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Building Information Modeling (BIM) adoption is spreading through the public sector (including government bodies and non-profit organizations) around the globe in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The public sector plays a key role in supporting and encouraging the adoption of BIM in the industry. Currently there is no comprehensive study on the efforts and roles of the public sector for BIM adoption. In this paper, different kinds of the efforts that the public sector has put for BIM adoption worldwide are reviewed to highlight the successful implementations of BIM and to identify the gaps in some countries. The countries covered in this paper are grouped into four regions – the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. In each region, efforts of the public sector in different countries to BIM implementations including establishment of BIM programs and committees, organization of BIM activities and seminars, setting up of different BIM goals and promises, and preparation of BIM guidelines and standards are described and compared. This paper also identifies six major possible roles of the public sector for BIM adoption. The roles played by the public sector in each selected country are summarized and evaluated.
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www.itcon.org - Journal of Information Technology in Construction - ISSN 1874-4753
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 442
A REVIEW OF THE EFFORTS AND ROLES OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR
FOR BIM ADOPTION WORLDWIDE
REVISED: July 2015
PUBLISHED: October 2015 at http://www.itcon.org/2015/27
EDITOR: Ruikar K.
Jack C.P. Cheng, Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology;
cejcheng@ust.hk
Qiqi Lu, M.Phil. Student,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology;
qluab@ust.hk
SUMMARY: Building Information Modeling (BIM) adoption is spreading through the public sector (including
government bodies and non-profit organizations) around the globe in the architecture, engineering and
construction (AEC) industry. The public sector plays a key role in supporting and encouraging the adoption of
BIM in the industry. Currently there is no comprehensive study on the efforts and roles of the public sector for
BIM adoption. In this paper, different kinds of the efforts that the public sector has put for BIM adoption
worldwide are reviewed to highlight the successful implementations of BIM and to identify the gaps in some
countries. The countries covered in this paper are grouped into four regions the United States, Europe, Asia,
and Australasia. In each region, efforts of the public sector in different countries to BIM implementations
including establishment of BIM programs and committees, organization of BIM activities and seminars, setting
up of different BIM goals and promises, and preparation of BIM guidelines and standards are described and
compared. This paper also identifies six major possible roles of the public sector for BIM adoption. The roles
played by the public sector in each selected country are summarized and evaluated.
KEYWORDS: Building information modeling (BIM), BIM adoption, BIM standards, public sector.
REFERENCE: Jack C.P. Cheng, Qiqi Lu (2015). A review of the efforts and roles of the public sector for BIM
adoption worldwide. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol. 20, pg. 442-478,
http://www.itcon.org/2015/27
COPYRIGHT: © 2015 The author. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 unported (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 443
1. INTRODUCTION
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is one of the most promising developments in the architecture,
engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. It is defined as the digital representation of the physical and
functional characteristics of a facility, and an approach to facilitate collaboration among various stakeholders at
different phases of the life cycle of a facility (NIST, 2007b). Since its introduction in the 1970s, BIM has been
developed for over three decades and is currently a key technology in the AEC industry to capture, store, share
and manage building information over the whole life cycle of a building. There is a wide range of industry
standards and file formats available for exchanging and managing BIM data. For example, Industry Foundation
Classes (IFC) specification was developed by buildingSMART Alliance (formerly known as the International
Alliance for Interoperability) as a neutral data format to describe, exchange, and share information typically used
within the building and facility management industry sector (Häfele, 2013). For another example, Construction
Operations Building information exchange (COBie) was developed as an information exchange specification for
the lifecycle capture and delivery of information needed by facility managers (buildingSMART alliance, 2015).
BIM technology has been studied and applied to building design, construction, facility management, and even
demolition (Yabuki and Li, 2006; Park et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2012; Cheng and Ma, 2013). Many countries
around the world have adopted BIM technology. The United States is believed to be one of the pioneering
countries for BIM adoption. Many public sector bodies at different levels in the United States have established
BIM programs, set up BIM goals and implementation roadmaps, and published BIM standards. In 2007, for
example, the United States National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) published the National Building
Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS-USTM). Apart from the United States, many countries in Europe have
embarked on significant BIM implementations. The United Kingdom government, for example, mandated that
all UK government projects should use BIM by 2016. Although BIM adoption in the public sector came later in
Asia, BIM has now developed rapidly in Asian regions. For instance, Singapore and Hong Kong have
established their own BIM committees and published several BIM guidelines. The Mainland Chinese
government also included BIM-related topics in the 12th National Five Year Plan in 2012.
The public sector plays a vital role in leading the industry towards BIM adoption. In recent years, BIM
implementations continue to increase intensively as more and more government bodies and non-profit
organizations of various countries worldwide implemented BIM in their projects and provided different BIM
standards and solutions. Such divergence and coverage highlight the lack of and the necessity for a review of
these efforts and the potential roles of the public sector for BIM adoption. However, currently there is no
comprehensive study on the efforts and roles of the public sector for BIM adoption.
The existing reviews only cover a limited amount of countries and focus on some aspects of BIM
implementations. For example, Succar (2009) listed the publicly-available guides, reports and visions related to
BIM in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, the United States and a consortium of organizations
in Europe. Wong et al. (2009) discussed the roles of the public and private sectors as major stakeholders in
promoting and providing support for BIM implementation in Singapore, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Wong
et al. (2011) conducted a comparative review of BIM initiatives taken in the United States and Hong Kong,
including the government policy, guidelines, standards, and implementation status. In the first issue of Solibri
Magazine 2011, Jauhiainen (2011) presents three public sector BIM adoptions in Statsbygg from Norway,
Senate Properties from Finland, and the General Services Administration (GSA) from the United States. Martin
(2012) compares the national BIM guidelines in the United States, Australia, UK, Finland, Norway, Sweden and
Denmark. Although there have been some reviews of the BIM adoption efforts in various countries, most of
them just focus on limited regions not worldwide. In addition, as the interest in BIM has grown dramatically in
the AEC industry in recent few years, many countries have now started to investigate and implement BIM and
the previous reviews become obsolete. For example, there has been almost no previous review covering the BIM
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 444
adoption efforts in UK, which has an overwhelming goal for national BIM adoption. Review covering the Asian
countries is also lacking.
Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review and comparison of the efforts and roles that the
public sector has done in different countries worldwide for BIM adoption.
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Fig. 1 presents the methodology framework of this study. In order to perform this review study, all data
(including BIM program, BIM pilot projects, BIM standards, annual BIM report, online training information,
etc.) were collected from the official websites of each government body and non-profit organization of countries
worldwide. Based on the data collection and review, this paper focuses on 14 countries/areas. These
countries/areas are selected because the public sector has substantial efforts in BIM adoption and the information
about these efforts is publicly available and in English.
FIG. 1: The methodology framework of this study.
These countries were further grouped into four regions, which are the United States, Europe, Asia and
Australasia. In each region, gap analysis of the public sector in different countries to BIM adoption was
performed. Discussion and suggestions of their efforts were made based on the results of gap analysis. These
efforts have been summarized and compared in these three main aspects (1) the BIM goals and promises made
by the public sector, (2) the BIM implementations such as establishment of BIM programs and committees,
organization of BIM forums, and execution of pilot BIM projects, and (3) the BIM standards developed by the
public sector. According to these BIM standards, four major types of contents contained in those BIM standards
are identified. They are (1) Project Execution Plan (PEP), (2) Modeling Methodology, (3) Levels of Detail
Roles of the Public Sector for BIM
adoption Worldwide
Findings and Discussion
Conclusions
The United States
Europe
Asia
Australasia
Regions
Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM
Adoption Worldwide
Literature Review
(1) BIM goals and promises
(2) BIM implementations
(3) BIM standards (PEP, Modeling
Methodology, LoDs, and Component
Presentation Style and Data Organization)
Efforts
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 445
(LoDs, including level of development), and (4) Component Presentation Style and Data Organization. Based on
the review of BIM deliverables and implementations, the roles of the public sector in adopting BIM are
summarized and discussed. Findings and discussion of the efforts and roles of the public sector are given based
on the review result, followed by the conclusion of this study.
The remaining of this paper is organized as follows. Public BIM efforts in the United States are discussed in four
levels (national, state-wide, city-wide, and public university-wide) in Section 3. In Sections 4 to 6, the efforts of
the public sector for BIM adoption in Europe, Asia and Australasia are introduced. In Section 7, the potential
roles of the public sector for BIM adoption are discussed. In addition, how the identified roles can help the
public sector in other countries to promote BIM adoption is also discussed in this section. Findings and
discussion of the efforts and roles of the public sector are given in Section 8. Finally, Section 9 concludes the
paper.
3. EFFORTS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR FOR BIM ADOPTION IN THE
UNITED STATES
3.1 BIM Goals and Promises in the United States
The United States is one of the pioneering countries for using BIM technology and is currently the biggest
producer and consumer of BIM products. The biggest difference in BIM adoption between the United States and
other countries may be that different levels of the public sector in the United States, from national organizations
to public universities, all contribute to BIM implementation.
In 2006, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) released A Road Map for Implementation To
Support MILCON Transformation and Civil Works Projects within the United States Army Corps of Engineers
(Brucker et al., 2006), in which USACE announced the vision to be a leader in using BIM and set six goals for
BIM implementation. In 2007, the United States General Services Administration (GSA) set a goal to require
IFC BIMs on FY07 projects for improving design quality and construction delivery. It was the first time that an
organization at the project scale had made such a public and groundbreaking statement (Hagan et al., 2009). The
United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) also mandated BIM for all major construction and
renovation projects (over $10M), starting in 2009 (VA, 2010).
Not only do national government organizations in the United States set their BIM goals, but some state
governments also set BIM promises, and even public universities require BIM implementation on their campus-
wide projects. In July 2009, for example, the state of Wisconsin issued guidelines to design firms requiring the
use of BIM on all projects totaling more than $5 million and new construction projects of more than $2.5 million
(Beck, 2012). For another example, Indiana University (IU) required BIM on all construction projects with total
project funding of $5M or greater (IU, 2012).
3.2 BIM Implementation in the United States
Apart from setting BIM goals and promises, the public sector in the United States launched BIM programs,
established BIM committees, and held various BIM conferences and training courses. As early as 2003, the GSA
Public Buildings Service (PBS) Office of the Chief Architect (OCA) established the National 3D-4D-BIM
Program. They implemented BIM in over 200 active projects for the program, which were valued at over $12
billion (Hagan et al., 2009). With support from industry technology leaders, the GSA BIM team drafted eight
BIM Guide Series 01 to 08 over the past decade. GSA’s success with BIM up to now could be a roadmap for
other owner organizations in the country and even over the world.
The USACE updated the original roadmap published in 2006 and officially released a new Roadmap for
Lifecycle BIM (Engineer Research and Development Center, 2012) in 2012 for BIM use in military construction
and civil works projects. USACE also directly funded a CAD/BIM Technology Center (Woods, 2011), which
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 446
was a R&D center aiming to explore new CAD and BIM technologies and provide BIM training within the
United States Department of Defense (DoD). National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) established the
NBIMS-USTM project committee to develop the national BIM standards and to discuss the possibility of
incorporating BIM into college curricula. In early 2014, NIBS presented its first course “The Introduction to
COBie” – on the Institute’s newly launched Building Sciences Online Academy.
3.3 BIM Standards and Guidelines in the United States
Different levels of the public sector in the United States have released BIM standards in order to effectively
implement BIM. As at 2015, 47 BIM standards developed by the public sector in US were publicly available
(see Table 1). Among them, 17 were from government bodies whereas 30 were from non-profit organizations.
As shown in Table 2, most of the standards cover PEP, modeling methodology, and component presentation
style and data organization. The largest gap falls in LoDs categorization. About half of the standards do not
provide detailed information about how much graphical scale each model should meet. In addition, Table 2
shows that some of the standards, such as those released by Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and
Association of General Contractors (AGC), contain all these four types of information. The following will
provide detailed description about the BIM standards developed in US in different levels of the public sector
national level, state level, city level, and public university level.
TABLE 1: The number of BIM standards/guidelines in different regions.
Region
Country/ Organization
Year Range
Quantity
Gov. Body
Non-profit Org.
Total
The United States
Nation-wide
2007-2015
9
15
24
State-wide and city-wide
2009-2013
8
8
University-wide
2009-2013
15
15
Sub-Total
17
30
47
Europe
the United Kingdom
2007-2015
3
15
18
Norway
2008-2013
4
2
6
Finland
2007-2013
2
1
3
Denmark
2007
4
4
Sweden
2009
1
1
Netherlands
2013
2
2
Sub-Total
11
23
34
Asia
Singapore
2008-2013
12
12
Korea
2009-2011
5
1
6
Japan
2012-2013
3
3
Mainland China
2013-2015
4
4
Taiwan
2010-2014
4
4
Hong Kong
2009-2014
4
2
6
Sub-Total
25
10
35
Australasia
Australia
2009-2015
3
5
8
Total
123
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 447
TABLE 2: BIM standards in the United States.
Year
BIM Standards/Guidelines
PEP
Modelling
Methodology
LoDs
Component Presentation Style
and Data Organization
2007
[NIBS] NBIMS v1.0
2007
[NIST] General Buildings Information Handover Guide
2007
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 01 v0.6
2007
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 02 v0.96
2007
[AIA] Document E201™–2007, Digital Data Protocol Exhibit
2007
[AIA] Document C106™–2007 Digital Data Licensing Agreement
Not Found
2008
[AIA] Document E202-2008 BIM protocol exhibit
2008
[AGC] The Contractor's Guide to BIM v1
2009
[Wisconsin] BIM Guidelines and Standards for Architects and Engineers
2009
[PSU] BIM PEP Guide v0.1
2009
[PSU] BIM PEP Guide v0.2
2009
[PSU] BIM PEP Guide v1.0
2009
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 03 v1.0
2009
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 04 v1.0
2009
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 05 v1.0
2010
[VA] The VA BIM Guide v1.0
2010
[LACCD] LACCD BIMS v3
2010
[PSU] BIM PEP Guide v2.0
2010
[AGC] The Contractor's Guide to BIM v2
2011
[PSU] BIM PEP Guide v2.1
2011
[UF] BIM Execution Plan v1.1
2011
[University of Connecticut] CAD Standards Guideline
2011
[GSA] BIM Guide Series 08 v1.0
2011
[Ohio] State of Ohio BIM Protocol
2012
[NIBS] NBIMS v2.0
2012
[NYC DDC] BIM Guidelines
2012
[IU] BIM Guidelines and Standards for Architects Engineers and Constructors
2012
[PSU] BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners v1.0
2012
[PSU] BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners v1.01
2012
[PSU] BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners v1.02
2012
[University at Albany] AECM BIM Guidelines 2012
2013
[NYC DOB] BIM Site Safety Submission Guidelines and Standards
2013
[NYC SCA] BIM Guidelines and Standards for Architects and Engineers v1.1
2013
[SPU/SDoT] CAD Manual SPU/SDoT Inter-Departmental CAD Standard
2013
[Tennessee] BIM Requirements V1.0
2013
[PSU] BIM Planning Guide for Facility Owners v2.0
2013
[PSU] The Uses of BIM v0.9
2013
[NYC DDC] Design Consultant Guide Appendix
2013
[AIA] Document E203™–2013, BIM and Digital Data Exhibit
2013
[AIA] Document G201™–2013, Project Digital Data Protocol Form
2013
[AIA] Document G202™–2013, Project BIM Protocol Form
2013
[AIA] Guide, Instructions and Commentary to the 2013 AIA Digital Practice
Documents
2013
[AGC, BIMForum] Level of Development Specification v2013
2015
[AGC, BIMForum] Level of Development Specification v2015 (draft)
2015
*[NIBS] NBIMS v3.0
Not Published
2015
*[GSA] BIM Guide Series 06 v1.0
Not Published
2015
*[GSA] BIM Guide Series 07 v1.0
Not Published
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 448
3.3.1 National Public Sector BIM Standards/Guidelines
Among the 47 BIM standards in the United States, 24 were developed by national public organizations that have
released or are in the process of publishing BIM standards (see Table 1). Fig. 2 shows the timeline of the
national public sector BIM guidelines in the United States.
(1) The United States General Services Administration (GSA)
GSA PBS OCA houses the National 3D-4D-BIM Program. In order to provide good support in its program and
projects, GSA intended to release eight BIM Guide Series since 2007, from Series 01 to 08. Each series in the
BIM Guide is standalone, but related. They have published six BIM Guide Series officially from 2007 to 2011.
Series 06 Circulation Security Validation (GSA, 2007c) and Series 07 Building Elements (GSA, 2010) are
still under public review and comment.
Among the six series that have been published, Series 01 (Overview v0.6) is intended for GSA stakeholders
engaging in BIM practices for the design of GSA projects (GSA, 2007a). It is an introductory document serving
as a foundation to support BIM technology. Series 02 (Spatial Program Validation v0.96) describes the tools,
processes, and requirements to effectively use BIM technologies (GSA, 2007b). Series 03 (3D imaging v1.0)
contains three sections and provides guidelines for the solicitation of 3D imaging services and evaluation criteria
(GSA, 2009a). Series 04 (4D Phasing v1.0) introduces the tools and processes to explore how time-related
information will affect project development and potential benefits of 4D modeling (GSA, 2009b). Series 05
(Energy Performance and Operations v1.0) discusses BIM in energy modeling for Design, Construction and
Operations (GSA, 2009c). Series 08 provides implementation guidance of BIM for facility management and
states the minimum technical requirements that BIM models should meet (GSA, 2011).
(2) The United States National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS)
NIBS published National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS-USTM) Version 1.0 - Part 1:
Overview, Principles, and Methodologies (NIST, 2007b) in 2007 and NBIMS-USTM Version 2.0 in 2012 (NIST,
2012). Currently, they are preparing NBIMS-USTM Version 3.0, which covers the full life cycle of buildings
from planning and design through construction and operations and will be released in late 2015. NBIMS aims at
developing a full consensus standard for BIM. NBIMS V1-P1 is a conceptual description of the overall standard,
the methodologies of development, and the intended use (Bazjanac, 2008). It is just a guidance document which
is followed by specific standards. NBIMS V2 is a more technical standard and includes three types of contents
Guidelines and Applications, Information Exchange Standards, and Reference Standards (MARZOUK and ATY,
2012).
(3) The American Institute of Architects (AIA)
In order to provide guidance to the construction industry on how to use BIM and other digital data, the American
Institute of Architects (AIA) published its first Digital Data documents in 2007. It contains two files, AIA
Document E201™ – 2007 Digital Data Protocol Exhibit (AIA, 2007b) and C106™–2007 Digital Data
Licensing Agreement (AIA, 2007a). E201 2007 is an attachment to the various parties’ agreement which
defines the procedures the parties should follow regarding the exchange of digital data. C106 2007 is a
separate agreement between two parties for the Transmitting Party to grant a license to the Receiving Party for
the use of digital data. In conformity with the increasing use of BIM, the AIA released AIA Document E202™–
2008 Building Information Modeling Protocol Exhibit (AIA, 2008) in 2008 to establish five levels of
development (LoD) requirements and applications of BIM. In 2013, the AIA updated its Digital Practice
documents which includes AIA Document E203™–2013, Building Information Modeling and Digital Data
Exhibit (AIA, 2013a); AIA Document G201™–2013, Project Digital Data Protocol Form (AIA, 2013b); and
AIA Document G202™–2013, Project Building Information Modeling Protocol Form (AIA, 2013c). In the
meantime, AIA also published Guide, Instructions and Commentary to the 2013 AIA Digital Practice
Documents (AIA, 2013d) to provide a guide on how to use these documents.
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 449
FIG. 2: National public sector BIM standards/guidelines timeline in the United States (“*” means that the
standard is under preparation).
(4) Other Public Sector Bodies
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and other two non-profit organizations, the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Association of General Contractors (AGC), also published BIM
guidelines individually. The VA BIM Guide v1.0 (VA, 2010) is a project-oriented BIM guide. It defines VA’s
building information life cycle vision, and introduces BIM management plan and modeling methodologies. In
2007, NIST identified the building industry’s need for guidance in information handovers between parties and
thus released General Buildings Information Handover Guide: Principles, Methodology and Case studies (NIST,
2007a). It provides a primary guidance on the technology concepts and definitions as well as modeling
methodology. The Handover Guide also presents six case studies on the use of advanced BIM technologies and
the attendant information handovers. The Contractor’s Guide to BIM Edition 1 (AGC, 2010) released by AGC
aims to help contractors understand how to get started with BIM technology. In 2010, AGC released the second
edition of the BIM Guide (AGC, 2010). BIMForum, a forum of AGC focused on the utilization of virtual design
and construction in the AEC industry, released its first BIM standard in 2013, known as Level of Development
Specification Version 2013 (BIMForum, 2013). In late April, 2015, the LOD 2015 draft version was released for
public comment (BIMForum, 2015). The LOD specifications were developed under an agreement with AIA and
utilized the fundamental LoD definitions of AIA Document G202-2013 Building Document Information
Modeling Protocol Form (AIA, 2013c).
3.3.2 State-wide and City-wide BIM Standards/Guidelines
As shown in Table 1, 8 state and city government bodies in the United States have contributed to the release of
BIM Standards, and three of them are state governments. They are State of Ohio, State of Wisconsin, and State
of Tennessee. As shown in Fig. 3, in the middle of 2009, the Division of Facilities Development, State of
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
*[NIBS]
NBIMS v3.0
[NIBS] NBIMS
v2.0
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 08 v1.0
[VA] The VA
BIM Guide v1.0
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 05 v1.0
[AGC] The
Contractor's Guide to
BIM v1
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 03 v1.0
[NIBS]
NBIMS v1.0
[AIA] Document E201™–2007, Digital Data Protocol Exhibit
[AIA] Document C106™–2007 Digital Data Licensing Agreement
[NIST] General
Buildings
Information
Handover Guide
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 01 v0.6
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 04 v1.0
[AIA] Document
E202-2008 BIM
protocol exhibit
[AGC] The Contractor's
Guide to BIM v2
*[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 06 v1.0, under
public review
[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 02 v0.96
*[GSA] BIM Guide
Series 07 v1.0, under public review
[AIA] Document E203™–2013, BIM and Digital Data Exhibit
[AIA] Document G201™–2013, Project Digital Data Protocol
Form
[AIA] Document G202™–2013, Project BIM Protocol Form
[AIA] Guide, Instructions and Commentary to the 2013 AIA
Digital Practice Documents
[AGC, BIMForum] Level
of Development
Specification v2013
[AGC, BIMForum] Level
of Development
Specification v2015 (draft)
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 450
Wisconsin released BIM Guideline and Standard for Architects and Engineers, which was required for most
projects of the division (DFD, 2009). Two years later, the State of Ohio BIM Protocol was released to serve as
the foundation for BIM use and to provide the structure for BIM implementation in the State of Ohio (DAS,
2011). Later than the previous two states, in the middle of 2013, the State of Tennessee Office of the State
Architect (TN OSA) established the first version of BIM Requirements for the consistent management of BIM on
state building projects. It contains the general principles and obligation to use BIM, BIM requirements, details of
requirements and BIM process for designers and contractors. It also includes two BIM Execution Plan outlines
for designers and contractors, tips for preparing a BIM model for energy analysis, and requirements for
Designers and Contractors (TN OSA, 2013).
Besides the state-wide efforts for BIM adoption, some city governments in the United States also participated in
drafting and publishing BIM guidelines for public use in the past two years. As illustrated in Fig. 3, the public
sector in New York City (NYC) is active in BIM adoption. The NYC Department of Design + Construction
(DDC) published a city-wide BIM Guide in July 2012 and a supplementary specific project delivery guide for
design consultants about one year later (DDC, 2012, DDC, 2013). In 2013, more and more public organizations
in NYC such as NYC School Construction Authority (SCA) (SCA, 2013) and NYC Department of Buildings
(NYC DOB) (NYC Buildings, 2013) joined in releasing their own BIM Guidelines. In late 2013, Seattle Public
Utilities and Seattle Department of Transportation co-produced an inter-departmental CAD standard, which is
probably the first standard aiming at civil projects in the United States. The standard was designed for making
engineering data compatible with GIS data and delivering AutoCAD or AutoCAD Civil 3D compatible files as a
final product (SPU/SDoT, 2013).
FIG. 3: State-wide and city-wide BIM standards/guidelines timeline in the United States.
3.3.3 University-wide BIM Standards/Guidelines
In the United States, even public universities have published their own BIM Standards starting from 2009. As
described in Table 1, 15 BIM standards have been released by public universities in the United States as at 2013.
For example, as a buildingSMART project, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has published several BIM
standards since 2009, as shown in Fig. 4. PSU has drafted several versions of BIM Project Execution Planning
Guide (BIM PEP Guide) (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2009) and released BIM PEP
Guide version 2.1 officially in May 2011 (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2011). The
BIM PEP Guide can be considered as a strategic guide and provides a practical methodology for project teams to
design BIM strategies and develop their own BIM PEP. In 2012, PSU started drafting four versions of BIM
Planning Guide for Facility Owners (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2012) and published
the latest version 2.0 in 2013 (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2013a). This guide presents
three planning procedures to effectively integrate BIM within an organization, including strategic,
implementation and procurement planning. In 2013, PSU published the first version of The Uses of BIM
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
[NYC DDC] Design Consultant
Guide Appendix
[NYC DOB] BIM Site
Safety Submission
Guidelines and Standards
[NYC DDC] BIM
Guidelines
[Wisconsin] BIM Guidelines
and Standards for Architects
and Engineers
[Ohio] State of
Ohio BIM Protocol
[Tennessee] BIM
Requirements V1.0
[NYC SCA] BIM Guidelines and
Standards for Architects and
Engineers v1.1
[SPU/SDoT] CAD Manual
SPU/SDoT Inter-Departmental
CAD Standard
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 451
(Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2013b), which provides a system for BIM use
classification.
As indicated in Fig. 4, the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) released the LACCD Building
Information Modeling Standards (LACCD BIMS) Version 3 (BuildLACCD, 2010) in 2010 targeting at Design-
Build (DB) projects. The standard defines the requirements and procedures for BIM models in various phases of
DB projects. The CAD Guidelines (Office of University Planning, 2011) provided by the University of
Connecticut contains drawing submission requirements for campus construction projects. Like University of
Connecticut, Indiana University (IU) released the IU BIM Guidelines and Standards (IU, 2012) as a requirement
for all the construction projects in IU with total funding of more than $5M. University of Florida also drafted its
BIM Execution Plan (UF, 2011) for the campus minor projects and as an addendum to the project contracts.
Unlike BIM standards designed by other universities, the AECM BIM Guidelines 2012 (University at Albany,
2012) by the University at Albany requires e-submission of BIM files and contains related requirements for
electronic file submission.
FIG. 4: University-wide BIM standards/guidelines timeline in the United States.
4. EFFORTS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR FOR BIM ADOPTION IN EUROPE
4.1 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in the United Kingdom
4.1.1 BIM Goals and Implementation in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has a promising goal of BIM adoption and is one of the countries that are advanced in BIM
technology. In May 2011, the Government Construction Strategy demanded that all central governmental
departments would adopt Level 2 BIM by 2016 (see Fig. 5). In order to fulfill this goal and to strengthen the
public sector’s capability in BIM implementation, the BIM Task Group was established in 2011 (The BIM Task
Group, 2013a). It is an industry consortium which brings together expertise from industry, government, public
clients, professional institutions, and academia. There are six main work packages under the BIM Task Group,
which aims to provide different BIM support to the Government’s target for 2016. The BIM Task Group
proposed a series of BIM briefing sessions and published the initial BIM Learning Outcomes Framework to
provide early information for BIM training programme development (The BIM Task Group, 2013b). One work
package focuses on the possibility of COBie for civil infrastructure. In late 2013, the BIM Task Group released a
report about the requirements that COBie should meet to address information exchanges for civil infrastructure
projects for public comment (BIM Task Group, 2013). Many public sector bodies also have put effort in BIM
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
[PSU] BIM PEP
Guide v2.0
[University of Connecticut]
CAD Standards Guideline
[UF] BIM Execution
Plan v1.1
[University at Albany] AECM
BIM Guidelines 2012
[IU] BIM Guidelines and Standards for
Architects Engineers and Constructors
[PSU] BIM Planning
Guide for Facility Owners
v1.02
[PSU] BIM Planning
Guide for Facility
Owners v1.01
[PSU] BIM Planning
Guide for Facility
Owners v1.0
[PSU] BIM PEP
Guide v2.1
[LACCD] LACCD
BIMS v3
[PSU] BIM
PEP Guide v0.2
[PSU] BIM PEP
Guide v0.1
[PSU] BIM
PEP Guide v1.0
[PSU] The Uses of BIM
v0.9
[PSU] BIM Planning
Guide for Facility
Owners v2.0
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 452
adoption to get prepared for the governmental BIM strategy. For example, Construction Industry Council (CIC)
drafted a BIM protocol for supporting BIM working at Level 2. In addition, the British Standards Institution
B/555 committee (Construction design, modelling and data exchange) held various BIM activities and published
some BIM standards in support of government’s 2016 ambition.
4.1.2 BIM Standards and Guidelines in the United Kingdom
As shown in Table 1, there are 34 BIM standards listed from Europe, among which 18 of them (more than half)
are from the United Kingdom. Table 3 presents these 34 BIM standards in detail. Half of the BIM standards
from Europe are either not found online, not published or not in English. Most of them contain modelling
methodology and component presentation style to facilitate the efficient use of BIM data and models. In addition,
AEC-UK published several BIM protocols for different software platforms which contain these four types of
information. Compared to the United States, there is no separate PEP and LoD files released to date in Europe.
More technical BIM guidelines are suggested to effectively standards and instruct the industry.
For the public sector in the United Kingdom, CIC and BIM Task Group co-produced some BIM guidelines in
response to the United Kingdom government’s 2016 goals (See Fig. 6). With the technical support and
leadership of the BIM Task Group, CIC drafted two BIM documents in 2013. The first one, namely BIM
Protocol v1, identifies BIM requirements that project teams should meet for all common construction contracts
(CIC, 2013b). The second one, namely the Best Practice Guide for Professional Indemnity Insurance When
Using BIMs v1, summarizes the key risks that professional indemnity insurers would meet in BIM projects (CIC,
2013a).
In addition, many non-profit organizations in the United Kingdom such as the British Standards Institution (BSI)
and the AEC-UK Committee released BIM standards. The BSI B/555 committee has released several standards
for digital definition and exchange of life cycle information within the construction industry since 2007, as
summarized in Table 4. For example, PAS 1192-2: 2013 (BSI, 2013) specifies an information management
process to support BIM Level 2 in the capital/delivery phase of projects, while PAS 1192-3: 2014 (BSI, 2014)
focuses on the operational phase of assets. In addition, a maturity model namely the B/555 Roadmap was also
introduced to illustrate the several standards and their relationships (The BSI B/555 committee, 2013). Apart
from the committee, BSI/CPIC (Construction Project Information Committee) jointly published in 2010 a guide
Building Information Management A Standard Framework and Guide to BS 1192 (BSI, 2010), which is also
included in the maturity model. As shown in Fig. 6, the AEC-UK Committee released the first version of the
BIM Standard (AEC-UK, 2009) in 2009 and then the BIM Protocol version 2.0 (AEC-UK, 2012c) in 2012.
Since 2012, the AEC-UK Committee has explored the BIM Protocol for different software platforms, including
Autodesk Revit (AEC-UK, 2012a), Bentley AECOsim Building Designer (AEC-UK, 2012b) and Graphisoft
ArchiCAD (AEC-UK, 2013).
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 453
TABLE 3: The BIM standards in Europe.
Year
BIM Standards/Guidelines
PEP
Modelling
Methodology
LoDs
Component Presentation
Style and Data Organization
2007
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D CAD Manual 2006
2007
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D Working Method 2006
Not Found
2007
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D CAD Project Agreement 2006
Not Found
2007
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] Layer and Object Structures 2006
Not Found
2007
[Finland, Senate Properties] Senate Properties' BIM Requirements for
Architectural Design
Not Found
2007
[UK, BSI] BSI 1192: 2007
2008
[Norway, Statsbygg] BIM Manual v1.0
Not English
2009
[Sweden, SSI] Bygghandlingar 90
Not Found
2009
[Norway, Statsbygg] BIM Manual v1.1
Not English
2009
[UK, AEC] BIM Standard v1.0
2010
[UK, BSI/CPIC] Building Information Management A Standard
Framework and Guide to BS 1192
2011
[Norway, Statsbygg] BIM Manual v1.2
2011
[Norway, Norwegian Home Builders’ Association] BIM Manual v1
2011
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-2
Not Found
2012
[Finland, Senate Properties et al.] Common BIM Requirements 2012 v1
2012
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-1: 2012
Not Found
2012
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-3: 2012
Not Found
2012
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-4: 2012
Not Found
2012
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2
2012
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Autodesk Revit v2
2012
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Bentley AECOsim Building Designer v2
2012
[Netherlands, Rijksgebouwendienst] Rgd BIM Norm v1
2012
[Norway, Norwegian Home Builders’ Association] BIM manual v2
Not Found
2013
[UK, BSI] PAS 1192-2: 2013
2013
[UK, CIC] Best Practice Guide for Professional Indemnity Insurance When
Using BIMs v1
2013
[UK, CIC] Building Information Model (BIM) Protocol v1
2013
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Graphisoft ArchiCAD v1
2013
[UK, CIC] Outline Scope of Services for the Role of Information
Management v1
2013
*[Finland, Finnish Concrete Association] BIM guidelines for concrete
structures
Not Published
2013
[Norway, Statsbygg] BIM Manual v1.2.1
2013
[Netherlands, Rijksgebouwendienst] Rgd BIM Norm v1.1
2014
*[UK, BSI] PAS 1192-3: 2014
2014
*[UK, BSI] BS 1192-4: 2014
2015
*[UK, BSI] BS 7000-4: 1996
Not Published
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 454
TABLE 4: The current and future standards developed by BSI B/555 committee.
Year
Standard
Description
2007
BS 1192: 2007 Collaborative Production of Architectural, Engineering
and Construction Information. Code of Practice
A combined data and procedure standard, applicable at
level 0 and 1
2011
BS 8541-2: 2011 Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and
Construction. Recommended 2D Symbols of Building Elements for
Use in Building Information Modeling
2D building information, mainly targeting at level 1
2012
BS 8541-1: 2012 Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and
Construction -- Part 1: Identification and Classification -- Code of
practice
Definition and classification of Library objects, for use
from level 0 to level 3
2012
BS 8541-3: 2012 Standard due: Library Objects for Architecture,
Engineering and Construction: Shape and measurements
3D symbols of detail LoDs, particularly focusing on level 1
to 2
2012
BS 8541-4: 2012 Standard due: Library Objects for Architecture,
Engineering and Construction: Attributes for specification and
simulation
Properties for specification and simulation, essentially
targeting at level 2 to 3
2013
PAS 1192-2: 2013 Specification for Information Management for the
Capital/Delivery Phase of Construction Projects using BIM
Capital delivery phase, early adopter document to Gov.’s
Level 2 aim
2014
PAS 1192-3: 2014 Specification management for the operational phase
of assets using building information modelling
Using and maintenance of asset information model, early
adopter document to Gov.’s Level 2 aim
2014
BS 1192-4: 2014 Collaborative production of information Part 4:
Fulfilling employer’s information exchange requirements using COBie
Code of practice
Documenting best practice recommendations for COBie
implementation in Gov. pilot project
2015*
BS 7000-4: 1996 Design Management Systems. Guide to Managing
Design in Construction
Documenting and managing design data
4.2 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Norway
In 2010, the Norwegian government stated its commitment to BIM adoption (Fig. 5), and many public sector
bodies in Norway launched BIM programs to follow the government. For instance, the Norwegian Defense
Estates Agency started running three BIM pilot projects after the government’s statement. Statsbygg, a public
sector administration company and the Norwegian government’s key advisor, required IFC-compatible BIM for
all new building projects (Fatt, 2012). To help promote BIM adoption, Statsbygg has conducted several R&D
projects that focused on BIM for efficient building, indoor navigation, location-based simulation, and energy
calculations. The Norwegian Home Builder’s Association, a non-profit organization, also started the boligBIM
project to develop a BIM-manual guideline.
From 2008, the public sector in Norway started drafting and releasing their BIM standards. As shown in Table 1,
as at 2013, there are 6 BIM standards from Norway, 4 of which were released by Norwegian government bodies
and 2 by a non-profit organization. In order to describe its requirements for IFC-compatible BIM, Statsbygg first
drafted a BIM manual in 2008 (see Fig. 6). It has published four versions of the BIM manual and the latest one
Statsbygg Building Information Modeling Manual v1.2.1 (SBM) was released in 2013 (Statsbygg, 2013). SBM is
the result of government initiatives and is compulsory for state projects. It contains Statsbygg’s general
requirements and discipline specific requirements for BIM in projects and facilities and is positioned to be best
practice for applying BIM in Norway in the whole AEC field. Furthermore, the Norwegian Home Builder’s
Association released its BIM Manual version 1 in 2011 and then version 2 in 2012 (Norwegian Home Builders'
Association, 2011, Norwegian Home Builders' Association, 2012), which summarizes a general modeling
methodology of various software tools and focuses on four main areas: energy simulations, cost calculation,
ventilation, and roof trusses.
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 455
FIG. 5: BIM goals in Europe.
4.3 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Finland
Finland’s state property services agency, Senate Properties, is the largest government owned enterprise under the
Finnish Ministry of Finance. As illustrated in Fig. 5, it has required the use of IFC/BIM for its projects since
2007, and published in the same year Senate Properties’ BIM Requirements for Architectural Design (Senate
Properties, 2007) (see Fig. 6). In 2012, with support from several construction companies, big cities and
consulting companies, Senate Properties developed their BIM Requirements for Architectural Design into the
Finnish National BIM Guidelines (COBIM), generating the Common BIM Requirements 2012 v1.0 (Parties to
the COBIM project, 2012). The Common BIM Requirements 2012 v1.0 contains 13 series of requirements, each
of which was written by a company or organization with related experience. Therefore, the requirements are very
practical. Following the publication of the COBIM requirements, the Finnish Concrete Association stated in
2012 that they were preparing BIM guidelines for concrete structures (Henttinen, 2012).
4.4 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Denmark
In Denmark, the government initiated the Digital Construction project (Det Digitale Byggeri in Danish) in 2007,
which aims to provide requirements for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) including BIM in
governmental projects (Det Digitale Byggeri, 2007). Since 2007, state clients such as the Palaces & Properties
Agency, the Danish University Property Agency, and the Defense Construction Service have piloted BIM in
their projects and followed the requirements set by the Digital Construction project (Fig. 5). Commissioned by
the Digital Construction project, the National Agency for Enterprise and Construction (Erhvervs og
Byggestyrelsen) released in 2007 four sets of guidelines for working with 3D CAD/BIM applications, namely
3D CAD Manual 2006, 3D Working Method 2006, 3D CAD Project Agreement 2006, and Layer and Object
Structures 2006 (see Fig. 6 and Table 1). These guidelines are also available in English.
Swedish Transportation Administration
2015, all investment projects use BIM
Norway
2010, Gov. commitment to BIM
2010, Statsbygg require BIM for new
buildings
Senate Properties, Finland
2007, require the use of IFC/BIM for
its projects
Denmark
Danish state clients such as the Palaces &
Properties Agency require BIM
UK
2016, mandate Level 2 BIM for Gov.
projects
Rgd, Netherlands
2011, mandate BIM in building
projects with 7,000,000 m
2
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 456
FIG. 6: BIM standards/guidelines timeline in European countries (“*” means that the standard is under preparation).
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
[UK, CIC] Best Practice Guide for Professional Indemnity Insurance When Using BIMs v1
[UK, CIC] Outline Scope of Services for the Role of Information Management v1
[UK, CIC] Building Information Model (BIM) Protocol v1
[UK, AEC] BIM
Standard v1.0
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Graphisoft ArchiCAD v1
[Finland, Senate Properties] Senate
Properties' BIM Requirements for
Architectural Design
[Sweden, SSI]
Bygghandlingar 90
[UK, BSI] BSI
1192: 2007
[Norway, Statsbygg]
BIM Manual v1.0
[Norway, Statsbygg]
BIM Manual v1.1
[UK, BSI] PAS 1192-2:
2013
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-2
[Norway, Statsbygg] BIM Manual v1.2
[Norway, Norwegian Home Builders’ Association] BIM Manual v1
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-1: 2012
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-3: 2012
[UK, BSI] BSI 8541-4: 2012
[Finland, Senate Properties et al.] Common BIM Requirements 2012 v1
[Netherlands, Rijksgebouwendienst] Rgd BIM Norm v1
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Autodesk Revit v2
[UK, AEC] BIM Protocol v2 for Bentley AECOsim Building Designer v2
*[Finland, Finnish Concrete
Association] BIM guidelines for
concrete structures
[Norway, Norwegian Home
Builders’ Association] BIM
manual v2
[UK, BSI/CPIC] Building
Information Management
A Standard Framework and
Guide to BS 1192
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D CAD Manual 2006
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D Working Method 2006
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] 3D CAD Project Agreement 2006
[Denmark, Byggestyrelsen] Layer and Object Structures 2006
*[UK, BSI] BS 7000-4: 1996
[Norway, Statsbygg]
BIM Manual v1.2.1
[UK, BSI] BS 1192-4: 2014
[UK, BSI] PAS 1192-3: 2014
[Netherlands, Rijksgebouwendienst] Rgd BIM Norm v1.1
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 457
4.5 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Sweden
BIM had been used in the Swedish construction industry for some years, but the Swedish government started to
promote BIM when the Swedish Transportation Administration (STA) stated in late 2013 that they would use
BIM step by step in the next few years. The STA also envisioned that all investment projects should use BIM to
some extent from 2015 (Malmkvist, 2013) (as shown in Fig. 5). Therefore, the STA launched the BIM
Implementation Project to standardize the internal processes and to create opportunities for their external
suppliers to use BIM. For example, they used BIM in some big and complex infrastructure projects, such as the
Stockholm Bypass and the Röfors Bridge, for demonstration and educational purposes. As for the BIM standards
in Sweden, the non-profit organization Swedish Standards Institute (SSI) released in 2009 the Bygghanlingar 90
(BH90) (SI, 2008), which included a series namely Digital Deliverables for Construction and Facilities
Management that was an extended CAD guideline for delivering and managing digital information within
construction projects in Sweden (see Table 1 and Fig. 6). The series was just an administrative guideline and
lacked specific examples and strategic insights. Therefore, the OpenBIM organization was launched in 2009 to
establish BIM standards in Sweden (Hooper, 2011).
4.6 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Netherlands
In the past few years, the use of BIM technology by the public sector bodies in Netherlands has substantially
increased. For example, Rijkswaterstaat (RWS, the Dutch Directorate General for Public Works and Water
Management), a part of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, set a 2012-2014 BIM-
program with a budget of 12 million euro to involve research institutes and stakeholders in developing BIM for
RWS and the Netherlands. As the first step, RWS tested BIM products in four pilot projects, the results of which
was used to educate employees in RWS. Now RWS have established two databases, INFRA database and BIM
database (Winkels, 2013). Another government agency in Netherlands, Government Buildings Agency
(Rijksgebouwendienst, Rgd for short) mandated in 2011 that BIM should be used in building projects with
7,000,000 square meters (Fig. 5). They also required BIM in some pilot projects of three types of contracts to
demonstrate how BIM facilitates different kinds of contracts, including 8 Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-
Operate (DBFMO) contracts from 2011, 3 general contracts in 2012, and several Design-Build-Management
(DBM) contracts. Based on their project experience, Rgd drafted and released the first version,
Rijksgebouwendienst BIM Standard (Rgd BIM Norm in Dutch) Version 1.0 (Rgd, 2012) in July 2012 (See Table
1 and Fig. 6), which describes the specifications of BIM and deliverable requirements. In addition, in early 2013,
Rgd BIM Norm Version 1.1 was released (Rgd, 2013).
5. EFFORTS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR FOR BIM ADOPTION IN ASIA
5.1 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Singapore
5.1.1 BIM Goals and Implementation in Singapore
As early as 1995, Singapore started to conduct the Construction Real Estate NETwork (CORENET) project to
promote and require the use of IT and BIM for various levels of approval in the AEC industry. Later, several
governmental agencies in Singapore including the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) participated in
the e-submission system which requires BIM and IFC (Khemlani, 2005). As a result, various BIM e-submission
guidelines were prepared and released to highlight the major points of submission requirements. In 2010, BCA
implemented the BIM Roadmap in 2010 with the goal that 80% of the Singaporean construction industry would
use BIM and e-submissions for all new building projects of a size greater than 5,000 square meters by 2015 (Fig.
7). This is also part of the government’s goal to improve the productivity in the Singaporean construction
industry by up to 25% using BIM technology over the next decade (Das et al., 2011a). After the implementation
of the BIM Roadmap, BCA established a Center for Construction IT (CCIT) in 2010 to help key agencies and
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 458
construction firms to start using BIM. In addition, BCA launched a number of pilot projects in 2011. In order to
prepare the whole industry for BIM, BCA has conducted a suite of BIM training programs and designed an in-
depth training framework, as well as organizing BIM conferences for government entities and public sector
bodies to acquire knowledge on BIM technology (Das et al., 2011b). Led by the Real Estate Developer’s
Association of Singapore (REDAS) and major government procurement entities (GPEs), BCA established a
BIM steering committee, which is an industry consortium, to develop BIM requirement guidelines. BCA also
established a BIM fund to encourage firms to put BIM technology into practice in actual projects and held many
international and nation-wide BIM competitions to encourage BIM innovation (Fatt, 2012).
FIG. 7: BIM goals in Asia.
5.1.2 BIM Standards and Guidelines in Singapore
Singapore is a leading country for BIM adoption and standards development in Asia or even worldwide. As
shown in Table 1, there are 35 BIM standards from Asia, 12 of which are from the public sector in Singapore.
As shown in Table 5, most of the 12 BIM standards cover (2) Modeling Methodology and (4) Component
Presentation Style and Data Organization. However, (1) Project Execution Plan (PEP) and (3) Levels of Detail
are often missing in the standards. One exception is the BIM Guide Version 2.0 published by BCA, which
contains all the four elements of BIM standards. The BIM Guide Version 1.0 and BIM Guide Version 2.0 were
released by BCA in 2012 and 2013, respectively, to outline the roles and duties of project members in using BIM
at different stages of a project (BCA, 2012, BCA, 2013c).
In addition, with the help of all government regulatory agencies, the first version of BIM e-Submission Guideline
was developed in 2008 to support the CORENET project. In early 2010, BCA then officially released the BIM e-
Korea
2012, MLTM release BIM implementation
roadmap
- 2012-2015, all major projects use 4D BIM
- 2016, all public projects use BIM
2011, PPS establish a BIM program
- 2013-2015, BIM applied on all turnkey
projects
- 2016, BIM is compulsory for all public
projects
Japan
2010, MLIT started
BIM pilot project in
gov. building 1
st
Gov.
commitment to BIM
Taiwan
No Gov.
commitment to BIM
till now
Hong Kong
HA: apply BIM in
all new projects by
2014
Mainland China
2012, release the 12th National Five Year
Plan (2011-2015)
Disseminate BIM within these five years
Encourage enterprises to use BIM
Singapore
2010, improve productivity by 25% with
BIM in the next decade
2010, BCA implement BIM roadmap
2015, 80% of the industry using BIM and
BIM e-submission
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 459
Submission Guideline for Architectural Discipline (BCA, 2010), which describes the requirements and guides
for creating specific BIM objects, associated properties and presentation styles for visual processing of many
regulatory agencies. BCA also published the BIM Essential Guide (BEG) Series to provide references on good
BIM practices in an illustrated format. BEG for BIM Adoption in an Organization provides a quick start guide to
help an organization to start its BIM adoption journey (BCA, 2013a). BEG for BIM Execution Plan contains
details about BIM deliverables and processes. For different disciplines, specified BEGs were also created (BCA,
2013b).
5.2 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Korea
5.2.1 BIM Goals and Implementation in Korea
The use of BIM in design and construction projects conducted by government and public organizations was
increasing rapidly in Korea in recent years. In January 2012, the Korean Ministry of Land, Transport & Maritime
Affairs (MLTM) released a BIM implementation roadmap, stating that they would implement BIM in three to
four major construction projects in 2011 and use 4D BIM in all major construction projects in the period of
2012-2015 (see Fig. 7). MLTM also hoped that all public facility projects would use BIM by 2016. Another
governmental organization, the Public Procurement Service (PPS), established a BIM program in 2011 and set a
goal that by 2013-2015 BIM would be applied on all turnkey projects valued at over $50 million and that BIM
would be compulsory for all public sector projects by 2016.
Many government bodies in Korea have been involved in BIM R&D projects as well. The most active one is
MLTM, which has funded several R&D projects since 2009. The R&D projects funded by Korean MLTM
included the SEUMTER (Building Permission System) Project and some Open BIM based research projects,
such as the Open BIM Information Environment Technology for the Super-tall Buildings Project, and
establishment of open BIM based Building Design Environment for Improving Design Productivity. PPS also set
and funded a BIM R&D project Cost Management Consulting in 2011 (Kim, 2012). The purpose of the project
is to save cost and boost Green Construction in public areas by using BIM for energy efficiency analysis,
simulation, and model based quantity takeoffs (Lee and Cho, 2011).
5.2.2 BIM Standards and Guidelines in Korea
Korea has released 6 BIM standards in total (see Table 1). Government bodies in Korea, including MLTM, PPS,
and the Korea Institute of Construction and Transportation Technology Evaluation and Planning (KICTEP), as
well as a university, the Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) (Kim, 2012), are active in drafting
and releasing BIM guidelines (see Fig. 8). In particular, the National Architectural BIM Guide project was
launched and funded by MLTM in 2009, and was carried out by buildingSMART Korea and Kyung Hee
University. The Guide contains three levels of BIM Guides BIM working guide, technical guide, and
management guide. PPS has also started developing a BIM Roadmap and common BIM guidelines since 2010.
The development was jointly conducted by buildingSMART Korea, Kyung Hee University and Heerim
Architecture. The effort resulted in two deliverables PPS Guideline v1: Architectural BIM Guide which was
released in 2010, and PPS Guideline v2: BIM based Cost Management Guide which was released in 2011.
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 460
TABLE 5: BIM standards in Asia.
Year
BIM Standards/Guidelines
PEP
Modelling
Methodology
LoDs
Component Presentation Style
and Data Organization
2008
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission Guideline for Architectural
Discipline v3.0
2009
[HK, HA] BIM Standards Manual v1.0
2009
[HK, HA] BIM User Guide
2009
[HK, HA] BIM Library Components Design Guide v1.0
2009
[Korea, MLTM] National Architectural BIM Guide
Not Found
2010
[HK, HA] BIM Library Components Reference v1.0
2010
[Taiwan, NTU] AEC (UK) BIM Standards for Autodesk Revit
(translation)
2010
[Korea, PPS] Guideline V1: Architectural BIM Guide
Not Found
2010
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission Guideline for Architectural
Discipline v3.5
2011
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission Guideline Structural v2.1
2011
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission MEP v3
2011
[Korea, KICTEP] BIM Guideline
Not Found
2011
[Korea, KICT] National Level Built Environment BIM Guidance
Development
Not Found
2011
[Korea, PPS] Guideline V2: BIM Cost Management Guide
Not Found
2011
[HK, HKIBIM] BIM Project Specification
2011
[Taiwan, NTU] AEC (UK) BIM Standards for Bentley Building
(translation)
2012
[Japan, JIA] BIM Guidelines
Not Found
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for BIM Adoption in an Organization
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for BIM Execution Plan
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for Architectural Consultants
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for Contractors
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for CS Consultants
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for MEP Consultants
2012
[Singapore, BCA] BIM Guide v1.0
2013
[Singapore, BCA] BIM Guide v2.0
2013
[China, Beijing Exploration and Design Association] Building
Information Modeling Design Standard for Civil Building
2013
*[Japan, JFCC] Guidelines for BIM Collaboration in Construction
Stage
Not Published
2013
*[Japan, buildingSMART Japan et al.] BIM Guideline for Public
Building
Not Published
2013
*[Korea, KICTEP] BIM Standard Development and Application for
Super Tall Buildings
Not Published
2014
[China, CIBSDR et al.] Deliver Standard of Building Design-
Information Modeling (draft)
2014
[China, CIBSDR et al.] Standard for classification and coding of
building constructions design information model (draft)
2014
[HK, CIC] CIC Building Information Modelling Standards Draft 6.2
2014
[Taiwan, NTU] Level of Development Specification (V.2014)
2014
[Taiwan, NTU] Facility Owner’s Guide for Preparing BIM Guidelines
(V.2014)
2015
[China, Shanghai] Shanghai Building Information Modeling
Application Guide
5.3 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Japan
In 2010, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) in Japan announced the start of BIM pilot
projects in government buildings and repairs, as illustrated in Fig. 7. It was the first commitment of the Japanese
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 461
government to BIM adoption in Japan (Shiokawa, 2013). Since then, more and more MLIT departments started
to use BIM in their projects. Besides the Japanese government, some industry consortiums in Japan also
expressed willingness to utilize BIM technology. In 2010, the Japan Federation of Construction Contractors
(JFCC) established a BIM Special Section under its Building Construction Committee to focus on BIM adoption.
The BIM Special Section aimed at standardizing specifications and usage of BIM in order to increase the
benefits of BIM in the construction stage. In 2011, JFCC conducted an investigation on the current BIM usage of
subcontractors, manufacturers and fabricators in Japan and organized several BIM meetings. Cooperating with
the Building Research Institute of Japan (BRI), an incorporated Administrative Agency, JFCC hosted an
international one-day seminar on the theme of Integrated Design & Delivery Solutions (IDDS) and BIM in
November 2013 (Building Research Institute, 2013). BRI also presented at the seminar and reported that they
were studying electronic submission of building certificate procedures using BIM.
However, development of BIM guidelines is relatively slow in Japan. There has been no national BIM standard
released by government bodies in Japan as at 2013 (see Table 1). According to Fig. 8, in 2012, the Japan
Institute of Architects (JIA) released the BIM guidelines, which is a BIM manual for architects that contains BIM
procedures and deliverable requirements. In 2013, JFCC were developing the Guidelines for BIM Collaboration
in Construction Stage.
5.4 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Mainland China
As a new starter, China is catching up fast in BIM technology. As shown in Fig. 7, in 2012, the Chinese
government released the 12th National Five Year Plan which included BIM topics and a BIM framework. The
AEC industry in mainland China has shown strong support in the BIM adoption. The Chinese government has
set the goal of disseminating BIM within the next five years and encouraged enterprises to use BIM for different
applications, including clash analysis, 4D project management, and visualization (The Ministry of Housing and
Rural Urban Development, 2012). To follow the central government, some local government bodies have started
to consider conducting BIM projects, BIM training programs and BIM guide to mandate BIM.
In early 2012, the Ministry of Housing and Rural Urban Development launched a program to start developing
two BIM-related national standards, which are called Deliver Standard of Building Design Information
Modeling (CIBSDR, 2014a) and Standard for Classification and Coding of Building Constructions Design
Information Model (CIBSDR, 2014b), and were prepared by the China Institute of Building Standard Design &
Research (CIBSDR) together with other research institutes, design firms, contractors, software vendors and
universities (Chinese Construction Newspaper, 2013). In late 2014, the draft versions of these two standards
were released for public review. Not only does the national government puts effort into releasing BIM standards,
some local governments also stated that they would draft their own local standards. One example is that Beijing
released its own BIM standard Building Information Modeling Design Standard for Civil Building in 2013
(BJEDA, 2013). Following Beijing Government, Shanghai Government released its BIM Application Standard
in April 2015. Different BIM uses for different construction stage, from design, construction to facility
management stage, were listed in and recommended by the standard (Shanghai Government, 2015).
5.5 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Taiwan
As at 2015, there is no public commitment from the Taiwanese government for BIM adoption (Fig. 7). However,
the government has shown its enthusiasm at BIM by funding many BIM research programs and industry projects,
such as Taipei City MRT projects and New Taipei City Sports Centers. Some national universities, such as the
National Taiwan University (NTU) and the National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, are interested in
BIM adoption and have established their own BIM centers. As early as in 2009, NTU set up a Research Center
for Building & Infrastructure Information Modeling and Management (BIIMM) to facilitate collaboration for
BIM adoption among industry, academia, and government. Besides undertaking research projects, the Research
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 462
Center has held a number of BIM related activities including conferences, forums, training workshops,
consulting services, and publications. NTU also has published three books on Revit in MEP, Revit in Structure,
and Revit in Architecture, respectively as early as in 1998. NTU has also translated the AEC (UK) BIM
Standards for Autodesk Revit and for Bentley Building into Chinese in 2010 and 2011, respectively (NTU, 2010,
NTU, 2011) (see Table 1 and Fig. 8). Based on the LOD Specification of US AGC BIMForum, NTU developed
and released their own LOD Specification in 2014 (NTU, 2014). In addition, in order to help clients use BIM,
Facility Owner’s Guide for Preparing BIM Guidelines (V.2014) was released in the same year. However, there
is currently no strategic BIM plan or national BIM standard published by the public sector in Taiwan (see Table
1).
5.6 Efforts of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption in Hong Kong
Hong Kong has started to implement BIM technology for almost a decade but the BIM implementation in Hong
Kong is still not widespread. The public sector such as the Housing Authority (HA), Architectural Services
Department (ArchSD), the MTR Corporation and the Construction Industry Council (CIC), and some non-profit
professional organizations such as the Hong Kong Institute of Building Information Modeling (HKIBIM), have
actively adopted and tried to explore the potential of BIM. For example, the HA, which is responsible for
constructing public housings in Hong Kong, is one of the pioneers in BIM adoption in Hong Kong. The HA has
set a target to apply BIM in all new projects by 2014 (see Fig. 7). Since 2006, the HA has adopted BIM
technology in over 19 public housing projects, and prepared their in-house BIM standards (HA, 2009c), user
guide (HA, 2009d), library component design guide (HA, 2009a) and references (HA, 2009b) (see Fig. 8). The
HA BIM standards are the first set of BIM standards that are widely accepted in the Hong Kong AEC industry.
Another governmental department, ArchSD, established a BIM Development Unit in early 2013 and provided
BIM-related training courses for their own staff. In addition, ArchSD has utilized BIM in two pilot projects,
which are Studios RTHK and Yau Ma Tei Theatre Center. These two projects are viewed as demonstrations to
share the experience with staff and stakeholders. Other governmental departments such as the Development
Bureau and Lands Department have applied BIM in different aspects. The MTR Corporation, of which the major
shareholder is the Hong Kong Government, has applied BIM in many projects such as the MTR XRL West
Kowloon Terminus project. The MTR Corporation required both its consultants and main contractors to submit
BIM deliverables, which need to conform to MTR BIM Standards and its levels of detail (Collins, 2013).
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 463
FIG. 8: BIM standards/guidelines timeline in Asian countries (“*” means that the standard is under preparation).
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
[Singapore, BCA] BIM Guide v2.0
[Singapore, BCA] BIM
Guide v1.0
[Taiwan, NTU] AEC (UK) BIM
Standards for Bentley Building
(translation)
[China, CIBSDR et al.] Deliver Standard of Building Design-Information Modeling (draft)
[China, CIBSDR et al.] Standard for classification and coding of building constructions design information model (draft)
[Korea, KICTEP] BIM Guideline
[Taiwan, NTU] AEC (UK) BIM Standards for
Autodesk Revit (translation)
[Korea, KICT] National
Level Built Environment
BIM Guidance
Development
[Hong Kong, HA] BIM Standards Manual v1.0
[Hong Kong, HA] BIM User Guide
[Korea, MLTM] National
Architectural BIM Guide
[Hong Kong, HA] BIM
Library Components
Design Guide v1.0
[Singapore, BCA] BIM
e-Submission Guideline
for Architectural
Discipline v3.0
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-
Submission Guideline for
Architectural Discipline v3.5
[Hong Kong, HA] BIM Library
Components Reference v1.0
[Korea, PPS] Guideline
V1: Architectural
BIM Guide
[Japan, JIA] BIM
Guidelines
[Korea, PPS] Guideline V2: BIM
Cost Management Guide
[China, Beijing Exploration and
Design Association] Building
Information Modeling Design
Standard for Civil Building
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for BIM Adoption in an Organization
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for BIM Execution Plan
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for Architectural Consultants
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for Contractors
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for CS Consultants
[Singapore, BCA] BEG for MEP Consultants
[HK, HKIBIM] BIM
Project Specification
*[Japan, JFCC] Guidelines for BIM Collaboration in Construction Stage
*[Japan, buildingSMART Japan et al.] BIM Guideline for Public Building
*[Korea, KICTEP] BIM Standard Development and Application for Super Tall Buildings
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission Guideline Structural v2.1
[Singapore, BCA] BIM e-Submission Guideline MEP v3
[Taiwan, NTU] Level of Development Specification (V.2014)
[Taiwan, NTU] Facility Owner’s Guide for Preparing BIM
Guidelines (V.2014)
[HK, CIC] CIC BIM
Standards Draft 6.2
[China, Shanghai] Shanghai
BIM Application Guide
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 464
In 2013, the CIC in Hong Kong established a BIM Working Group to develop a roadmap for BIM
implementation and be responsible for the development of the CIC BIM standards. The Working Group released
a BIM adoption roadmap for the Hong Kong construction industry in the same year (HKCIC, 2013). After that,
CIC has organized various seminars and promotion activities on BIM, and named the year 2014 as “The BIM
Year”. In the same year 2014, CIC launched the BIM Excellence Awards to recognize the parties who made
contributions on the local BIM adoption. In early 2015, the first complete version of the draft CIC BIM
Standards was released for public review (HKCIC, 2015). Professional organizations HKIBIM and
buildingSMART Hong Kong have also organized seminars to educate local industry on BIM. HKIBIM has even
developed a BIM standard namely BIM Project Specification Rev 3.0 in 2011. The Project Specification is a
BIM execution plan document which defines BIM scope, project participants’ responsibilities and BIM
deliverables requirements (HKIBIM, 2011).
6. EFFORTS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR FOR BIM ADOPTION IN
AUSTRALASIA
6.1 BIM Goals and Implementation in Australasia
Australia has indicated several national BIM adoption targets in the National BIM Initiative report
(buildingSMART Australia, 2012), which was prepared by buildingSMART Australia in 2012 and
commissioned by the Built Environment Industry Innovation Council (BEIIC), which is an advisory body to the
Australian Government. The three main recommendations in the report are: (1) requirement of full 3D
collaborative BIM for all Australia Government procurements by 1 July 2016, (2) encouragement of the
Australian states and territories to require full 3D open BIM, and (3) implementation of the National BIM
Initiative Plan. BEIIC also suggested that the government considers BIM as a key part of the government
process (BEIIC, 2012). In addition, some industry consortia in Australia contributed to BIM adoption. For
example, the Air Conditioning & Mechanical Contractors’ Association (AMCA), a nation-wide industry
association, launched the BIM-MEPAUS initiative with the aim of facilitating the implementation of BIM and
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) within the Australian construction building services sector. Since 2010,
AMCA has held a BIM-MEPAUS Forum annually. AMCA has also prepared an 18-week-long training plan in
order to provide training to BIM beginners in Australia.
TABLE 6: BIM standards in Australasia.
Year
BIM Standards/Guidelines
PEP
Modelling
Methodology
LoDs
Component Presentation Style and
Data Organization
2009
[Australia, CRC] National Guidelines for Digital
Modelling
2011
[Australia, NATSPEC] National BIM Guide v1.0
2011
[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS Committee]
ANZRS_family compliance pack portfolio_Version2
2012
[Australia, NATSPEC] BIM Management Plan Template
v1.0
2012
[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS Committee] ANZRS
V3
2015
*[Australia, buildingSMART Australia] Industry
Protocols for Information Exchange to Underpin BIM and
Collaborative Practice
Not Published
2015
*[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS Committee] ANZRS
V4
Not Published
2015
*[Australia, buildingSMART Australia] Australian
Technical Codes and Standards for BIM
Not Published
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 465
6.2 BIM Standards and Guidelines in Australasia
As shown in Table 1, there are 8 BIM standards from Australasia region (3 from government bodies and 5 from
non-profit organizations). Table 6 shows more details about these 8 standards. Australia Cooperative Research
Centre (CRC) for Construction Innovation released its National Guidelines for Digital Modeling (CRC-CI, 2009)
in 2009 to promote the adoption of BIM technologies in the Australian building and construction industry (Fig.
9). The guidelines provide an overview of BIM and recommendations for key areas of model creation and
development, simulation, and performance measurement. A government-supported non-profit organization,
Construction Information Systems Limited (trading name NATSPEC), also released its BIM guide namely The
NATSPEC National BIM Guide (NATSPEC, 2011) in 2011. It defines uses of BIM, modeling methodology,
presentation styles and deliverable requirements. In addition, the guide is adapted from the 2010 VA BIM Guide
(VA, 2010). In 2012, NATSPEC published a Project BIM Management Plan Template (NATSPEC, 2012) as a
supplementary document to the National BIM Guide.
FIG. 9: BIM standards/guidelines timeline in Australasia countries (“*” means that the standard is under
preparation).
Furthermore, the National BIM Initiative report shows that buildingSMART Australia are preparing two BIM
Standards. They aim to develop industry protocols for information exchange to underpin BIM and collaborative
practice and Australian technical codes and standards for BIM for adoption by 2015. In cooperation with New
Zealand, the Australia and New Zealand Revit Standards (ANZRS) was produced. It was an initiative conceived
at the Revit Technology Conference (RTC) 2009 in response to the user’s frustration with lack of consistency in
Revit families from Autodesk and other software platforms. In RTC 2011, the ANZRS Family Compliance Pack
was released as a PDF Portfolio file (ANZRS Committee, 2011). The ANZRS version 3 was published in January
2012 (ANZRS Committee, 2012) , while the ANZRS version 4.0 will be released in late 2015.
7. POTENTIAL ROLES OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR FOR BIM ADOPTION
The public sector plays a primary role in leading industry towards BIM adoption. In some nations, the public
sector is the major driver of BIM adoption. Undoubtedly, support and demonstrations by the public sector are
important regarding BIM development. Wong et al. (2009) have studied the educational, R&D, and promotion
efforts for BIM adoption in Finland, Denmark, and Norway. However, there is no systematic analysis and
summary of the potential roles of the public sector for BIM adoption. Based on the review and comparison of
BIM variables and implementations in different countries, six major roles of the public sector regarding BIM
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
*[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS
Committee] ANZRS V4
[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS Committee]
ANZRS_family compliance pack
portfolio_Version2
[Australia-New Zealand, ANZRS
Committee] ANZRS V3
[Australia, CRC] National
Guidelines for Digital Modelling
[Australia, NATSPEC] National
BIM Guide v1.0
[Australia, NATSPEC] BIM
Management Plan Template v1.0
* [Australia, buildingSMART Australia] Industry Protocols for Information Exchange to Underpin BIM and Collaborative Practice
*[Australia, buildingSMART Australia] Australian Technical Codes and Standards for BIM
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 466
adoption are analyzed and illustrated in Fig. 10, which are (1) initiators and drivers, (2) regulators, (3) educators,
(4) funding agencies, (5) demonstrators, and (6) researchers. They are further discussed in the followings.
FIG. 10: Roles of the public sector for BIM adoption.
(1) Initiator and Driver
Undoubtedly the public sector plays a key role in initiating BIM. Public organizations in most countries has set
their BIM goals and required the use of BIM in public construction projects when they first jumpstarted BIM
technology. For example, the United Kingdom has set an ambitious target that all central governmental
departments would adopt Level 2 BIM by 2016 (see Table 8). For another example, the US GSA required BIM
in the projects in the fiscal year 2007. Besides setting BIM goals to drive the industry, some public organizations
also established BIM working groups or committees to support BIM implementation. Examples include the BIM
task group in the United Kingdom, the BIM Steering Committee in Singapore, and the ANZRS Committee in
Australia and New Zealand. In addition, some public organizations published BIM roadmaps for the whole
industry. For example, USACE in the United States released two BIM roadmaps in 2006 and 2012, respectively
(see Table 8). All BIM related activities and actions launched by public organizations push the whole AEC
industry to adopt BIM technology.
(2) Regulator
Common understanding on and consistent approaches to BIM implementations across the entire AEC industry is
important for successful BIM adoption. The public sector can play the "regulator" role in BIM adoption and
develop BIM guidelines to instruct and standardize BIM implementations in construction projects. Those BIM
standards or guidelines could be region specific or universal. Some companies may have their own BIM
standards. However, several national BIM standards have been released to guide the whole industry and to
ensure consistency for BIM implementation, thereby avoiding conflicts and confusion among project
participants which follow different BIM standards. One of the most influential BIM standards is the National
Building Information Modeling Standard released in the United States, which aims at developing a full
consensus BIM standard. As shown in Table 8, Australia and New Zealand have jointly developed the Australia
and New Zealand Revit Standards (ANZRS) to have a uniform requirement for these two countries. This bi-
national standard is a good example of multi-national efforts for BIM standard development.
Public
Sector
Initiator
and Driver
Regulator
Educator
Funding
Agency
Demonstrator
Researcher
- Goals and Promises
- BIM committees
- BIM activities
- BIM guidelines
- Standardize BIM
- Training programs
- Training plans
- College BIM education
- Financial support for
BIM implementation
- BIM pilot projects
- Internal BIM plan
- Test BIM technologies
- R&D projects
- Collaborate with
research institutions
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 467
(3) Educator
In-house BIM trainings for internal staff appear in many public organizations that have adopted BIM. However,
the public sector can also take a leading role to educate the industry on BIM implementation. Some public
organizations have published BIM training methods to teach other organizations on how to develop BIM training
courses. One example is the initial BIM Learning Outcomes Framework that was published in the United
Kingdom to provide supporting information for BIM training program development. In addition to providing
training courses and establishing long-term training plan for the whole industry, the public sector can also
consolidate BIM education in colleges. As shown in Table 8, the NBIMS-USTM project Committee in the
United States, for instance, held a BIM Academic Education Symposium to discuss the possibility of
incorporating BIM into college curricula.
(4) Funding Agency
Providing financial support for BIM-related projects is another way to encourage the industry to promote BIM.
As described in Table 8, for the BIM adoption in Taiwan, the Taiwanese government funded many BIM research
programs and projects, including the Taipei City MRT projects and New Taipei City Sports Center project.
Another example is that USACE of the United States has directly funded 7 R&D laboratories, one of which is
CAD/BIM Technology Center. With the funding provided by the public sector, the AEC industry would show
more enthusiasm at BIM implementation, which may be perceived as costly in some construction firms.
(5) Demonstrator
Through pilot projects, the public sector can demonstrate and showcase the implementation of BIM technology
in various kinds of construction projects. The pilot projects conducted by public organizations not only show the
dedication of the organizations towards BIM adoption, but also can be used to share the success factors and
lessons learnt among other organizations in the industry. New BIM or BIM-integrated technologies can also be
promoted and evaluated in the projects. For example, RWS in Netherlands has tested BIM products in four
projects, used the project results to demonstrate various BIM technologies in the industry. Public organizations
in other countries such as BCA in Singapore have launched a few pilot projects to evaluate BIM as well (see
Table 8).
(6) Researcher
As BIM technology is evolving rapidly, innovation is needed to advance the application of BIM technology in
real-world projects. R&D is therefore important to help the industry keep improving the use of BIM in different
aspects. The public sector can conduct BIM research internally, collaborate with research institutions, or
financially support third parties on BIM-related research projects. For example, Statsbygg has conducted several
R&D projects to help develop BIM adoption and explored potential applications of BIM in Norway. In Korea,
several public sector bodies including MLTM and PPS were involved in BIM R&D projects, studying every
aspect of BIM. For another example, JFCC in Japan has collaborated with the Building Research Institute of
Japan on its BIM research.
8. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
8.1 Findings of the Efforts of the Public Sector
Table 7 summarizes the efforts in BIM adoption taken by the selected 14 countries/areas, which are grouped in
the regions of the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. BIM implementations in different countries
worldwide, ranging from setting goals or promises, establishment of committees, holding various BIM activities,
to developing BIM standards are summarized in Table 7. The United States is one of the most pioneering
countries for using BIM technology. The biggest difference in BIM adoption between the United States and
other countries may be that different levels of the public sector in the United States, from national organizations
to public universities, all contribute to BIM implementation. As early as in 2003, the US GSA identified the
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 468
potential of BIM and established the National 3D-4D-BIM Program. In 2007, the first national BIM standard
NBIMS-USTM Version 1.0 was published to drive and standardize the implementation of BIM of the whole nation.
In the same year, GSA set a goal to require IFC BIM on its public projects. It was the first time a public
organization had made such s groundbreaking statement. Since then, various BIM guide series were published to
provide guidance for continued use of BIM throughout a facility’s life cycle for the whole industry. The
successful adoption of BIM in the US up to now could be a roadmap for other countries.
Although the overall adoption rate in Europe is lower than that in the US in 2010 (McGraw-Hill, 2010), most of
the European countries catch up rapidly in BIM technology and become leaders in this field during these years.
For example, the UK set an ambitious goal of BIM adoption in 2011 to mandate the implementation of Level 2
cooperative BIM on all government infrastructure projects by 2016. Influenced by the central government, the
industry shifts their traditional 2D workflow to a 3D BIM workflow and becomes a BIM proficient industry
gradually. The early and strong commitment of the UK government to BIM makes the UK as a world leader in
BIM adoption (NBS, 2015). The public sectors of other European countries listed in this paper have made efforts
to promote BIM adoption in their nations and produced various BIM deliverables and standards. However, there
is no national BIM standard released in Sweden till now.
BIM adoption in most Asian countries, except Singapore, lags behind that of the US and Europe in general.
Singapore is a leading country for BIM adoption and standards development in Asia or even worldwide. As
early as in 1995, Singapore government required the use of IT and BIM for various levels of approval in the
AEC industry. As a result, various BIM e-submission guidelines were released to highlight the major points of
submission requirements of different disciplines, including architectural, structural and MEP. It is a good way to
standardize BIM adoption in the industry, since all the projects should follow the requirements stated in the
guidelines to create and submit the model for approval. However, as shown in Table 7, there is no national BIM
guideline released by Japanese government. Reports show that several government bodies are under preparation
of national BIM standards. The development of national BIM standards in Mainland China started late, and only
two draft versions have been released for public review as at late 2014. The official national BIM standards will
be published in late 2015. In addition, there is no governmental commitment to BIM adoption in Taiwan as at
2015. A report shows that the central government in Taiwan has started to take some initiatives to study national
BIM strategic planning and require BIM in major projects to promote BIM in the industry (Hsieh, 2015).
Therefore, the BIM development in Taiwan will accelerate in the next few years.
The rate of BIM adoption in Australia continues to escalate in recent years. In 2012, Australia has indicated
several national BIM adoption targets in the NBI report and published several national BIM standards. To follow
in the government’s footsteps, various industry consortia in Australia contributed to BIM adoption. In addition,
the Australia and New Zealand Revit Standards (ANZRS), which can be used by these two countries, was
produced. The standard is a good example of multi-national cooperation work on BIM standards development.
Findings also show that most of the selected public sectors or countries in the four regions have released national
BIM standards. Sweden and Japan are currently in the process of releasing their own BIM guidelines. Various
BIM standards have been developed around the world to standardize BIM implementation. Some are platform-
specific while some are conceptual and generic. As mentioned earlier, BIM standards should cover four aspects,
which are (1) Project Execution Plan (PEP), (2) Modeling Methodology, (3) Levels of Detail or Development
(LoD), and (4) Component Presentation Style and Data Organization. For example, different modeling
sequences of building components in BIM models may generate different results in quantity takeoff. Therefore, a
common method to create BIM models is needed to ensure consistent analysis results using BIM software.
However, very few existing BIM standards have covered all these four aspects. In addition, many public or
private organizations have currently developed their own BIM standards in-house. Regional or even global
efforts to consolidate the various BIM standards will be beneficial to the BIM community.
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 469
8.2 Findings of the Roles of the Public Sector
Based on the review of the efforts taken by the public sector for BIM adoption, six potential roles that the public
sector can play have been summarized. As shown in Table 8, all the selected countries or cities have played the
roles of initiator and regulator for BIM adoption. Most of them have set BIM goals to drive the market and
developed BIM standards to regulate and standardize BIM implementation. One successful example is that the
UK has become a world leader in BIM adoption through the BIM policy and strategy by the central government
(NBS, 2015). After the UK government set its commitment to require Level 2 BIM in 2011, discussion about
BIM has proliferated and awareness of BIM is now nearly universal. The latest NBS National BIM Report 2015
revealed that half of the respondents in the UK were currently using BIM in their projects (up dramatically from
13% in 2010).
However, only a few of the selected countries have played the roles of educator and funding agency. According
to a McGraw-Hill Construction survey that studies the reasons for the lack of BIM adoption (McGraw-Hill,
2012), the high training cost and software cost were the main reasons that many people resisted using BIM.
Therefore, it is highly recommended that the public sector in most of the European countries, Japan, Mainland
China, Hong Kong and Australia, can take a more active role to train and educate the industry on BIM
implementation and fund more BIM related projects to help the industry overcome the cost issue.
In addition, some of the selected countries, excluding the UK, Finland, and Mainland China, have played the
roles of demonstrator and researcher. Although the UK government has set a promising goal about BIM
adoption early in 2011, half of the respondents did not use BIM in their projects in the reporting year of 2014
(NBS, 2015). The main barrier for them to use BIM is the lack of in-house expertise. They were not familiar
with the whole BIM process and how BIM would change their whole workflow. Therefore, pilot projects
conducted by the government are necessary to demonstrate and showcase the implementation and workflow of
BIM. In addition, only 45% of the BIM adopters were confident in their knowledge and skills in BIM in 2014
(NBS, 2015). As BIM technology is evolving rapidly, R&D is therefore important to help the industry keep
improving the knowledge of BIM. The public sector can conduct BIM research internally, collaborate with
research institutions, or financially support third parties on BIM-related research projects to improve BIM skills
in the industry.
Table 8 also shows that the United States and Singapore are currently the only countries in which the public
sector has played all these six roles for BIM adoption. The public sector of other countries could get a
benchmark for the roles played on BIM adoption from identified roles and the impacts on the overall BIM
adoption in other countries.
9. CONCLUSIONS
BIM changes the way that we work in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The public
sector can potentially take the leading role to encourage and facilitate the adoption of BIM in the industry. In
recent years, BIM implementations continued to increase intensively as more and more government bodies and
non-profit organizations in various countries around the world have adopted BIM. Such divergence and coverage
highlights the lack of and the necessity for a review of their efforts. Therefore, the efforts taken by the public
sector for BIM adoption in different countries worldwide are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. This paper
covers 14 countries/areas, which are grouped into four regions the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australasia.
Data were collected from various publicly available sources on the Internet. In each region, BIM
implementations ranging from setting BIM goals, establishment of BIM-related committees, holding BIM
activities, to developing BIM standards were described. The findings show that the United State is the most
mature country in BIM adoption, as BIM has been implemented from the top national level down to the city and
public university level. The early and strong commitment of the UK government to BIM makes the UK as a
world leader in BIM adoption. Various national BIM e-submission guidelines regulate and standardize the
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 470
overall BIM adoption in the industry in Singapore. However, there is no public national BIM adoption target in
Taiwan as at 2015. Sweden and Japan are currently in the process of releasing their own BIM standards. The
findings also show that there have been many separate efforts in developing various local BIM standards to suit
the local industry needs and characteristics, but a regional or global joint effort to consolidate these BIM
standards may be beneficial to the broader BIM community.
The public sector plays an important and primary role for BIM adoption. This paper summarizes six roles that
the public sector can play for BIM adoption. They are (1) initiator and driver, (2) regulator, (3) educator, (4)
funding agency, (5) demonstrator, and (6) researcher. The roles played by the countries covered in this paper are
also summarized and evaluated. Findings show that all the selected countries or cities have played the roles of
initiator and regulator to promote and standardize BIM adoption. The public sector in most of the European
countries, Japan, Mainland China, Hong Kong and Australia seldom plays as educator and funding agency.
Since there is a large need in the industry for training and financially supporting BIM implementation and
research, it is suggested that the public sector in these nations should play a more active role on training and
funding BIM projects. In addition, the UK, Finland, and Mainland China, have not played the roles of
demonstrator and researcher towards BIM adoption. As BIM technology is evolving rapidly, pilot projects and
R&D projects are therefore important to help the industry keep improving the knowledge of BIM.
BIM adoption is a journey. It is foreseeable that more and more organizations will join this journey and more
international effort will be put together to create a more consistent, advanced and innovative BIM-based working
environment in the AEC industry.
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 471
TABLE 7: BIM adoption worldwide.
BIM Adoption
Region
Country, City or Organization
Targets and Promises
BIM Implementation
BIM Standards and Guidelines
The United
States
Nation-wide
NIBS, USACE, GSA,
VA, AIA, NIST,
AGC
Require BIM on projects
BIM programscommittees, BIM workshops and training
courses, fund BIM and R&D projects, USACE - BIM
roadmaps
e.g. NBIMS-USTM V1, V2, BIM Guide Series 01 to
08
State-wide
Wisconsin, Ohio,
Tennessee
Require BIM on projects
BIM projects
e.g. State of Ohio BIM Protocol
City-wide
New York, Seattle
Require BIM on projects
BIM projects
e.g. NYC BIM Guidelines
University-
wide
PSU, LACCD, IU,
etc.
Require BIM on projects
BIM projects
e.g. BIM PEP Guide V1, 2, IU BIM Guidelines and
Standards
Europe
the United
Kingdom
BSI, CIC, AEC-UK
Adopt Level 2 BIM by 2016
BIM Task Group, BIM sessions, BIM training programs
e.g. BS series, AEC-UK-BIM Standard v1.0
Norway
Statsbygg, etc.
2010, Gov. commitment to BIM
2010, Statsbygg require BIM for new buildings
BIM programs, pilot and R&D projects
e.g. Statsbygg - SBM, BIM Manual v1.2.1
Finland
Senate Properties
2007, require the use of IFC/BIM for its projects
BIM projects
e.g. Senate Properties’ BIM Requirements for
Architectural Design, COBIM
Denmark
Palaces & Properties
Agency, etc.
Danish state clients such as the Palaces &
Properties Agency require BIM
Digital Construction project
e.g. 3D CAD Manual 2006, 3D Working Method
2006
Sweden
Transportation
Administration, etc.
2015, all investment projects use BIM
BIM implementation project, pilot projects to demonstrate
BIM
No National BIM standard, BH90 Series 8 - CAD
guide
Netherlands
Rijkswaterstaat,
Rijksgebouwendienst
2011, mandate BIM in building projects with
7,000,000 m2
BIM 2012-2014 program, pilot projects, BIM database
e.g. Rijksgebouwendienst BIM Standard
Asia
Singapore
BCA
2015, 80% of the industry using BIM and BIM e-
submission
BIM center, pilot projects, BIM training programs, training
framework, conference, BIM steering committee, BIM
fund, nation-wide BIM competitions, BIM roadmap
e.g. BIM e-Submission Guideline for Architectural
Discipline, Singapore BIM Guide
Korea
MLTM, PPS, KICT,
KICTEP
MLTM, PPS mandate BIM before 2016
MLTM - BIM implementation roadmap, BIM program,
BIM R&D projects, PPS - BIM fund
e.g. National Architectural BIM Guide, PPS
Guidelines
Japan
MLIT, JFCC, JIA
2010, MLIT mandate BIM in government projects
MLIT-BIM pilot projects, JFCC - BIM special section, BIM
seminar
No National BIM standard, JIA - BIM guidelines
Mainland
China
the Ministry of
Housing and Rural
Urban Development
2012, release the National 12th Five Year Plan
(2011-2015)
BIM-related national standards program
e.g. Two national BIM standards draft versions,
Beijing and Shanghai BIM standard
Taiwan
NTU, etc.
No Gov. commitment to BIM
Fund BIM projects, centers, NTU - BIM conferences,
forums, training workshops, publications and research
projects
LOD Specification, Owner’s Guide for preparing
BIM Guidelines
Hong Kong
HA, ArchSD, MTRC,
HKIBIM, HKCIC,
etc.
HA - BIM in all new projects by 2014
BIM projects, conferences, ArchSD - BIM development
unit, training courses, pilot projects, Lands Department - 3D
spatial database, BM seminar, HKIBIM - BIM committees
e.g. HA - BIM Standards Manual v1, BIM Project
Specification Rev 3
Australasia
Australia
BEIIC, AMCA,
NATSPEC
Require 3D BIM for Gov. projects by 2016
BEIIC - BIM plan, pilot projects, AMCA - BIM initiative,
forums, training plans
e.g. The NATSPEC National BIM Guide, ANZRS
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 472
TABLE 8: Roles of the public sector worldwide for BIM adoption.
Roles of the Public Sector for BIM Adoption
Region
Country, City or Organization
Initiator and Driver
Regulator
Educator
Funding
Agency
Demonstrator
Researcher
The United
States
Nation-wide
NIBS, USACE, GSA,
VA, AIA, NIST, AGC
Require BIM on projects, BIM roadmaps,
programs, committees
BIM standards, e.g. NBIMS-USTM V1,
V2
BIM training courses,
Education Symposium
Fund BIM
BIM pilot projects
R&D projects
State-wide
Wisconsin, Ohio,
Tennessee
Require BIM on projects, BIM projects
BIM standards, e.g. State of Ohio BIM
Protocol
City-wide
New York, Seattle
Require BIM on projects, BIM projects
BIM guidelines, e.g. NYC BIM
Guidelines
University-
wide
PSU, LACCD, IU, etc.
Require BIM on projects, BIM projects
BIM guides, e.g. BIM PEP Guide V1, 2,
IU BIM Guidelines and Standards
Europe
the United
Kingdom
BSI, CIC, AEC-UK,
etc.
Level 2 BIM by 2016, BIM Task Group,
sessions
BIM standards, e.g. BS series
BIM training Framework
Norway
Statsbygg, etc.
Gov. commitment to BIM, BIM
programs
BIM standards, e.g. Statsbygg - SBM
BIM pilot projects
BIM R&D projects
Finland
Senate Properties
Require BIM on projects, BIM projects
BIM standards, e.g. COBIM
Denmark
Palaces & Properties
Agency, etc.
Require BIM, BIM projects
BIM standards, e.g. 3D CAD Manual
2006
Digital Construction
project
Digital Construction
project
Sweden
Transportation
Administration, etc.
Require BIM, BIM projects
BH90 Series 8 - CAD guide
BIM pilot projects
Netherlands
Rijkswaterstaat,
Rijksgebouwendienst
Mandate BIM on projects, BIM 2012-
2014 program
BIM standards, e.g. Rijksgebouwendienst
BIM Standard
BIM pilot projects
BIM database
Asia
Singapore
BCA
BIM goals, BIM center, steering
committee, Nation-wide BIM
competitions, roadmap
BIM guidelines, e.g. Singapore BIM
Guide
BIM training programs,
training framework
BIM fund
BIM pilot projects
BIM center
Korea
MLTM, PPS, KICT,
KICTEP
Mandate BIM before 2016, BIM
roadmap, program
BIM guidelines, e.g. PPS Guidelines
PPS - BIM
fund
BIM R&D projects
Japan
MLIT, JFCC, JIA
Mandate BIM in government projects,
BIM special section, BIM seminar
JIA - BIM guidelines
MLIT-BIM pilot
projects
BIM research seminar
Mainland
China
the Ministry of Housing
and Rural Urban
Development
Encourage enterprises to use BIM, BIM-
related national standards program
Beijing BIM Standard for Civil
Engineering (draft)
Taiwan
NTU, etc.
NTU - BIM conferences, forums
BIM standard translations
Training workshops
Fund BIM
projects
Research projects
Hong Kong
HA, ArchSD, MTRC,
HKIBIM, HKCIC, etc.
HA - BIM in all new projects by 2014
BIM standards, e.g. HA - BIM Standards
Manual v1 , BIM projects, conferences,
BIM unit, committees
Training courses
BIM pilot projects
3D spatial database
Australasia
Australia
BEIIC, AMCA,
NATSPEC
Require 3D BIM for Gov. projects by
2016
BIM guidelines, e.g. ANZRS
BIM training plans
BIM pilot projects
ITcon Vol. 20 (2015), Cheng & Lu, pg. 473
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... (NATSCPEC, 2015) Singapore is one of the countries with the highest trend in the status of BIM adoption also known as a world leader in the digitisation and automation of the issuing of building permits. In 1995, the Construction Real Estate NETwork (CORENET) project was introduced to promote and require the use of IT for different levels of approvals in the AEC industry (Cheng and Lu, 2015) followed by the participation of several governmental agencies including the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) in the e-submission system requiring BIM and IFC (Cheng and Lu, 2015;Khemlani, 2011) helping streamline the process for regulatory submissions (BCA, 2011;Oo, 2014). Understanding the operational challenges that entities confront in considering BIM adoption, BCA has implemented the BIM Roadmap to help and guide business owners (BCA, 2011). ...
... (NATSCPEC, 2015) Singapore is one of the countries with the highest trend in the status of BIM adoption also known as a world leader in the digitisation and automation of the issuing of building permits. In 1995, the Construction Real Estate NETwork (CORENET) project was introduced to promote and require the use of IT for different levels of approvals in the AEC industry (Cheng and Lu, 2015) followed by the participation of several governmental agencies including the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) in the e-submission system requiring BIM and IFC (Cheng and Lu, 2015;Khemlani, 2011) helping streamline the process for regulatory submissions (BCA, 2011;Oo, 2014). Understanding the operational challenges that entities confront in considering BIM adoption, BCA has implemented the BIM Roadmap to help and guide business owners (BCA, 2011). ...
... Understanding the operational challenges that entities confront in considering BIM adoption, BCA has implemented the BIM Roadmap to help and guide business owners (BCA, 2011). In addition, this was part of the government's plan to achieve the increased ratio of 80% BIM users by 2015 along with the growth of productivity by up to 25% during 2010-2020 (Cheng and Lu, 2015;BCA, 2011). The country has also developed specific academic programmes on BIM namely; diploma in construction information technology mainly focusing on BIM and an also specialist diploma in BIM available to undergraduate students and industry professionals plus various workshops on BIM Modelling (Architecture, Structure & MEP), BIM Management and BIM Planning Course (Building Developers & Facility Managers) available to industry professionals (NATSPEC, 2015). ...
... Concerning BIM adoption, to the present day, greater scholarly attention has been paid to the design and construction phases. Notwithstanding long-term benefits, emphasis has been given to the immediately tangible outcomes from the earliest process stages of a building project [6][7][8][9][10]. Levels of BIM adoption have revealed that it has been used most extensively in the first phases, whereas adoption and use for facility management is still a new issue [11,12], particularly in relation to its benefits to organisations (rather than projects). ...
... Then, regarding challenges for implementation, the lack of BIM-FM expertise among professionals and the lack of support in the form of guidance and standards contribute to the low adoption rates for BIM-FM implementation [13]. Furthermore, many public bodies at different levels have established BIM programs, set up BIM goals and implementation roadmaps and published BIM standards [7]. Therefore, as public actors, they perform a crucial role in leading and supporting the industry towards BIM implementation. ...
... In recent years, the BIM spread continues to increase intensively as many government bodies and non-profit organisations of different countries worldwide introduced BIM in their projects and provided BIM implementation's paths. However, nowadays, research and studies about the public sector's actions and efforts for BIM adoption do not look sufficient [7]. Even large public owners who have been early adopters of BIM, such as GSA or Senate Properties, have mainly used BIM to manage their construction projects rather than implement it into their operations and maintenance activities [14]. ...
Article
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Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been extensively studied and applied within the AEC sector, particularly in design and construction. In recent years, Facility Management (FM) processes are becoming more digitalised, thus requiring effective BIM-FM integration. BIM adoption in many countries, such as the UK, Italy and Brazil, has been publicly driven. Generally, adoption was targeted at design and construction implementation, with little effort in framing public action for FM implementation. The lack of an integrated approach for BIM-FM implementation resulted in numerous bespoken implementation approaches that mimic the private sector and hinder knowledge exchange. Therefore, there is a need for assessing and amalgamating knowledge about BIM-FM for public organisations. This research aims to leverage knowledge about BIM-FM in the public domain by analysing and classifying articles published between 2010–2021. The research was carried out through a systematic review and comparative thematic analysis investigating the use of BIM for different public buildings (e.g., schools and hospitals) and the implementation for FM purposes. Research results outline prevalent trends and areas of research from three perspectives: people, process and technology. Results show an increasing number of publications about BIM-FM. However, the divide between BIM-FM for public and private organisations is unequal. BIM-FM research for public organisations is still limited and lacks standardisation. This state-of-the-art review makes an incremental contribution to knowledge by identifying progress, gaps and new industry directions on the subject matter.
... Considering BIM potential, an increasing number of countries are considering its implementation [8] as an innovative concept leading to cost-efficiency and ecological practices in the AEC industry. Indeed, several studies debating worldwide BIM review [9], [10] emphasized that BIM adoption has known a wide extend especially in Americas, Europe, Asia, and Oceania while Africa is still at the infant stage [11]. ...
... After 2 years of work, the EU BIM Task Group delivered in 2017 a handbook explaining the common practices and principles to be adopted in the construction sector and unifying BIM policy across Europe. Since then, the EU countries are strengthening their BIM adoption policies through different measures namely mandatory BIM standards and guidelines [9]. However, they are progressing at a different pace, with on the top: UK, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, and the Netherlands [10]. ...
... Several studies discussed solutions helping on overcoming BIM challenges. For government-related barriers, Cheng and Lu [9] trace the important role played by the public sector in USA, Europe, Asia and Australia where several countries adopt progressive strategies and financial incentives leading, then, to a noticeable emergence of BIM adoption as well as a significant decrease of legal-related and cost-related barriers. Actually, the countries pioneer in BIM implementation set signification incentives, guidelines and common standards allowing, then, to fasten the spread of BIM adoption [9] and reach, in 2015, a rate of 60% in Middle East, 23.7% in Oceania and 51.7% in the north Americas [26] with 70% in the USA in 2016 [13]. ...
Article
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Building information modeling is an emerging technology that is getting more extend worldwide. However, many operators still have limited knowledge about its real meaning and potential, which is considered as an important challenge to its implementation. Therefore, based on a survey involving 370 AEC operators, experts’ workshop and data collection, this study is handling the most impactful personal-related barriers: Lack of BIM awareness and its tangible benefits. Hence, this paper consists on developing a synthetic framework of BIM concept summarizing all aspects of BIM (parameters, flaw, components, stockholders, tools, input and output) that would help the users to have a clear understanding of BIM. Moreover, it reveals the operational, economic, social and ecologic potential of BIM with supporting evidences and metrics. On the other hand, this study presents the different categories of BIM barriers and emphasizes their weights on BIM implementation over the world especially in Africa where BIM is still at early stage of development and is facing more challenges.
... As the construction industry rapidly enters the BIM era, there have been uptake and support by different governments to help promote its adoption. The various kinds of initiatives on BIM adoption by the public sector have been summarised into six main categories by Cheng and Lu (2015) which include: initiators and drivers; regulators; educators; funding agencies; demonstrators; and researchers. Each category has examples of aspects that relate to it (Fig. 1) which help in clarifying how the public sector has engaged in developing different strategies for implementing BIM. ...
... An array of different BIM adoption strategies as implemented by several countries (Table 1) are based on six categories suggested by Cheng and Lu (2015). The categories have been modified in this study to recognise government mandate in the "Initiator and Driver" category which is an enforced driver for BIM adoption in public sector projects because stakeholders have no choice (Porwal andHewage 2013, Smith 2014). ...
... Roles of the public sector in BIM adoption (Source:Cheng and Lu, 2015) ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BIM adoption in many countries involves different approaches including the use of government mandates. The UK’s 2016 BIM mandate for public projects to be delivered at BIM Level 2 maturity, is an example. However, BIM mandates do not apply to private sector projects which leave questions about the inclusivity of its adoption and the susceptibility of SMEs to being digitally disenfranchised. Developing countries yet to adopt BIM are at the risk of out-rightly imitating the mandate-driven policies of countries like the UK, without considering alternative options that might better suit their socio-economic realities. This research investigates the use of alternative strategies (nudge theory) for promoting BIM adoption for inclusivity of smaller organisations, the private sector or developing countries. By drawing on two interrelated yet independent theories of loss aversion theory and nudge theory, this study examines the current mandate-driven policies and provides a critical discourse around ways that these two theories can be combined to form a new kind of construct on the way BIM implementation is (or can be) understood. The result from the critical analysis suggests that a hybrid of mandate and nudge can be effective in promoting BIM and none of these approaches is self-sustaining given their challenges. This finding opens a new vista for applying behavioural policies based on nudge theory and its potentials for promoting BIM implementation in the construction sector.
... Regarding the asset lifecycle concept, several studies refer to the asset lifecycle from the programming stage to the operation and maintenance stage (Hautala et al., 2017). Cheng and Lu (2015) for instance consider "the full lifecycle of buildings, from planning and design through construction and operations" (Cheng and Lu, 2015). Similarly, in the UK, the RIBA plan of work refers to 8 stages, from the "strategic definition" stage to the "in-use" stage (Sinclair, 2013) without considering the end-of-life (EOL) as a phase. ...
... Regarding the asset lifecycle concept, several studies refer to the asset lifecycle from the programming stage to the operation and maintenance stage (Hautala et al., 2017). Cheng and Lu (2015) for instance consider "the full lifecycle of buildings, from planning and design through construction and operations" (Cheng and Lu, 2015). Similarly, in the UK, the RIBA plan of work refers to 8 stages, from the "strategic definition" stage to the "in-use" stage (Sinclair, 2013) without considering the end-of-life (EOL) as a phase. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the construction sector is one of the least digitized sectors, the last decade has been a period that some qualify as the 4th industrial revolution, notably with the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM). However, the construction industry is still one of the most resource-intensive sectors, generating Megatons of waste every year. To decrease the impact of the construction on the environment, authorities are getting interested in adopting a circular economy (CE) approach, including servitization. Although there is an emulsion around the circular economy approach, organisational tools to help construction practitioners to move to a CE approach are dramatically lacking. The purpose of the paper is to develop a BIM-based trans-scalar theoretical frame work to support practitioners in their understanding and the implementation of the CE approach. The trans-scalar theoretical framework is established with data extracted from a research portfolio fuelled by three main databases, Scopus, RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Plan of Work and BIM standards. First, the RIBA framework and the information delivery cycle were adjusted to incorporate the sustainable end-of-life, as a phase in the CE context. Based on theoretical foundations, the main contribution of this paper is the trans-scalar theoretical framework developing and clarifying what are the main asset lifecycle phases (including the end-of-life), their related stakeholders, and the interplays between them, in the UK context. The paper also organizes holistically two scales, the asset lifecycle phases and the material flow, whether new or recovered, in the context of BIM and CE. Some future areas of research are presented, including how the BIM-based trans-scalar theoretical framework could be improved with inputs from construction experts.
... Cheng and Lu analyzed the wide range of BIM information from 14 countries/regions and concluded that the public sector plays an essential and primary role in BIM adoption. They summarized six roles that the public sector can play for BIM adoption: initiator and driver, regulator, educator, funding agency, demonstrator, and researcher [79]. ...
... The most holistic and thorough research for this field was made by Cheng et al. [79]. However, the protocols in Japan were not extensively covered, likely due to the unavailability of well-translated information. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Stagnant productivity and workforce shortage are global problems in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Particularly in Japan, slow digital transformation causes lag in leveraging technologies. Building Information Modeling (BIM), a novel digital platform internationally spreading, is expected to enhance productivity. Still, its implementation and collaboration in practice have remained major issues for the last decade. The research question of the thesis is threefold. First, how can a layperson decipher the BIM activity in a data-driven manner? Second, what are the traits of BIM activities in large-scale projects? Last, how can the key BIM cooperator in collaborative projects be specified? The literature review revealed that BIM log mining, a machine-learning-based process mining method, is an emerging and plausible approach. Preparatory studies discovered that outsourcing the modeling workforce could rather disengage project architects from the activities executed in BIM. The proposed methodology introduced visual analytics to assess the result for laypersons. Three different datasets comprise extensive and multidisciplinary BIM records collected from a broad range of organizations, including supplemental big data to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods. The classification process and visualization are incrementally tested through the empirical chapters. The devised method identified a group of collaborative BIM users in the corporation despite considerable dependence on external BIM workforce termed as BIM operators. Those players can be interpreted as keystone species in the corporate BIM environment. The interview further revealed that mutual respect motivates practitioners for successful BIM learning. The proposed BIM log mining approach is novel, versatile, and comprehensive; different datasets proved its utility. The thesis recommends BIM education aiming for such cooperative BIM practitioners and further research on BIM operators for more successful interpretation to the local ecosystem.
... With regard to the contract process related to public building designs, in 2006, the General Services Administration [GSA] of the United States was obliged to submit design drawings as BIM design information based on industry foundation classes (IFC). Furthermore, in South Korea, BIM has been compulsory for all public sector projects since 2016 (Cheng & Lu, 2015;Edirisinghe & London, 2015;Sun et al., 2018;Kim et al., 2020). ...
Article
Automated code compliance checking is an effective approach for assessing the quality of building information modeling (BIM) models. Various automated code compliance checking systems have emerged, wherein users need to input all information accurately according to BIM modeling guidelines, in order to ensure the accuracy of checking results. However, as this process involves human inputs, it is difficult to ensure that each input is accurate. In the case of errors or missing inputs, the checking results will be erroneous. Although automated checking systems can be developed accurately, it is difficult to apply these systems practically. Therefore, this paper proposes the application of AI technology to recognize BIM objects and visible properties, in order to improve the operability of automated code compliance checking. The two necessary elements – object names and properties – could be automatically extracted to a certain extent, following the application of the proposed method to the automated code checking process. The error rate of the input could also be reduced, thus making the application of the code checking system more practically feasible. The proposed recognition method for BIM objects and visible properties is also expected to be used widely in BIM-based building e-submission systems and BIM-based forward designs.
... Après avoir incarné une forme d'avant-garde capitaliste au cours du vingtième siècle (Jappe, 2020), le secteur de la construction est donc vu depuis plusieurs années comme « l'industrie mauvaise élève » de la digitalisation (Loosemore, 2015;Löwstedt & Räisänen, 2014). De plus, le marché français est considéré comme particulièrement distancié dans la « course au BIM » vis-à-vis de ses concurrents anglosaxons ou scandinaves (Cheng & Lu, 2015; R. Davies et al., 2015;Jung & Lee, 2015). ...
Thesis
Tandis que la digitalisation du travail est décrite par les milieux stratégiques et managériaux comme une transformation nécessaire et souhaitable, elle rencontre simultanément une résistance parmi certains professionnels. La littérature gestionnaire interprète généralement cette rupture soit à l’échelle « macro », en étudiant comment les usagers résistent à certaines pressions appliquées à l’ensemble d’une organisation ou d’un secteur, soit à l’échelle « micro », en décrivant des processus locaux de contournement des outils digitaux par les usagers. La présente thèse propose de réunir ces deux échelles en mobilisant une approche « multiniveau », consistant à étudier comment la digitalisation se diffuse à différents niveaux afin de transformer la façon dont les professionnels se représentent leur propre activité. Pour comprendre à la fois le rôle spécifique de chacun des niveaux dans cette diffusion ainsi que leurs influences réciproques, nous mobilisons le modèle structural des conventions, et définissons la digitalisation comme une convention d’effort, c’est-à-dire comme une remise en cause de l’effort que les usagers-professionnels appliquent dans leur travail. En étudiant un cas d’adoption du Building Information Modeling (BIM), une base de données modélisable et partagée promue au sein d’une entreprise française de construction, nous montrons comment le niveau institutionnel, composé d’éditeurs de logiciel et de consultants, légitime l’usage du BIM dans l’effort quotidien des professionnels ; comment le niveau organisationnel, composé des cadres digitaux de l’entreprise étudiée, prescrit son mode d’usage, et comment les deux niveaux professionnels, composés des concepteurs de plan en bureau d’étude et des exécutants de bâtiment sur chantier, réalisent (ou non) ce nouvel effort. En outre, nous montrons comment chaque niveau est influencé dans sa diffusion par ses interactions avec les autres niveaux, et parvenons à expliquer grâce à ce phénomène pourquoi les concepteurs acceptent le BIM, et pourquoi les exécutants le refusent. D’un point de vue théorique, ces résultats nous permettent de lire par le même cadre heuristique les interactions intra et inter niveaux, ainsi que d’interpréter leurs effets sur les représentations des professionnels. Ils reconsidèrent également le phénomène de digitalisation, en voyant celui-ci non pas uniquement comme un moyen rationnel de « désiloter » l’entreprise, mais aussi comme une multitude de médiations construites par le mimétisme non-intentionnel de ses acteurs. D’un point de vue managérial, cette recherche énonce diverses recommandations stratégiques à travers une typologie des modes de digitalisation, et enjoint les organisations à interagir avec leurs professionnels en développant des espaces de discussion sur les transformations du travail.
... Küçük ölçekli bir firmanın yeni bir uygulamaya geçmesini etkileyen en önemli motivasyon kaynakları, mevcut müşterilerle olan ilişkisinin devam ettirmek ve daha fazla müşteri ile iletişim sağlamaktır (Manley, 2008 ;Sexton ve Barret, 2003). Cheng (2015) ise çalışmalarında küçük ölçekli firmaların bir yeniliği uygulamasındaki motivasyon türünü, dış motivasyon ve iç motivasyon kaynağı olarak iki gruba ayırmıştır. Dış motivasyon kaynağı, müşteri talebi ve BBM çalışma sistematiği ile hazırlanmak zorunda olan devlet destekli projeler iken; iç motivasyon ise firma içindeki verimliliği arttırmak, proje kontrolü sağlamak ya da modellemeyi daha verimli kullanmak olarak sayılabilir (Hong ve ark., 2017). ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the efficiency of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in small scale projects and architecture firms. It is intended to understand the advantages of BIM software over traditional method and its use of BIM in small scale projects and firms by comparing the traditional method and BIM method processes.
... Experts emphasized that policy enforce players' commitment by mandating BIM implementation, but it needs to facilitate adoption and implementation processes which will eliminate uncertainties in implementing new technology in building projects. Literature also reported that stakeholder commitment is essential to find a way to process and execute BIM in building projects [45,46]. Policies also influence the supply chain and encourage creativity allowing suppliers to suggest new ideas and stress market competitiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Building Information Modelling (BIM) plays a major role in enhancing the building project process. However, BIM implementation in building projects has not been categorized, and no previous investigation of its value in the different building project types has been undertaken. This research intended to evaluate BIM implementation in building projects and to identify its values, challenges, and enablers. Experts from BIM consultancy organizations were the respondents in this study. Based on nine interviews and 26 responses to a structured questionnaire, a quantitative approach to the content validity method was adopted. The results reveal that BIM implementation in mid- and low-rise buildings is very low. Only top organizations are able to implement BIM in their projects. Experts suggested that local organizations are not able to implement BIM due to their inability to adopt the BIM system as a digital management process throughout the project life cycle. In addition, there was consensus agreement based on the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) that BIM adds significant value to building projects, which includes providing collaborative organizations, greater communication, increased client satisfaction, more cost-savings, increased productivity, and a new way of reasoning for projects. This research also identified 20 challenges and 45 enablers of BIM implementation in mid- and low-rise building construction by the local firms. From the result, it was found that the presented variables were reliable, as reported in the interview transcripts and based on the majority of experts’ opinions. This research provides an important list of challenges and success factors that need to be considered to overcome the critical issue of low BIM implementation in building projects.