSN: 2326-6333
Vertical jump is a relevant skill for
assessing motor development during
preadolescence and adolescence (14) as well
as for examining soccer performance (5, 39).
Body size has been proposed as a
confounding factor in vertical jump
performance during childhood and
adolescence (22, 25), and several variables
related to body composition have been found
to be predictors of vertical jump performance
(4, 20, 21): age, height, weight, and fat free
mass. Therefore, we hypothesized that
skeletal muscle mass and/or appendicular lean
body mass may influence and improve the
existing model for predicting vertical jump
height in young Spanish soccer players.
Puberty involves important bodily and
physiological changes in humans and could
explain the significant increase in all
anthropometric parameters that we found in
this study (29). As expected, the association
between fat mass and male pubertal onset was
nonlinear (Table 1), and the progressive
increase of the fat mass began after group C
(under 15 yrs), in accordance with the
beginning of puberty in boys (~13 years)
(36); thus, a high fat mass in this age range
could be explained as “hormonal preparation”
for puberty (1, 2). Accordingly, skeletal
muscle mass showed the largest increase (5.4
kg) between groups B (under 13 yrs) and C
(under 15 yrs), whereas appendicular lean
body mass reported a more progressive and
significant increase.
It has been suggested that between the
ages of 13 and 15 years, young soccer players
obtain their best performance in vertical jump
tests (18, 25). Thus, we expected to find
greater differences between groups C and D
(under 15 and under 17, respectively).
However, in Table 1, it can be observed that
within the progressive and statistically
significant increase in vertical jump heights of
the three tests, the greatest improvement in
performance was detected between groups D
and E (under 17 and under 19, respectively)
for all tests, even though the increase between
group C and D (under 15 and under 17,
respectively) was also considerable (5.4 vs.
4.0 cm, SJ; 6.4 vs. 4.8 cm, CMJ; 7.0 vs. 6.3
cm, CMJa; respectively).
Malina et al. (18) showed that vertical
jump performance increased concurrently
with sexual maturity. Moreover, testosterone
and androgen hormones have been marked as
the main factors responsible for the higher
performance in young male soccer players
during puberty (8), based on their anabolic
effects, including bone and muscle
development, loss of fat mass, and increased
lean body mass (9). Concretely, testosterone
levels increase significantly after Tanner
stage 2 and until stage 5, but not before (10).
Thus, those young soccer players in later
stages of puberty with higher androgen levels
had higher vertical jump performance in all
tests compared to those in early or mid-
puberty with lower androgen levels.
Nevertheless, motor unit synchronization and
recruitment must be also taken into
consideration (16).
Therefore, the assessment of some
variables related to the androgenic or anabolic
changes produced during the maturation
process would be useful in interpreting
vertical jump performance (8, 18). Thus, a
partial correlation controlling for age (Table
2) was carried out and revealed that FM and
FFM were more strongly correlated with
height variables of the SJ, CMJ, and CMJa
tests (p< 0.01), while SMM and ALBM were
less significantly correlated (p< 0.05).
Subsequently, linear regressions among
vertical jump test variables and FFM, SMM,
and ALBM were performed, and they showed
that FFM was a more accurate body
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composition variable for explaining vertical
jump height compared to ALBM and SMM.
Finally, three multiple regression
equations were calculated for children,
adolescents, and the whole cohort. Previous
data from a population of active Tunisian
children between the ages of 7 and 13 years
revealed that age, height, weight, and fat-free
mass were the body composition variables
that most accurately predicted vertical jump
performance (4). Though our previous
analysis seemed to support that idea, we did
not find this relationship. In contrast, in table
3 it can be observed that for children between
the ages of 7 and 13 years, age and FM were
the best predictors of vertical jump height.
The discrepancy in the two regression models
might reside in the population differences. In
this study, a population of seven hundred and
twenty-three children who trained ~2 h·day-1,
4 days·week-1 and had 3 years of soccer
experience was recruited. Likely, the degree
of training and soccer expertise could explain
why in this study height, weight, and FFM did
not predict vertical jump height in the
regression models performed (20, 21). On the
other hand, for the adolescent group (table 3),
age, ALBM, and waist circumference were
the most accurate variables for predicting SJ
and CMJ height, while for the CMJa, only age
was included in the function. The inclusion of
waist circumference, which has been related
to abdominal fat among children and
adolescent populations (33), suggests that
trunk fat mass may play an important role in
vertical jump prediction in pubertal soccer
players. Likewise, lean body mass has been
associated with maximal anaerobic power
during growth (24), and fat free mass has
been related to vertical jump performance in
children as well (4). Thus, the identification
of appendicular body mass as a body
composition variable that predicts vertical
jump height was not a surprise, even though it
had not been observed previously. Lastly, we
observed that age, FM, ALBM, and waist
circumference were the body composition
variables that predicted SJ and CMJ height
for a population of young soccer players aged
7 to 19 years. It is also observed that age
coefficient increased substantially  0.801
vs.  0.635 vs.  0.431) compared to
children and adolescents models in
accordance with the influence of age in
vertical jump performance (37).
Vertical jump is simple and recurrent
skill measured by physical educators and
strength and conditioning coaches during
childhood and adolescent for several
purposes. However, chronological age is the
only variable used to categorize the result
obtained in this population. According to the
present study, it should take into
consideration body composition variables
such as fat mass, appendicular lean body mass
and waist circumference in order to consider
biological individuality of each children
and/or adolescent and thus to perform a more
adequate assessment of vertical jump skill and
also improve it performance throughout the
reduction of fat mass and waist circumference
as well as the augment of appendicular lean
body mass.
We conclude that for a Spanish
population of children and adolescents
between the ages of 7 and 19 who had prior
soccer experience (≥ 3 yrs) and had trained
for ~2 h·day-1, 4 days·week-1, age, fat mass,
appendicular lean body mass, and waist
circumference were identified as predictors of
vertical jump height. Although. total skeletal
muscle mass measured anthropometrically
has not been identified as a predictor of
vertical jump neither in childhood or
adolescence, we found for the first time a
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relationship between appendicular lean body
mass and waist circumference in the
adolescent group (13 to 19 yrs) of young
soccer players.
Thus, in addition to age, the
anthropometric measure of fat mass in
children and appendicular lean body mass and
waist circumference in adolescents could be
taken into consideration to perform a fairly
assessment of vertical jump performance in
an educational or performance perspective of
young soccer players.
The authors have no conflicts of
interest that are directly relevant to the
content of this research and wish to thank all
participants and tutors for their invaluable
contribution to the study.
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... Adolescent sports players, boys and girls, showed a statistically significant correlation between body composition and the standing broad jump (r = -0.23 to -0.62) (Agata, & Monyeki, 2018). Pérez-López, Sinovas, Álvarez-Valverde, & Valades (2015) showed similar results in Spanish male adolescent football players, where parameters of body composition were fat mass in percentage, and kilograms were in a negative correlation with height CMJ and SJ (r = -0.21 to -0.34), while correlation values for fat free mass and skeletal muscle mass with height CMJ and SJ were (r = 0.07 to 0.37). However, the results of body composition in young male football players showed a non-significant correlation with CMJ and SJ (Atakan, Unver, Demirci, Bulut, & Turnagol, 2017). ...
... The regression analysis showed a significant influence of body mass and PBF on CMJ height (p ≤ 0.01, R 2 = 0.39) and SJ height (p ≤ 0.01, R 2 = 0.45) in children aged 17, while in children aged 15 it was (p ≤ 0.01, R 2 = 0.46) for CMJ height and (p ≤ 0.01, R 2 = 0.52) for SJ height (Cinita, et al., 2022). Other body composition parameters also showed a significant correlation among Spanish adolescent male football players with CMJ and SJ height such as fat free mass (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.36 to 0.37) and skeletal muscle mass (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.07 to 0.09), while PBF (p ≤ 0.01, r = -0.33 to -0.34) and fat mass in kilograms (p ≤ 0.01, r = -0.21 to -0.23) had a negative correlation (Pérez-López, et al., 2015). Central defenders and forwards players perform better on the vertical jump than midfielders (Rampinini, Coutts, Castagna, Sassi, & Impellizzeri, 2007). ...
... It should be noted the studies which included male adolescent football players (Cinita et al., 2022;Pérez-López et al., 2015;Aurélio et al., 2016) presented results that match those of our study, stressing the multifaceted influence of PBF on CMJ and SJ height (Cinita, et al., 2022). Consequently, parameters of explosive power performance may be more influenced by body composition parameters, specifically PBF and MM. ...
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The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between body composition variables and explosive power performance in female adolescent football players. A secondary aim was mesure the influence of body composition on explosive power in female adolescent football players. A cross-sectional study included sixteen female adolescent football players (age: 14.5 ± 0.97 years; height: 170.06 ± 4.39 cm; weight: 61.35 ± 11.25 kg) competing as part of the Serbia Development League. The body composition parameters were: muscle mass in percentage (MM), body fat mass in kg (BFM), body fat mass in percentage (PBF), while explosive power parameters were: CMJ Jump Height in cm (CMJHeight), CMJ Relative maximal F (CMJF), CMJ Relative maximal P (CMJP), SJ Jump Height in cm (SJHeight), SJ Relative maximal F (SJF), SJ Relative maximal P (SJP). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between all tests and a simple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the influence between body composition and explosive power performance. Significant regressions were found between MM and CMJHeight (r = 0.50, p ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.25) and MM and SJHeight (r = 0.69, p ≤ 0.003, R2 = 0.47). Also, regression analyses were found between PBF and CMJHeight (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.02, R2 = 0.33) and PBF and SJHeight (r = 0.72, p ≤ 0.002, R2 = 0.51). Lower values of body fat mass and body fat mass in percentage and higher values of muscle mass lead to better results in explosive power performance.
... In addition to mechanical principles, previous studies have also examined the effect of individual factors on vertical jump performance that may be correlated with jump height. Anthropometric and body composition parameters are essential in an athlete's vertical jump performance (6,(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22). Reeves et al. investigated the relationship between upper limb anthropometric parameters and countermovement vertical jump height and indicated that forearm length was the only parameter with a significant but weak correlation with jump height (17). ...
... In this study, the correlation coefficient between body fat percentage and jump height was found to be -0.491, which is in agreement with the coefficient of -0.39 in the research of Legg et al. and the coefficient of -0.35 indicated by Pérez-López et al. (18,19). On the contrary, the study by Ishida et al. showed no significant relationship between vertical jump height and body fat percentage in male soccer players on a university team (27). ...
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Background: Vertical jump performance depends on the take-off velocity of the body's center of mass. This velocity results from vertical acceleration provided by applied force to the ground from the feet. Therefore, forces generated in the muscles and the way these forces transfer to the feet affect vertical jump performance. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the correlation of vertical jump height with ground reaction force and anthropometric parameters of professional male athletes in volleyball, basketball, and wrestling. Methods: In this study, the descriptive method (correlation assessment) was used to investigate the relationship of countermovement vertical jump height with ground reaction force and anthropometric parameters of 18 male professional athletes. Results: This descriptive study indicated that the vertical jump height was significantly correlated with the maximum vertical force (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.658), maximum rate of vertical force development (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.399), negative impulse (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.192), and positive impulse (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.381). In addition, among 16 anthropometric parameters, only sitting height had a significant correlation with jump height (correlation coefficient = 0.499). However, the four dimensionless anthropometric parameters, including body fat mass to body mass ratio, skeletal muscle mass to body mass ratio, upper limb mass to body mass ratio, and lower limb mass to body mass ratio, were significantly correlated with vertical jump height. Conclusions: The normalized body composition and ground reaction force parameters were significantly related to vertical jump performance. Therefore, designing a training program to enhance these parameters would improve vertical jump performance. According to this study, enhancing GRF characteristics could be considered valuable in such training programs.
... interest to detect professional-standard players' ability 12 , perhaps reflecting their remarkable level of muscle power. Several studies successfully investigated the possible association between vertical jump performance and morphological features in soccer 6,7,[13][14][15][16] indicating that body fat mass is negatively associated with jump height 14,15 . However, most of these studies are based on young players and share common whole body morphological features such as body fat and fat-free mass. ...
... interest to detect professional-standard players' ability 12 , perhaps reflecting their remarkable level of muscle power. Several studies successfully investigated the possible association between vertical jump performance and morphological features in soccer 6,7,[13][14][15][16] indicating that body fat mass is negatively associated with jump height 14,15 . However, most of these studies are based on young players and share common whole body morphological features such as body fat and fat-free mass. ...
Background: This study aimed to analyse the relationship of regional and whole body morphology to vertical jump performance and to compare the morphological features outlining high and low performers in professional soccer players. Methods: Twenty-one male soccer players were recruited. Whole and regional (upper and lower limbs) features were obtained in the form of body dimensional measurements. Then, all players were tested for vertical jump performance. A data-driven approach was used to group players according to their jump performance parameters (high vs low). Results: The regional morphological features presented higher correlations with vertical jump than whole body features. High and low performers were significantly different among upperand lower-limb morphology. No differences were observed among whole body features. Conclusions: These findings indicate that, rather than the whole body, the use of morphological features linked to specific body regions may ensure a better interpretation of the soccer players' physical potential in jump performance.
... Por otro lado, se evidenciaron correlaciones negativas entre la altura del CMJ y el porcentaje de grasa, coincidiendo con lo hallado por Pérez- López et al., (2015) en futbol, pero contrario a lo presentado por Rinaldo et al., (2020), en el cual no se presentaron correlaciones significativas entre el porcentaje de grasa y la altura del CMJ en jugadores de baloncesto. De igual forma Özkan et al., (2012), encontraron relación positiva entre el porcentaje de grasa con la potencia del CMJ y SJ en jugadores de futbol, lo que no coincide con lo hallado en el presente estudio en jugadores de baloncesto profesional. ...
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Resumen. La composición corporal permite develar las características de un atleta de acuerdo a las exigencias competitivas, por lo tanto, su relación con la fuerza explosiva (FE) y la agilidad en el baloncesto es relevante debido a las acciones propias de este tipo de deporte. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la composición corporal, la FE y la agilidad en jugadores de balon-cesto profesional. La muestra fue de 18 jugadores (edad 23.9 ± 3.3 años, peso de 87.9 ±11.7 kg, talla 188.8 ±9.9 cm, masa muscular 46.5 ±4.8 kg, masa ósea 13.2 ±1.8 kg, porcentaje de grasa 14.1±3.6%), en los cuales se evaluó la composición corporal, la FE a través de la altura y la potencia del salto "squat jump" (SJ) como también del salto en contra movimiento (CMJ). Por su parte, la agilidad fue medida a través del test de Illinois. Se encontró relación significativa entre el porcentaje de grasa y la altura del CMJ (r =-.58; p, <.05), así como entre la masa muscular y potencia del SJ (r = .87; p, <.01), como también con el CMJ (r = .79; p, <.01). Además, se encontró una relación entre el test de Illinois y la potencia del SJ (r = .64; p, <.05). En conclusión, existe una relación entre la composición corporal, FE y la agilidad, lo cual debe ser considerado para su control y entrenamiento en el baloncesto a nivel profesional. Palabras clave: Baloncesto, masa muscular, porcentaje de grasa, rendimiento deportivo, competencia profesional. Abstract. Body composition allows for revealing the characteristics of an athlete according to competitive demands. Therefore, its relationship with explosive strength (ES) and agility in basketball is relevant due to the actions of this type of sport. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between body composition, ES, and agility in professional basketball players. The sample consisted of 18 players (age 23.9 ± 3.3 years old, weight 87.9 ± 11.7 kg, height 188.8 ± 9.9 cm, muscle mass 46.5 ± 4.8 kg, bone mass 13.2 ± 1.8 kg, fat percentage 14.1 ± 3.6%), in which body composition, the ES through the height, and the power of the jump "squat jump" (SJ), as well as the countermovement jump (CMJ) were evaluated. For its part, agility was measured through the Illi-nois test. A significant relationship was found between fat percentage and CMJ height (r =-.58; p, <.05). Similarly, a relationship was found between muscle mass and power of the SJ (r = .87; p, <.01), as well as with the CMJ (r = .79; p, <.01). Additionally, a relationship was found between the Illinois test and the power of the SJ (r = .64; p, <.05). In conclusion, there is a relationship between body composition, ES, and agility, which must be taken into account for its control and training in basketball at a professional level. Introducción El baloncesto se clasifica como un deporte acíclico, lo que implica acciones y patrones de movimiento bastante específicos y que requiere la activa manifestación de las capacidades físicas, habilidades motrices, elementos técni-cos y acciones tácticas (Izquierdo, 2022); sin embargo, lo realmente fundamental es que todas estas estructuras fun-cionen en sincronía de manera sistémica. Concretamente, el baloncesto es considerado un deporte de carga intermi-tente, donde se intercalan acciones de baja, media y alta intensidad, produciéndose un gran número de cambios de dirección, saltos, distintos desplazamientos, todos ellos realizados con o sin balón durante el proceso de entrena-miento y competencia (Conte et al., 2015). Esto demanda el desarrollo de capacidades físicas, especialmente la FE en miembros inferiores, la velocidad y la agilidad, que tienen diferentes expresiones por las condiciones propias del juego (Reina et al., 2019). Asimismo, la capacidad del jugador para saltar lo más alto posible y en el momento preciso, es primordial en acciones específicas del juego como rebotes, tiros al aro y desvíos del baloń (San Román et al., 2011). Por tal razón, el entrenamiento de la FE ha sido un elemento fundamental para la optimización del rendimiento, especialmente en deportes donde prima la velocidad del movimiento (Naclerio & Fernández, 2011). En cuanto a la relación de la composición corporal y el rendimiento competitivo en los deportes de cooperación y oposición, estudios previos han relacionado el rendimiento en baloncesto con determinadas variables antropométricas tales como el peso, talla, ińdice de masa corporal (IMC), masa muscular y porcentaje de grasa (Corredor-Serrano et al., 2022; García-Chaves et al., 2021; García-Rubio et al., 2019), dado que existen diferentes factores que pueden influir sobre el rendimiento deportivo, uno de los aspectos con mayor relevancia son las características morfológicas del deportista, encontrándose que los atletas de elite de cada modalidad deportiva presentan una composición corporal y aspectos morfológicos similares entre ellos y diferentes a los que caracterizan a los atletas de otras mo-dalidades. Por lo tanto, la optimización de las variables antropométricas y derivadas resulta clave para poder me-jorar el rendimiento deportivo (Marín et al., 2020). Varios estudios han evaluado las relaciones entre la FE a través del salto vertical con pruebas de campo (Correia et al., 2020), algunos de ellos frente a test comúnmente utilizados para evaluar atributos relacionados con la FE y la potencia en el baloncesto, otros han utilizado sobrecargas (García-Chaves et al., 2021; Portes et al., 2022), lo que evidencia la continua necesidad de conocer el comporta
... who received football training was calculated as 18.42±3.83% . In the study conducted by Pérez-López et al. (2015) in Spain, the average height, body weight, and BFP values of 147 footballers aged 11.1±0.6 years were 144±7 cm, 37.1±6.4 kg, and 18.5±5.9%, ...
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Research aim: This study aimed to examine some physiological and anthropometric characteristics of 10-12 years old soccer players. Method: 20 subjects aged 11.05±0.94, who have been actively participating in Konya Besiktas Football Schools for 3 years, voluntarily participated in the study. These subjects’ body weight, height, body fat percentage, arm span, leg length, bust length, back strength, leg strength, hand grip strength, anaerobic power, maximum oxygen consumption and 30 m sprint test measurements were made. Averages and standard deviations of the measured and calculated values were analysed using the “IBM SPSS Statistics Version v.21” statistical program. Results: As a result of the tests and measurements made, the subjects average body weight was 37.31±7.71 kg, height 147.66±9.25 cm, body fat percentage 17.99±3.92%, arm span 145.4±10,1 cm, leg length 69.62±6.57 cm, bust length 76.51±3.4 cm, back strength 51.95±12.86 kg, leg strength 52.77±14.36 kg, hand grip strength 17.67±5.34 kg, anaerobic power value 46.07±12.22 kgm/sec, maximum oxygen consumption (maxVO2) 44.61±3.23 ml/kg/min, and 30 m sprint test score 5.74±0.32 sec. Discussion and Conclusion: As a result of the literature review, it was determined that children in the same age group have similar physiological and anthropometric characteristics.
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In this study, the correlation and influence of morphological parameters and speed on the success of the long jump was investigated. The main aim of this study was to predict long jump performance based on morphological parameters and speed in male athletes. The research was conducted on a sample of 110 tester's aged 13 years ± 6 months, students of the "Bajram Shabani" elementary school-Kumanovo. A total of 9 variables were used in the research, of which: 6 variables for the assessment of morphological parameters (height, weight, body mass index, triceps adipose tissue, back adipose tissue, abdominal adipose tissue), 2 variables for the assessment of speed (running 60 meters, running 100 meters) and 1 variable for assessing situational-motor skills (long jump-collected technique). The highest correlation appeared between the variable 100 meter run (VR100m) and long jump performance (SMKGJ), with a negative value of-.453**. Multiple correlation revealed that the joint contribution of all independent variables to the evaluation of long jump performance is (R=549, R2=301), which indicates that 30.1% of long jump performance is derived from these variables. Of all the predictor variables tested in this paper, statistically significant influence on the dependent variable of the long jump (SMKGJ), there are only variables of the 100 meter run (VR100m), with a negative value of the standardized beta coefficient-.405 and with a level reliability 008.
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Objetivo: analizar si existe diferencia en la composición corporal por género y si esta influye sobre el rendimiento físico de jugadores de vóleibol adolecentes. Método: se agruparon veinticinco jugadores de vóleibol (Hombres n = 10, Mujeres n = 15). Se midió la composición corporal y potencia muscular mediante la prueba de salto en contra movimiento y remate de balón. Resultados: se observó que los hombres presentaban una mayor masa muscular junto a una menor grasa corporal relacionada a un mayor rendimiento en las pruebas de rendimiento físico. Conclusión: los hombres presentan una mayor masa muscular y menor grasa corporal junto a un mejor rendimiento en las pruebas de potencia muscular.
Conference Paper
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Workplace stress can be defined as the change in an individual's physical or mental state in response to workplaces that pose a challenge or threat to that employee (Colligan & Higgins, 2006). Teacher well-being has become increasingly important in understanding the contextual variables related to learners' academic, social-emotional, and behavioral growth (Von der Embse, 2021). Among teachers, physical education and sports teachers may suffer from stress due to high workloads. The purpose of the present study was to initially validate a stress measurement scale for physical education teachers in Tunisia.
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Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the relationships among body composition, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) test and vertical jump test in elite young soccer players. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy young male soccer players (Age: 16.5±0.3 years, height: 178.0±5.9 cm, body weight: 65.9±7.9kg,) voluntarily participated in the study. Total and regional body composition parameters of the soccer players were examined through a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) method. Vertical jump performance tests were squat jump (SJ) and active jump (AJ), and endurance performances were determined by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Relationships among body composition, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and vertical jump test were analyzed with Pearson Correlation coefficient. Significance level was taken as ≤0.05. Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between squat jump and countermovement jump (r=-0.588, r=-0.573, p<0.05), and the leg fat rate. However, there were no statistically significant relationship among squat jump, Yo-Yo IR1 and countermovement jump and other whole/regional body composition (p>0.05). Conclusion: Changes in body composition are important issues for the physical performance level of young soccer players, as local excess body fat may cause deterioration, especially in jumping performance.
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Vertical jump is one of the most prevalent acts performed in several sport activities. It is therefore important to ensure that the measurements of vertical jump height made as a part of research or athlete support work have adequate validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent validity and reliability of the Optojump photocell system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) with force plate measurements for estimating vertical jump height. Twenty subjects were asked to perform maximal squat jumps and countermovement jumps, and flight time-derived jump heights obtained by the force plate were compared with those provided by Optojump, to examine its concurrent (criterion-related) validity (study 1). Twenty other subjects completed the same jump series on 2 different occasions (separated by 1 week), and jump heights of session 1 were compared with session 2, to investigate test-retest reliability of the Optojump system (study 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for validity were very high (0.997-0.998), even if a systematic difference was consistently observed between force plate and Optojump (-1.06 cm; p < 0.001). Test-retest reliability of the Optojump system was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.982 to 0.989, low coefficients of variation (2.7%), and low random errors (±2.81 cm). The Optojump photocell system demonstrated strong concurrent validity and excellent test-retest reliability for the estimation of vertical jump height. We propose the following equation that allows force plate and Optojump results to be used interchangeably: force plate jump height (cm) = 1.02 × Optojump jump height + 0.29. In conclusion, the use of Optojump photoelectric cells is legitimate for field-based assessments of vertical jump height.
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Abstract The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games.
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Assessment of lower extremity bilateral asymmetries in soccer players is important for both injury prevention and performance. The purpose of this investigation was to compare isokinetic knee extensor assessment of asymmetry with a more specific countermovement jump (CMJ). Forty-six male Brazilian professional soccer players participated in this study. The maximal power, maximal force and impulse were determined during CMJ as well as the total work and peak torque at 60/s, 180/s and 300/s during isokinetic leg extension, separately for each leg. Factor analysis was performed for all investigated variables, and the diagnostic concordance between different criteria was analyzed by McNemar's Chi test. The factor analysis showed that the isokinetic and CMJ tests were widely independent methods for the assessment of bilateral differences. Concordance of the diagnostic information could only be found between the maximal force during CMJ and the total work and peak torque at 180°/s and 300/s during isokinetic leg extension. Impulse and maximal power during countermovement jump on a double force platform appear to be appropriate additional variables for the identification of bilateral differences. Therefore, it might be pertinent to perform, in addition to isokinetic assessment, a vertical jump test on a force platform to assure widespread and reliable diagnostic information.
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We aimed to improve the physical capacity of a top-level elite football team during its pre-season by implementing a maximal strength and high-intensity endurance training program. 21 first league elite football players (20-31 yrs, height 171-194 cm, mass 58.8-88.1 kg) having recently participated in the UEFA Champions' League, took part in the study. Aerobic interval-training at 90-95% of maximal heart rate and half-squats strength training with maximum loads in 4 repetitions × 4 sets were performed concurrently twice a week for 8 weeks. The players were not familiar with maximal strength training as part of their regular program. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) increased 8.6% (1.7-16.6) (p<0.001), from 60.5 (51.7-67.1) to 65.7 (58.0-74.5) mL · kg (-1) · min (-1) whereas half-squat one repetition maximum increased 51.7% (13.3-135.3) (p<0.001), from 116 (85-150) to 176 (160-210) kg. The 10-m sprint time also improved by 0.06 s (0.02-0.16) (p<0.001); while counter movement jump improved 3.0 cm (0.1-6.2) (p<0.001), following the training program. The concurrent strength and endurance training program together with regular football training resulted in considerable improvement of the players' physical capacity and so may be successfully introduced to elite football players.
Abstract There is empirical evidence that children's physical activity is dependent on climatic conditions. In addition, a correlation between physical activity level and physical fitness has been identified. In this longitudinal study, we investigate whether seasons have an influence on physical fitness. A total of 145 German elementary school children were tested every six months over a two-year period. We used the German Motor Test 6-18 to assess physical fitness. Performance in the 6-min endurance run (P < 0.001), bidirectional jumping (P < 0.001), the standing long jump (P = 0.026), the 20 m sprint (P = 0.006) and the stand-and-reach task (P = 0.017) was significantly better in summer than in winter. There were no differences in the ability to balance backwards (P = 0.120); in the winter, the results for push-ups (P < 0.001) and sit-ups (P < 0.001) were better than those in the summer. We have shown that physical fitness is significantly influenced by the season. Consequently, when children's fitness tests are used (e.g. as the basis for intervention programs, for classifying health-risk groups or for recognising talent), the season in which testing occurred should be reported and accounted for in future studies.
Background/aims: The association of bone mass with body composition, bone turnover markers and gonadal steroids was examined in Hungarian children during pre- and midpuberty. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-seven 7- to 16-year-old subjects (56% girls) were investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass and total and appendicular lean mass were estimated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar Prodigy). The fat mass index and appendicular lean mass index (LMI) were calculated. Serum bone markers, parathyroid hormone, estradiol and testosterone were analyzed. Associations between variables were evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Results: During prepuberty, bone biomarkers, gonadal steroids and appendicular LMI were associated with bone mass in both genders (p < 0.05). During midpuberty, girls' bone turnover markers were negatively associated with bone mass (p < 0.001). In prepuberty, appendicular LMI and β-crosslaps were predictors of bone mass in both genders. During midpuberty, appendicular LMI and gonadal steroids positively contributed to bone mass in both genders, while osteocalcin exerted a negative influence on total and L1-L4 spine BMD in girls and on L1-L4 BMD in boys (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Predictors for bone development varied according to Tanner stage and gender. The most significant determinants of bone mass were appendicular LMI and estradiol.
Training and activity level are important predictors of motor development. At present, many children and adolescents do not participate in any sport activity in their leisure time.In this investigation, we analyzed the level of performance of the stretch and shortening cycle in childhood and youth. Data of 801 participants were recorded for two separate groups, those in elite soccer associations and those who were less active in their leisure time.All participants completed the following performance tests: the squat-jump, the counter movement-jump and the drop-jump from varying heights. All participants answered a questionnaire to determine their level of activity. Comparisons of performance were made across the two groups.The data showed a significant (p<0.05) advantage for soccer players in nearly every variable involved in the performance of the stretch and shortening cycle. The analysis of the questionnaire highlights that approximately a quarter of students are inactive in their leisure time, which means they do not participate in any sport activity except for school sports.The data show that many children and adolescents do not participate in sport activities in their leisure time. Furthermore, many of these children and adolescents have a Body Mass Index greater than 25. The results of this investigation support that the inactivity is correlated with a low training level in children and youths.
Background & aims: To determine the relevance of waist circumference (WC) measurement and monitoring in children and adolescents as an early indicator of overweight, metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular problems in young adults in comparison with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Methods: A cohort study with 159 subjects (51.6% female) started in 1999 with an average age of 13.2 years. In 1999, 2006 and 2008 weight, height, and WC were evaluated. In 2006 blood samples for laboratory diagnosis of MS were added. In 2008 abdominal computed tomography (ACT) to quantify the fat deposits were also added. Results: The WC measured in children and adolescents was strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) measured simultaneously. A strong correlation was established between WC in 1999 with measures of WC and BMI as young adults. WC strongly correlated with fat deposits in ACT. The WC in 1999 expressed more subcutaneous fat (SAT), while the WC when young adults expressed strong correlation with both visceral fat (VAT) and SAT. The correlation of WC with fat deposits was stronger in females. WC and not BMI in 1999 was significantly higher in the group that evolved to MS. Conclusions: The WC in children and adolescents was useful in screening patients for MS. WC expressed the accumulation of abdominal fat; especially subcutaneous fat.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of anthropometric variables to vertical jumping ability and leg power and to establish reference values of vertical jumping parameters in athletic Tunisian children aged 7-13 years in both sexes. Three hundred and ninety-one athletic Tunisian children (208 boys and 183 girls) aged 7-13 years were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform squat jumps and countermovement jumps. Jump heights and leg power were simultaneously provided by the optojump device. Full and stepwise regression models were calculated to identify which anthropometric parameters significantly contributed to performance variables. The multiple regressions showed that age, weight, standing height and fat-free mass were the predictors of jumping performance. The results may help in verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.