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Becoming an adult in uncertain times: a 14-country comparison of the losers of globalization

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... A marriage is costly, not only in terms of the expenditures for a wedding (Kravdal, 1999;Smock et al., 2005) but also due to the perception that marriage requires a financially sound footing (Goldstein and Kenney, 2001;Oppenheimer, 1988). Growing economic insecurity through deregulation of labor markets, globalization and most recently a global financial crisis has changed and constrained the economic conditions of young adults in Europe (Blossfeld, Mills and Klijzing, 2005;McDonald, 2006). These changes have been argued to make young adult's future less predictable, and thus have increased the perceived risk of early family commitments (Perelli-Harris et al., 2010). ...
... Education is however also a material resource that facilitates a smoother integration in the labor market which in turn has been found to promote the transition to marriage (Goldstein and Kenney, 2001). Consequently, the recent increase in cohabitation has been interpreted as a consequence of economic disadvantage Perelli-Harris et al., 2010) of those with low education attainment or in precarious employment (Blossfeld et al., 2005;Goldstein and Kenney, 2001;McDonald, 2006;Oppenheimer, 1988). It could therefore also be that highly educated and employed cohabiters are overrepresented among cohabiters who view their union as a prelude to marriage, whereas lowly educated and non-employed cohabiters are more likely to be too poor to marry or view their union as an alternative to marriage. ...
... Western European cohabiters who are unemployed or enrolled in education are more likely to be classified as being too poor to marry, compared to being in a prelude to marriage. This is in line with findings that being enrolled in education is viewed as incompatible with the role of a spouse and leads to postponement of marriage (Blossfeld and Huinink, 1991;Blossfeld et al., 2005;Hobcraft and Kiernan, 1995) and suggests that marriage need a more sound footing than cohabitation and marriage is envisaged once one is established in the labor market (Kalmijn, 2011;Thornton et al., 2007). ...
Book
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My dissertation provides a cross-national comparative study on the diverse meanings of unmarried cohabitation in contemporary Europe. It offers an up to date analysis of patterns and trends of unmarried cohabitation across a number of European countries and analyzes how cohabiters differ in their reasons and motives to live together without being married. The study shows how the types of cohabitation relate to cohabiters’ plans to have children, the way they manage money and their subsequent relationship decisions. It also identifies country differences in the mix of meanings of cohabitation and the association between these meanings and relationship outcomes. The book is of interest to family sociologists and social demographers who aim at understanding the changing role of unmarried cohabitation in union and family formation processes from a European perspective.
... A su vez, cuanto mayor es el bienestar material al que accede el joven en su hogar de origen, mayor es la aversión al riesgo de pérdida asociado a una decisión de autonomización errática. Esto implica una prolongación del calendario de la primera residencia autónoma, como inversión en el éxito de la misma (Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005) (Avery, Goldscheider, & Speare Jr., 1992) (Mitchell B. , 1, 1998). Dicho proceso de acumulación puede, no obstante, incluir experiencias de autonomización apoyadas desde el hogar de origen (que respondan a la necesidad de migrar para continuar la trayectoria educativa ), por lo cual el retorno puede ocurrir durante el mismo, mientras se consolida la trayectoria laboral, al finalizar la educación superior, etc., y forma parte de la amortización de la inversión en capital humano. ...
... Sin embargo, en la medida que los procesos actuales de movilidad social requieren mayores inversiones en activos educativos y laborales , se espera que la ocurrencia de eventos de tránsito orientados a la acumulación de capital humano (por ejemplo, el acceso a educación terciaria o la entrada al mercado de empleo), en forma previa a la residencia autónoma, resulten menos decisivos como hitos hacia los roles adultos que los tránsitos familiares . Es decir, en la evaluación entre el bienestar que provee el hogar de origen y el bienestar autónomo, los tránsitos laborales y educativos previos no necesariamente implican una interrupción del periodo de moratoria social (si por ejemplo, la financiación de la residencia autónoma no depende de los ingresos propios por trabajo), sino que son insumos para una mejor inserción futura (por ejemplo, mediante la acumulación de experiencia laboral) (Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005). Por lo tanto, dichos tránsitos no disminuyen los beneficios en términos de bienestar en caso de retorno (aunque pueden incrementar los costos, por ejemplo en lo que refiere a la privacidad y el monitoreo adulto (Sassler, Ciambrone, & Benway, 2008) (Berngruber, 2015), siempre por debajo del bienestar que provee el hogar de origen). ...
... Esto sugiere que entre los retornantes amortiguadores son los tránsitos familiares los que pautan el establecimiento de la residencia autónoma, y el tránsito laboral es subsiguiente. Pese a que en el análisis de cluster no se encontraron diferencias significativas por género entre los perfiles 64 , las trayectorias del perfil amortiguador parecerían ajustarse a la experiencia femenina "tradicional" de autonomización (el porcentaje de mujeres en dicho perfil es del 63,1%), orientada a la formación de un hogar propio, y donde la transición al trabajo es secundaria, quizás subsidiaria a la transición familiar 65 66 (Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005) (Ciganda D. , 2008). Por el contrario, las trayectorias de autonomización del perfil 64 De las soluciones consideradas en el análisis de cluster del capítulo 4, la resultante a partir de medida de similaridad Jaccard si encuentra diferencias de género, donde el perfil amortiguador tardío es marcadamente masculino y el amortiguador, femenino (ver anexo 5). ...
Thesis
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The return to parental home is defined as an discontinuity event in residential autonomy, as an intermediate point in the gradient full dependence-full autonomy. Research presents two sets of explanations, which, systematically, are grouped here under two hypotheses: An investment hypothesis and a risk mitigation hypothesis. The factors associated with the investment hypothesis explain the return as a resignation of personal autonomy obtained by young people when establishing a separate residence, for a prioritization of welfare elements that can be provided by the home of origin. On the contrary, the hypothesis of risk mitigation locates the return to the parental home as a protection strategy against uncertainty, based on the occurrence of events that imply a discontinuity of the acquired status (for example, the loss of employment, divorce, the dissolution of unions, the end of the school year, etc.). In Uruguay, the return to the parental is a subject still unexplored. This research aims to answer the following questions: a) How many are the young people who return to the home of origin after an exit event? What are its characteristics and calendars ?. b) What are the types of return to the parental home? Can they be characterized in terms of a residential autonomization aimed at prioritizing the accumulation of human capital (investment strategy), or the establishment of an autonomous home (risk mitigation strategy)? c) What are the determinants that affect the probability of belonging to each return profile, in contrast to being a non-return? The empirical basis of the research is a panel sample of 2451 young people evaluated by the PISA international test in 2003 at the age of 15, representative of the population enrolled nationally. It was observed in 2 opportunities; the first in 2007, at the age of 19-20 years and the second in 2012, when they were 24-25 years old. The research question restricts a subsample understood by those young people who in 2012 declare to have resided outside the parental home. This subsample has a size of 1381, of which 1034 are young people who, having resided in a place other than the home of origin, did not return, while 347 are returners
... Gender differences are more modest for unemployment levels, which vary between 5 and 20%, with the highest rates displayed in the Familialistic and the Transition Post-Socialist clusters where economic problems have been pronounced since long before the recent economic crisis. Youth unemployment levels have been much higher though, which can hamper family building, especially among the less educated, men and women alike (Mills et al. 2005;Oláh and Fratczak 2013). ...
... Both conceptual frameworks highlight the relevance of the transformation of gender roles outside and within the family, in line with McDonald's views on the importance of gender equality and gender equity for fertility change (McDonald 2000(McDonald , 2006. In addition, they call for attention to men's situation, which until relatively recently has been quite neglected (for exceptions see Goldscheider and Kaufman 1996;Puur et al. 2008;Goldscheider et al. 2010), even though the decline in male wages and men's labour force activity along with growing labour market uncertainty have been recognized Booth et al. 1999;Mills et al. 2005). ...
Chapter
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This keynote chapter presents main research findings on new gender roles and their implications for families and societies. It first depicts the development of family forms in Europe over the past fifty years, with a focus on increasingly diverse family biographies and the changes in the roles of women and men. It highlights that changes in women’s role have been more comprehensive, whereas in most countries the transformation of the male role has barely started. Next, views in contemporary scholarship on the interplay between the increasing family complexity and gender role changes are addressed. A detailed discussion of new challenges of transitions in and organization of family life follows, with a focus on four main topics: women’s new role and the implications for family dynamics, the gendered transition to parenthood, new gender roles in doing families, and coping strategies in family and work reconciliation under conditions of uncertainty and precariousness and impacts on fertility. A brief conclusion ends this chapter.
... In the personal sphere of private life, the rising labour market uncertainties in many European countries have indeed contributed to the postponement or even the abandonment of long-term binding decisions such as leaving the parental home Ahn and Mira, 2002;Baizán, 2005; and the gradual replacement of a standard family trajectory with a more turbulent and less uniform pattern (Hofäcker and Chaloupková, 2014). However, the magnitude of the repercussions of labour market insecurities on individual transitions in private life differs notably among countries, suggesting that institutional contexts at the nation-state level mediate the effects of globalisation on young individuals in a nation-specific way (Blossfeld et al., 2011;. ...
... In Southern European countries, characterised by a familist welfare model, the rise in labour market uncertainty has contributed to the postponement of the transition to adult life for young people, but the magnitude of such a repercussion has varied across countries and suggested that this depends on the specific national institutional context. (Blossfeld et al., 2005(Blossfeld et al., , 2012. As an example, in Southern-European countries, where welfare systems are less generous than those of Scandinavian countries in supporting individuals from job loss or in housing costs, the relationship between the labour market condition and the transition to residential autonomy has been found to be stronger (Ranci et al., 2014). ...
... Besides, Schröder and Brüderl (2008) argue being out of the labour force might also reflect anticipated fertility. Regarding unemployment some studies have discussed another issue: A situation of economic uncertainty such as during unemployment may lead to postponement of fertility until a secure job is found (Mills et al. 2005; Gebel and Giesecke 2009). ...
... the household's income. Assuming that unemployment implies actively looking for work, I expect that if household income is low, unemployment has a negative effect on fertility due to the higher financial insecurity in that time and due to the anticipated return to the labour market (see Balbo 2009; Mills et al. 2005). Andersson 2003 for Sweden). ...
... In the personal sphere of private life, the rising labour market uncertainties in many European countries have indeed contributed to the postponement or even the abandonment of long-term binding decisions such as leaving the parental home ( Ahn and Mira, 2002;Baizán, 2005; and the gradual replacement of a standard family trajectory with a more turbulent and less uniform pattern (Hofäcker and Chaloupková, 2014). However, the magnitude of the repercussions of labour market insecurities on individual transitions in private life differs notably among countries, suggesting that institutional contexts at the nation-state level mediate the effects of globalisation on young individuals in a nation-specific way (Blossfeld et al., 2011;. ...
... In Southern European countries, characterised by a familist welfare model, the rise in labour market uncertainty has contributed to the postponement of the transition to adult life for young people, but the magnitude of such a repercussion has varied across countries and suggested that this depends on the specific national institutional context. ( Blossfeld et al., 2005Blossfeld et al., , 2012. As an example, in Southern-European countries, where welfare systems are less generous than those of Scandinavian countries in supporting individuals from job loss or in housing costs, the relationship between the labour market condition and the transition to residential autonomy has been found to be stronger ( Ranci et al., 2014). ...
... A large body of research has focused on the potential reasons that may explain the low level of fertility in Europe. We can mention the economic reasons related to the costs and benefits of having a child (Becker, 1981), job insecurity, and increasing opportunity costs (Kohler et al., 2002;Mills et al., 2005), the role of labour market regulation (Adserà, 2004), shifts in ideology (Lesthaeghe, 1995;van de Kaa, 1987), the gender system (McDonald, 2000(McDonald, , 2006Mills et al., 2008), and the structure of individual preferences (Hakim, 2000). The educational attainment of women plays a key role in fertility behaviours, even though nonlinear (Lanzieri, 2013). ...
... I giovani lavoratori sovente risiedono ancora con la famiglia di origine oppure vivono da soli e hanno perciò meno limitazioni negli spostamenti [Green 1997]. Inoltre, nelle prime fasi della carriera lavorativa la mobilità spaziale è funzionale ad un primo arricchimento del capitale umano [Viry et al. 2014] e va di pari passo con una condizione di flessibilità contrattuale [Mills et al. 2006]. Gli studi evidenziano anche una correlazione positiva tra il livello di istruzione e la propensione alla mobilità, in quanto i lavoratori più istruiti spostandosi cercano di massimizzare il loro investimento nella formazione [Mulder e van Ham 2005]. ...
Chapter
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Obiettivo dell’articolo è analizzare le migrazioni temporanee per lavoro dei residenti nel Mezzogiorno verso le regioni del Centro-Nord, per delineare le tendenze del fenomeno e le caratteristiche sociodemografiche e occupazionali dei protagonisti dei trasferimenti non definitivi. Benché sia ancora presente un rilevante divario economico tra le due ripartizioni, il volume della mobilità lungo la direttrice Sud-Nord si è fortemente ridimensionato rispetto all’esodo di qualche decennio fa, ma permane una dipendenza del Mezzogiorno nell’interscambio migratorio. Anche sulla scorta delle dinamiche del mercato dell’occupazione, si può ipotizzare che una porzione delle migrazioni “permanenti” di un tempo si sia trasformata in mobilità provvisoria. Il saggio offre un quadro generale delle odierne migrazioni temporanee per lavoro dal Mezzogiorno al Centro-nord attraverso un’analisi dei dati della Rilevazione continua sulle forze di lavoro (RCFL) dell’ISTAT nel periodo 2013-15, che evidenzia il verificarsi negli ultimi anni di una diminuzione dei flussi temporanei Sud-Nord analoga a quella rilevata per le migrazioni “definitive”, di tipo anagrafico. In particolare, risultano in calo gli spostamenti transitori dei lavoratori dotati di un capitale umano di livello medio-basso, mentre si ha una tenuta dei flussi di lavoratori high-skilled. La presentazione dei risultati è preceduta da una rassegna della letteratura sul tema e da un esame delle diverse definizioni di mobilità transitoria e circolare e delle fonti statistiche esistenti, al fine di dare un contributo alla discussione sul concetto di migrazione temporanea e sull’adeguamento delle fonti quantitative. Nell’ultima parte si tirano le fila dell’articolo e si propone di sviluppare gli studi sulla mobilità territoriale in direzione di una lettura integrata dei fenomeni migratori temporanei e definitivi.
... Higher levels of education and access to professions previously reserved for men have resulted in higher incomes and more stable economic positions for women. However, women who have their first child while they are still studying generally have to postpone their career, as they temporarily withdraw from the labour market [9]. When they do wish to return to work, many young mothers seek part-time employment [10,11]. ...
Article
Numerous social and environmental factors (environmental hazards, social factors such as education and career, higher economic status desired before the decision is made to have children) influence a women's decision to postpone pregnancy until late reproductive age. In turn, age is related to a fall in ovarian reserve. The main goal of testing ovarian reserve is the identification of women with so-called diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Additionally, it provides assistance in the counselling of women who are planning to use assisted reproductive techniques (ART). This review examines current methods of testing ovarian reserve and their application. The most useful methods of assessing ovarian reserve are ultrasonographic count of ovarian antral follicles (AFC) and serum tests of both the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level and the third-day level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). However, there are limitations to the currently used methods of testing ovarian reserve, especially in relation to their specificity and sensitivity. It is also difficult to predict egg quality based on these tests. The value of screening programmes of ovarian reserve is yet to be determined.
... Empirical studies have generally shown a negative relationship between employment uncertainty and fertility, varying with gender, educational level and institutional context. Many empirical studies have shown that unemployment has a more negative impact on men than on women, especially in the least gender-equal countries (Kravdal 2002;Tölke and Diewald 2003;Adsera 2004;Mills et al. 2005;Ozcan, Mayer, and Luedicke 2010;Schmitt 2012). Among women, unemployment mainly has a negative impact on the most educated (Kreyenfeld 2010;Schmitt 2012;Kreyenfeld and Andersson 2014). ...
Article
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This paper investigates whether unemployment and insecure employment lead to delaying first childbearing in France, and whether these impacts are likely to differ between children of immigrants from North Africa and natives across genders. Data come from pooling two cohorts of French school-leavers followed over 7–10 years. Findings show that women of North African descent have a first child later than native women, whereas results for men are not significantly ethnic origin-differentiated. Unemployment and non-permanent employment are related to postponement of fertility for both men and women. Current unemployment affects the children of immigrants from North Africa more than their counterparts with no direct migration background. Persistent unemployment does not have any significant effect on childbearing for the women of North African immigrant descent, while it strongly reduces that of the men. While employment uncertainty thus tends to delay first parenthood, its impact seems to occur more through the timing of couple formation than through the timing of conception among children of immigrants from North Africa.
... It is thus introduced with four dummy variables: 1) no education, primary, or lower secondary general education, 2) lower secondary vocational education, 3) upper secondary education, and 4) postsecondary education. Finally, the timing of childbearing is usually strongly correlated with having completed education and with employment status (Mills, Blossfeld, and Klijzing 2005). Model 4 also controls for labour market status: whether the respondent is still in education or has been employed in a stable job. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND The fertility of immigrants' descendants is an important topic for demographers, since it affects the structure of the future population. However, little attention has been devoted to the fertility behaviour of the second generation in Europe. OBJECTIVE This study analyses the degree to which fertility of the descendants of immigrants is similar to that of French natives. It evaluates the extent to which the observed differences arise from the sociocultural distance between parents' country and host country and from structural determinants. METHODS We analyse the transition to first, second, and third births among different groups of immigrants' daughters (from the Maghreb, sub-Saharan Africa, Turkey, and Southeast Asia), and compare them to native-born women using discrete-time logistic regressions. The data is drawn from the Trajectories and Origins Survey (2008), which oversamples immigrants and their descendants. RESULTS We show a convergence towards French standards that differs across groups of origin. Women of Southeast Asian descent deviate from the fertility pattern of their parents, while those of Turkish descent preserve their parents' cultural heritage. These different paths of adaptation between groups partly reflect cultural distance between parents' country and host country. They also depend on family social capital, family structure, and family values. Access to a higher level of education is a crucial factor in erasing differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS The fertility behaviour of most groups of descendants of immigrants is convergingtowards that of French natives. Cultural factors have much less influence on childbearing patterns than on union formation.
... A su vez, cuanto mayor es el bienestar material al que accede el joven en su hogar de origen, mayor es la aversión al riesgo de pérdida asociado a una decisión de autonomización errática. Esto implica una prolongación del calendario de la primera residencia autónoma, como inversión en el éxito de la misma (Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005) (Avery, Goldscheider, & Speare Jr., 1992) (Mitchell B. , 1, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumen El presente artículo se propone analizar los factores asociados al tipo de hogar de que conforman los jóvenes en su primera experiencia de residencia fuera del hogar parental. Se analizan las características de estratificación, sociodemográficas, de sustento económico del primer hogar y los eventos de transición a la adultez, que introducen diferencias en la probabilidad de que el primer hogar de destino sea nuclear, unipersonal, u otro tipo de arreglo (familiar, no familiar, residencias de estudiantes, etc.). La hipótesis de partida sugiere que el tipo de hogar conformado en la primera experiencia de la residencia autónoma responde a dos estrategias diferenciadas: una que privilegia el bienestar futuro y la acumulación de activos educativos y laborales, que se asocia a tipos de hogares no nucleares (unipersonales u otro tipo de arreglos); otra que privilegia el bienestar presente, el control personal y la inversión en un hogar autónomo, y se asocia a hogares nucleares. A su vez, se sugiere que dichas estrategias admiten diferencias en función del género. Se aplica un modelo de regresión multinomial para estimar los factores asociados al tipo de hogar de primer destino de los jóvenes. El mismo se ajusta para la cohorte en general y separado para varones y mujeres. La base empírica de la investigación es una muestra panel de 2451 jóvenes evaluados por la prueba internacional PISA en el año 2003 a la edad de 15 años, representativa de la población escolarizada a nivel nacional. La misma fue observada en 2 olas de panel; la primera en 2007, a la edad de 19-20 años y la segunda en 2012, cuando contaban con 24-25 años. Palabras clave: autonomía residencial, tipos de hogar de destino, regresión multinomial.
... Neben der in Deutschland seit vielen Jahrzehnten weitgehend gleichbleibend niedrigen Geburtenrate und der zunehmenden Alterung der Gesellschaft stellt die wachsende ökonomische, politische und soziale Vernetzung innerhalb der Europäischen Union und mit anderen Regionen der Welt einen weiteren gesellschaftlichen Veränderungsprozess dar, der bereits zu weitreichenden Konsequenzen für die Lebensplanung von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen geführt hat (Mills/Blossfeld 2013). Dieser Globalisierungsprozess erfasst seit spätestens den 1970er Jahren eine wachsende Zahl von Gesellschaften und auch wenn sich dieser Prozess mit unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit vollzieht (Dreher et al. 2008), wirkt er sich insbesondere auf Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene aus (Mills et al. 2005). In den vergangenen Jahren hat die Finanz-und Wirtschaftskrise in vielen europäischen Ländern ihr Übriges dazu beigetragen, den Übergang von der Schule in das Berufsleben zunehmend schwieriger und unsicherer zu gestalten. ...
... Among the less educated, cohabitation has become a common choice of union formation; but it seems an alternative rather than a prelude to marriage. Thus, as in other countries such as the United States (Oppenheimer 2003) and Japan (Raymo, Iwasawa, and Bumpass 2009), contemporary Mexican cohabitation may function as an alternative to marriage for those with lower socioeconomic status, a pattern that follows international trends in increasing socioeconomic disparities in family behavior (McLanahan 2004) and increasing economic uncertainty surrounding the transition to adulthood in modern societies (Mills, Blossfeld, and Klijzing 2005). Cohabitation has also increased for more-educated women, but for them, it appears to resemble a 'trial marriage' pattern, with higher probabilities of transitioning to marriage or ending in separation. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND Mexico experienced a boom in cohabitation during the 2000s, which has sparked a debate about whether the nature of cohabitation has changed along with its increasing overall rates and diffusion to diverse social groups. OBJECTIVE We examine continuity and change in the dynamics of cohabitation in Mexico to address whether it has largely hewed to prior patterns or taken on new forms. METHODS We analyze the marital histories of 99,387 female respondents in the 2009 National Survey of Demographic Dynamics using multistate event-history techniques. RESULTS Mexico's cohabitation boom of the 2000s was driven by cohorts born after 1975, whose cohabiting unions are less likely to transition to marriage than those formed by earlier cohorts. However, the tendency of cohabiters to marry is greater among the higher educated. CONCLUSION Cohabitation in Mexico used to be rare, concentrated among less-educated women, and mostly a prelude to marriage. As it became more common in the 2000s it also took on at least two distinct patterns. Among the less educated, cohabitation became a common union-formation option, shifting to a longer-term substitute for marriage. Cohabitation also grew, from a lower baseline, among the upper educated; but for them, it is usually a short stage, either transitioning to marriage or ending in separation. CONTRIBUTION Our findings contribute to the literature on international family change by providing an additional case study, different in geographical and cultural setting, of the global rise of cohabitation.
... While spatial mobility does not ensure professional success, it has become an indispensable prerequisite in several sectors, and is often used primarily to match a distant workplace with the attachment to the local context in which one resides (Viry, Ruger and Skora 2014), or to help maintain preexisting family and social ties. One of the conditions of contractual flexibility is associated with a greater propensity for mobility, especially for the younger generations, who are entering into the labour market with difficulty (Mills, Blossfeld and Klijzing 2006). Home ownership limits the propensity for relocation, and also the real estate market trends in the area where the place of work is located can affect the intensity of temporary transfers (Ohman and Lindgren 2003). ...
Article
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The multiple types of temporary and circular migration carried out for work can be interpreted as forms of intermediate mobility located between commuting and permanent migration. These forms of mobility are a flexible adaptation to the new opportunities and constraints brought about by the present-day social and economic organization. The study of temporary migrations represents an arduous yet unavoidable challenge precisely for its contemporary relevance and close connection with ongoing changes in society. Studies on temporary mobility for work are not very common, and also the international literature on the subject does not share definitions and measures, but is concordant in identifying the protagonists as being mostly young men, with a high level of education, and in the early stages of their work life. The aim of the article is two-fold: to provide methodological insights for further studies on temporary migration, contributing to the debate surrounding the conceptualization of this phenomenon and an improvement in quantitative sources; to offer a descriptive and multivariate analysis of southern residents temporarily migrating to the centre-north regions through the Italian Labour Force Survey (ILFS) data. Keywords: "weekly commuting"; "temporary mobility for work"; "circular migration"; "long distance commuting"; "internal migration"; Italy
... For instance, on economic factors, Adsera pointed that unemployment and unstable contracts might reduce fertility significantly by delaying childbearing (12). Also, it pointed to young couples who significantly postpone their childbearing due to uncertain conditions in the labor market, such as temporary employment contracts or job instability (13). Caldwell (1982) asserted that the rising costs of children (e.g., for education) and their declining economic value (e.g., for labor and old age security) result in a decline in the desired family size. ...
Article
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Introduction: Over the last few decades, total fertility rate (TFR) has followed a downward trend in Iran. The consequences of this trend from the perspectives of some are negative. Considering the macro-population policies in recent years, this study aimed to examine the effect of some macro socio-economic variables, including divorce, marriage, urbanization, and unemployment rate on TFR in Iran from 2002 to 2012. Methods: This time series research was conducted in 2015 using the databases of the National Organization for Civil Registration (NOCR) and the Statistical Center of Iran. The study population was the related data of provinces in the selected variables. The main methods used in the research were the common unit root test, Pedroni Cointegration test, redundant fixed effects tests, correlated random effects-Hausman test, and panel least squares of fixed effects. In order to determine the suitable model for estimating panel data, likelihood ratio and Huasman tests were done using Eviews software, and the fixed effects regression model was chosen as the dominant model. Results: The results indicated that the divorce rate had a negative and significant effect on TFR (p < 0.05). A positive and significant relationship between marriage rate and TFR variables also was observed (p < 0.05). Urbanization rate (p = 0.24) and unemployment rate (p = 0.36) had no significant relationship with TFR. According to F statistic, significance of the overall model also was confirmed (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Due to the lower effect of the studied factors on the reduction of TFR, it seems that variables other than the ones studied, as well as cultural factors and values, might be fundamental factors for this change in the country.
... A large body of research has focused on the potential reasons that may explain the low level of fertility in Europe. We can mention the economic reasons related to the costs and benefits of having a child (Becker, 1981), job insecurity, and increasing opportunity costs (Kohler et al., 2002;Mills et al., 2005), the role of labour market regulation (Adserà, 2004), shifts in ideology (Lesthaeghe, 1995;van de Kaa, 1987), the gender system (McDonald, 2000(McDonald, , 2006Mills et al., 2008), and the structure of individual preferences (Hakim, 2000). The educational attainment of women plays a key role in fertility behaviours, even though nonlinear (Lanzieri, 2013). ...
... Numerous theories have been put forward to explain these changes (e.g. Becker 1981;Lesthaeghe 1995;Van de Kaa 1996;McDonald 2000;Blossfeld et al. 2003;Esping-Andersen 2009;Perelli-Harris et al. 2010). What all of these theories have in common is that they suggest that educational attainment -and particularly the increase in educational attainment among women, which is linked to higher rates of female labour force participation -is a key driving force of these changes in fertility. ...
Article
The decline in fertility has been linked to changes in educational attainment, particularly among women. Most studies on this topic have, however, focused on the impact of education on fertility timing. In this study, we examine the association between education and completed fertility; specifically, whether the educational gradient differs between women and men and between younger and older birth cohorts. Importantly, we investigate whether the educational gradient varies across European welfare systems. In our analysis, we applied multilevel modelling to individual-level data on fertility quantum in 25 countries from the European Social Survey. Overall, women and older cohorts had higher completed fertility rates than men and younger cohorts. The total number of children born to each individual decreased with increasing educational levels. This negative gradient was stronger among women than among men, and was weaker among younger than among older cohorts in western Europe. At the macro level, we found the weakest negative educational gradients in the social-democratic countries and in the post-Soviet states. The negative gradient was strongest in the Mediterranean countries and in the postcommunist countries.
... We theorize that individualization associated with transnational mobility displays a gendered pattern, due to the markedly different positions of women and men in the sphere of production and social reproduction in modern societies (EIGE 2021). 3 Hence, studies of modern life courses have appointed middle-aged men as the winners of globalization (Mills, Blossfeld, and Klijzing 2005). Mason (2004) associates strategic individualism with a privileged minority of men, who have decoupled themselves from interpersonal commitments. ...
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In a context of a new transnational division of labour, temporary international labour mobility is on the rise in Europe. In particular, recent decades have seen considerably more women seeking work experience abroad. Observers have been concerned with how such mobility is related to individualization, and in particular how it may challenge collective institutions, communities and families. The aim of this study is to explore such issues among women and men with international work experience. Using data from European Social Survey, the paper investigates previously mobile workers in terms of their current working and living conditions. Across genders, we consider different forms of individualization that may be associated with transnational labour mobility. While both women and men with transnational work experience generally feature strong strategic individualization, this is most pronounced among men. Hence, men's mobility is among other things associated with increased autonomy in working life, while – in contrast to women – it does not seem to hamper their integration in the sphere of social reproduction.
... The social stratification of homeownership could also be more pronounced in countries with a marked insider-outsider division in the labour force (such as Germany or Southern European countries) than in countries with flexible labour markets (like the UK) where moving between jobs and occupational sectors is relatively easy (Lersch & Dewilde, 2015). In Germany, strong labour market regulations protect 'insiders' and leave 'outsiders' to face high levels of job insecurity (Lersch & Dewilde, 2015;Mills et al., 2005). ...
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Although previous research shows that family dynamics and parental socioeconomic status influence the timing of young adults’ first entry into homeownership, much less is known about how the role of family factors may vary across countries with different housing systems. In this article, we use panel survey data from Britain and Germany to compare how family life course careers and parental socioeconomic background influence young adults’ initial entry into homeownership in these two divergent national contexts. The results show that in Britain, first-time homeownership transitions are tightly synchronized with partnership formation. By contrast, in Germany first moves into homeownership typically occur later around or after the arrival of children. Parental owner-occupation accelerates entry into homeownership in both contexts, while the effects of other parental characteristics are relatively muted. Furthermore, the results highlight how individual socioeconomic factors are critical determinants of entering owner-occupation. This is particularly true in Britain where there is a strong socioeconomic gradient in first-time homeownership transitions.
... A large number of post-industrial countries in Europe and East Asia are characterized by very low fertility (Kohler et al. 2002;Billari and Kohler 2004;Goldstein et al. 2009). Economic uncertainty is a major driver of low fertility in Europe, and an extensive literature has examined the relationship between macroeconomic instability and total fertility (Tölke and Diewald 2003;Mills et al. 2005;Sobotka et al. 2011;Kreyenfeld et al. 2012;Vignoli et al. 2012;Örsal and Goldstein 2018). Many social demographers have also adopted a micro-level perspective and have analysed the relationship between economic uncertainty and fertility at the couple level (Özcan et al. 2010;Kreyenfeld et al. 2012;Testa and Gietel-Basten 2014). ...
Article
Economic uncertainty contributes to low fertility in many European countries. On the other hand, greater gender equality may positively influence fertility. This paper examines how these two forces interact in Spain. We use in-depth interviews to analyse fertility decision-making among young and highly educated partnered adults living in urban areas. Highly gender-egalitarian interviewees are less likely to perceive economic insecurity as an obstacle to proceeding to a next birth than less egalitarian interviewees. But there is not necessarily a difference in these two groups’ overall fertility intentions, as highly egalitarian interviewees’ greater valuation of stable employment for both partners requires institutional and policy support for dual-earner couples’ childrearing. When we look only at interviewees who express economic insecurity, somewhat higher fertility intentions are expressed by those holding less gender-egalitarian attitudes. Our results underline the complexity of the interrelationships between economic insecurity, gender egalitarianism, and fertility intentions. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2019.1604979
... Not to mention that respondents have long term commitments in family development. So, Mills and Blossfeld (2005) said that it become a new challenge which requires a lot of commitments. The fluctuating price of goods, services and fuel also become worsen for them to survive (Cooley & Quadrini, 2006). ...
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The degree of Malaysian household debt remains high, at present among the highest in Asia, raising concerns about its sustainability. Based on that existing issue and results of the several studies the question is arisen regarding what needs to be done to address the high levels of financial vulnerability experienced by the Malaysians, especially the young adults. Therefore, major objective of the current study was to examine the major determinants that affect financial vulnerability, and allow policymakers to address the above issue. A multi stage random sampling method was performed to draw a representative sample of Malaysian young adults, and 651 duly filled responses were received through the self-administered questionnaire. As stated by the multiple regression results, 53.1% of the total variance of financial vulnerability was explained by the model. Determinants of financial vulnerability examined by this study comprise financial socialization, financial behavior, locus of control, and financial stress; all of them were significantly related with the financial vulnerability and except financial stress, all other three determinants were shown negative relationships. Therefore, current study has both the theoretical and practical contributions, and offers experts with actionable insights regarding the determinants of young adults' financial vulnerability when designing policies to prevent them from moving from a state of lower to higher financial vulnerability overtime.
... More recently, other determinants that have gained importance are the separation between sexuality and procreation in marriages, as well as the process of family deinstitutionalization (Sobotka, 2008). Other factors to take into account are the decrease of adolescent fertility and delays in the nuptial calendar and consolidation of couples (Mills, Blossfeld & Klijzing, 2005). This last determinant has, in many cases, an effect in delaying maternity, although it is important to remark that marriage is no longer a key factor in biological reproduction, as it was in previous decades. ...
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This article is featured in the Frontline section. The analysis of the impacts of the pandemic continues in “Socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Marriages in Spain”, where Ana Gutiérrez Sanchis, Paula Remoaldo and Carlos Martínez de Ibarreta Zorita, discuss the results of a study concerning marriages in Spain during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and its associated lockdown, that took place in 2020. The authors underline that in Spain, during the 1st Semester of 2020, marriages were 60.8% less than the year before in 2019. Every Spanish region was affected with a decrease of more than 50% of marriages, compared to the data of the previous year. The losses associated with the wedding industry are not just social but mostly economic. So, some questions remain open on the effective balance between new opportunities arising and losses to administer.
... Not to mention that respondents have long term commitments such as family development. So, Mills, Blossfeld and Klijzing (2005) said that it become a new challenge which requires a lot of commitments. The fluctuating price of goods, services and fuel also worsen for them to survive (Cooley & Quadrini, 2006). ...
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This study examines the relationship between financial stress, work environment, locus of control, financial behavior and financial well-being among public employees in Putrajaya. A survey was carried out to acquire data from 374 public employees using a self-administered on-line questionnaire, utilizing multistage random sampling. Results showed that financial stress (r =-0.643**, p < 0.01), work environment (r = 0.247**, p < 0.01), locus of control (r = 0.395**, p < 0.01) and financial behavior (r = 0.363**, p < 0.01) have significant relationship with financial well-being. It was discovered that respondents who were experiencing lower financial stress, have positive work environment, locus of control and financial behavior tend to have a better financial well-being. Financial stress (beta =-0.543, p < 0.01), work environment (beta = 0.080, p < 0.01), locus of control (beta = 0.132, p < 0.01) and financial behavior (beta = 0.244, p < 0.01) have significant influence on respondents' financial well-being. Based on the results, financial well-being can be enhanced through the decreased of the employees' financial stress and increasing of their work environment, locus of control and financial behavior.
... Women's childbearing intention can change as a result of different plans between partners (Iacovou and Tavares, 2011). Furthermore, previous studies have found that fertility intentions incorporate perceptions of both partners' desired fertility (Thomson, 1997) and their desire to have a child (Iacovou and Tavares, 2011), changes in circumstances and actual fertility events (Liefbroer, 2009), and tendency to delay parenthood (Mills et al., 2005). Consequently, studies on fertility intention at an individual level need to include both men's and women's fertility intentions, and their responses to any hypothetical determinants of fertility intention. ...
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Individuals who are economically well-off, or who possess a specific or mixed-gender preference for their children tend to have a much higher intention to have two children. The findings of this study strongly support the fact that ‘cultural factors’ play an important role in determining Chinese people’s intention to have two children. But for policymakers, the overall findings imply that the ‘two-child’ policy is likely ineffective in stimulating a higher fertility rate in the short term given that the economic wellbeing of a family exerts a far more significant impact on fertility intention than cultural and behavioral dimensions.
... The emergence of low fertility rates in different regions of the world had initially been attributed to the occurrence of increases in the cost of childbearing for women in addition to economic uncertainty (Kohler, Billari, & Ortega, 2002;Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005) and recently to gender inequality in family gender-roles and decisionmaking (McDonald, 2000) and most importantly to the spread of individualism and the emergence of alternative family formations, which have been described as a second demographic transition (SDT; Lesthaeghe, 1995;van de Kaa, 1987) and are not very compatible with childbearing. ...
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Over the past two decades, the overall fertility rate in Iran, like most developed and some developing countries, has fallen drastically to a below-replacement level (under two children per woman is required to maintain a population). The enduring low fertility rate can accelerate population aging and the declining labor force, with the prospect of severe consequences for economic development. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the determinants of low fertility is essential for adequate policy responses to this situation. This invited review article highlights the signs of an emerging Second Demographic Transition in Iran, reinforcing low fertility, and reviews the population policy options that the government needs to consider.
... Economic uncertainty among men indicates difficulties in financial provision and a poor future lifestyle. Oppenheimer views the rise in cohabitation as a rational response to uncertainty because of its flexibility and suitability to changes in the labour market (Kalmijn, 2011;Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005). ...
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Evidence suggests that disability negatively affects people’s propensity to find a partner. Persons with disabilities that eventually find a partner do so later in life compared to the average population. There is a lack of studies on the differences in partnership opportunities for persons with disabilities compared to those without disabilities in Sweden. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of disability on partnership formation and to assess whether partnership formation varies as a function of individual demographic and socio-economic factors. We use nationwide data available in the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in Social and Medical Sciences (Umeå SIMSAM Lab). We follow persons born from 1973 to 1977 when they were from 16 to 37 years of age and analyze their data using logistic regression. Our findings indicate that regardless of whether a person started to receive a disability pension at an early age or later, it was associated with lower odds for partnership formation. For persons who started receiving disability pension from 16 to 20 years of age, chances for partnership formation reduced with increase in age of partnership. Individuals that started to receive disability pension later were more likely to form partnership prior to receiving disability pension. Partnership formation was less likely among persons born outside Sweden, in persons with mothers born outside Sweden, in individuals born by unmarried mothers and in persons, whose mothers had a high level of education. Partnership was high among women and among persons who had many maternal siblings. In conclusion, receiving disability pension was associated with reduced chances for partnership formation. Receiving disability pension might imply financial constraints that negatively influence partnership formation supporting Oppenheimer’s theory on the economic cost of marriage and the uncertainty hypothesis.
... 16 Furthermore, the recovery of fertility rates is associated with access to labor markets and/or entry into cohabiting unions. 17 The impact of uncertainty, however, is mediated by regional factors, such as how much welfare protection young adults receive, 18 and also by individual factors, including the mother's level of education or women income. 19 Family and other welfare policies also have an effect on fertility rates. ...
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Objective: To describe trends in fertility in Spain before (pre-recession; 1998-2008) and during (recession period; 2009-2013) the economic crisis of 2008, taking into account women's age and regional unemployment in 2010. Method: The study consisted of a panel design including cross-sectional ecological data for the 17 regions of Spain. We describe fertility trends in Spain in two time periods, pre-recession (1998-2008) and recession (2009-2013). We used a cross-sectional, ecological study of Spanish-born women to calculate changes in fertility rates for each period using a linear regression model adjusted for year, period, and interaction between them. Results: We found that compared to the pre-recession period, the fertility rate in Spain generally decreased during the economic recession. However, in some regions, such as the Canary Islands, this decrease began before the onset of the recession, while in other regions, such as the Basque country, the fertility rate continued to grow until 2011. The effects of the recession on the fertility rate are clearly observed in women aged 30-34 years. Conclusions: The current economic recession has disrupted the positive trend in fertility that began at the start of this century. Since Spain already had very low fertility rates, the further decline caused by the economic recession could jeopardize the sustainability of welfare-state systems.
... Jobs have become less secure and employment overall less stable, especially for the young (Bukodi, Ebralidze, Schmelzer, & Blossfeld, 2008;ILO, 2012aILO, , 2012b). Compared to older cohorts, young adults today take longer to establish themselves in the workforce, which can become manifest in various forms of insecurity, such as struggling to find a job in the first place, receiving temporary contracts, or losing jobs and becoming unemployed (Mills, Blossfeld, & Klijzing, 2005). These developments suggest that concerns regarding the future of their jobs are an increasingly salient issue for young adults (Fiori, Rinesi, Spizzichino, & Di Giorgio, Introduction employment across different jobs, ranging from less secure temporary contracts to unemployment (Chung & Van Oorschot, 2011). ...
Thesis
Young labor market entrants, disproportionately affected by employment flexibilization, are vulnerable to job and employment insecurity. Insecurity during the transition from education to employment can take various forms, such as worrying about job loss, receiving temporary contracts, or struggling to find a job all. Job insecurity (i.e., threats to job continuity) and employment insecurity (i.e., threats to continuous employment across jobs) may have negative consequences for health and well-being. This thesis investigates patterns of job and employment insecurity, their antecedents, and consequences for health and well-being among young adults. Three studies based on the German Socio-Economic Panel were conducted. Study I investigated the relative importance of temporary employment and perceived job insecurity in predicting health and well-being among young workers, as well as the moderating role of education. Only perceived job insecurity was associated with lower mental health, job and life satisfaction. The association of perceived job insecurity with mental health was most pronounced among young workers with vocational training. Study II investigated patterns of development (i.e., trajectories) of perceived job insecurity and their respective associations with predictors and outcomes across six years upon labor market entry. Temporary entry jobs, private sector employment, lower than tertiary education, and previous unemployment predicted less favorable trajectories. In turn, less secure trajectories were associated with lower self-rated health, job and life satisfaction. Study III investigated trajectories of employment insecurity, ranging from permanent employment over temporary employment to being NEET (not in employment, education or training). Young men, mothers, migrants, school leavers without vocational qualifications, but in part also university graduates, were at risk of experiencing repeated temporary employment and labor market exclusion. Less secure trajectories were associated with lower and deteriorating health and life satisfaction. This thesis provides novel insights into heterogeneous trajectories of job and employment insecurity, associated social risk factors, and consequences for health and well-being. The findings suggest that accounting for different indicators of insecurity, as well as for timing and duration in patterns of development can advance our understanding of insecurity in the transition from education to employment. Job and employment insecurity appear as salient stressors among young adults. Employers and policy makers should be aware of potential negative health effects of flexible employment, and work towards preventing labor market exclusion and providing young adults with sustainable entry paths into employment.
... With regard to age, a key variable in the analyses that follow, it has been put forth that the RPPs' voters are to be found among the older generations, resentful of rapid social change On the other hand, the young have less clear political preferences, weaker party identification, and thus due to the high volatility of their vote, together with a tendency to experiment, they will have higher propensity to vote for RPPs (Arzheimer 2018). Moreover, 'youth are increasingly vulnerable to uncertainty' that 'materializes in increasingly more precarious and lower-quality employment such as fixed-term contracts, part-time or irregular work hours' which 'makes them the "losers" of globalization' (Mills, Blossfeld and Klijzing, 2005: 438-439). 4 Many studies find a negative effect of age upon the support of RPPs or other Therefore, it should not come as a surprise that some recent studies found that the profiles of RPPs' voters differ between countries (Rooduijn, 2018a). ...
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The recent success of right-wing populist parties (RPPs) in Europe has given rise to different explanations. Economic factors have proven to be significant mainly at the aggregate level. As for the individual level, it has been argued that the so-called ‘losers of globalization’ – the less educated and less skilled, profiles with higher job insecurity – are more likely to support RPPs. Nevertheless, RPPs perform strikingly well in countries less affected by the Great Recession, gathering high levels of support among profiles not considered the losers of globalization. Moreover, the effect of age on support for RPPs is not clear, as, on the one hand, the young are better educated and skilled, but, on the other, they suffered the effects of the economic crisis more. To address this puzzle, we focus on the impact of unemployment and employment insecurity among the youth on voting for RPPs in 17 European countries. We find that youth support for RPPs can be explained by the precariousness of the youth labour market.
Article
Fathers are important influences for the healthy development during the transition to adulthood of their children. Despite the theoretical acknowledgement of the reciprocal nature of the father–child relationship, we currently know very little about the experience of being fathered, particularly of immigrant male youth. Drawing on qualitative data from a study of Mexican-origin male youth in Chicago, this article documents the respondents’ experiences of their fathers as providers, role models and authority figures. The analysis reveals however, that the respondents experienced these rather traditional father roles in different ways, ranging from extreme violence and neglect to dedication and sacrifice, which in turn, led to rejection, modification, or emulation in their own conceptions of fatherhood. The findings urge researchers to examine the long-term effects of being fathered among immigrant youth and more specifically, how the experience of being fathered leads to different or similar patterns of fathering behavior later in life.
Article
Information technology and the formation of the global market have led to such destructive a complication of the environment, which generates global imbalances, the negative effects of conflict, reducing the level of institutionalization of the world economy, narrowing the time horizon of rational choice. This stimulates the search for alternatives to excessive complexity and conflict of development. The way out of this situation is localization based on the reproduction of identities. The desired effect of localization is the institutional provision of a more balanced distribution of resources / benefits of globalization, on the one hand, and the distribution of its risks and uncertainties, on the other. Identity is seen as the extreme level of structure of society, which is responsible for the integrity of social behavior of subjects as elements of the system. The acceptable level of complexity of the global system is achieved in the ways of optimal localization. The basis of such localization is the recognition of the positive meaning of the identity factor, which generates different risk assessments, different time horizons of decision-making and different criteria for effective participation in globalization. The institutional mechanisms for the smart-localization of global development are economic sovereignty, institutional protection of the national producer, and social protection of the population. As a result, the global system has a choice of options to respond to challenges from uncertainty and threats. Globalization as unification and standardization is a more risky path because it limits variability and prevents the use of alternative cost estimation methods.
Chapter
The UK has been characterized as a liberalmarket economy with a liberal residual welfare system. Relative to other Western European economies, British workers have low levels of employment protection and limited support from the social security system. Erosion of legal protection and trade union support further accelerated during the 1980s and 1990s. Although employment laws introduced by the ‘New Labour’ government that was in power from 1997 to 2010 and European Directives aimed at protecting part-time and temporary workers have to some extent alleviated the problems associated with the flexibilization of work, employment protection remains low, which particularly affects young people entering the labour market and older people on the cusp of retirement.
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The report maps the extent of precarious work in Ireland, defined in terms of the employment contract. Through qualitative interviews with precarious workers, it analyses the impact of precarious work on their lives, focusing in particular on health, housing and family formation.
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Der Aufsatz gibt einen Überblick über den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand im Themenfeld der Partnerlosigkeit und der Partnerbindung. Behandelt werden der sozialwissenschaftliche Diskurs um den Themenbereich der Partnerlosigkeit, die Verbreitung von Paarbeziehungen in Deutschland und um deren Entwicklung in den letzten Jahrzehnten, der hierfür ausschlaggebende Prozess der Verkürzung von Paarbeziehungen, zentrale Einfl ussfaktoren der Bindungschancen, die Beziehungschancen im höheren Lebensalter sowie die Verbreitung und Entwicklung der Partnerlosigkeit im internationalen Vergleich.
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The fertility influence of spousal intimate relationships is unknown. Drawing on the Giddens’s theory of transformation of intimacy, this study proposed a hypothesis that couples supporting egalitarian intimate relationships, with a greater risk profile attached to the relationship, and having less attachments to the external normative pressures shaping marital relations, are more likely to have low-fertility intentions and preferences. Using data from a self-administered pilot survey ( n = 375 prospective grooms and brides) designed by the authors, and employing multivariate regression models, we found that the lower attachment to external social forces in mate selection was associated with the lower ideal number of children, and those with a greater spousal relational egalitarianism and a higher risk profile attached to their relationships preferred lower number of children and were less likely to intend to have children after marriage. The study sheds new light on the determinants of low fertility.
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The relationship between employment instability and fertility is a major topic in demographic research, with a proliferation of published papers on this matter, especially since the Great Recession. Employment instability, which most often manifests in unemployment or time-limited employment, is usually deemed to have a negative effect on fertility, although different fertility reactions are hypothesized by sociological theories, and micro-level evidence is fragmented and contradictory. We used meta-analytic techniques to synthesize European research findings, offer general conclusions about the effects of employment instability on fertility (in terms of direction and size), and rank different sources of employment instability. Our results suggest that employment instability has a nonnegligible negative effect on fertility. Men's unemployment is more detrimental for fertility than men's time-limited employment; conversely, a woman having a fixed-term contract is least likely to have a child. Next, the negative effect of employment instability on fertility has become stronger over time, and is more severe in Southern European countries, where social protection for families and the unemployed is least generous. Finally, meta-regression estimates demonstrate that failing to account for income and partner characteristics leads to an overestimation of the negative effect of employment instability on fertility. We advance the role of these two factors as potential mechanisms by which employment instability affects fertility. Overall, this meta-analysis provides the empirical foundation for new studies on the topic.
Thesis
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European countries have witnessed strong changes in partnership and family formation in the second half of the twentieth century. Couples have started living together at an older age, particularly marriage has been delayed and progressively shunned. In addition, unmarried cohabitation has become increasingly popular and replaced marriage as the dominant first union type. Also, the tie between marriage and parenthood has weakened. Cultural explanations (i.e. the Second Demographic Transition theory) of these changing demographic behaviors have been criticized for making short shrift of the role of individual and aggregate economic adversities. This criticism refers to the severe economic downturns that Europe has witnessed throughout the last decades and their impact on demographic behavior. The analyses in this book show that unfavorable economic conditions contribute to the postponement of partnership formation and the rise of unmarried cohabitation. However, the effect of economic conditions seems to vary considerably between educational groups. In addition, this book provides evidence for the hypothesis that changes in partnership and family formation have unfolded differently across European countries. The results show that new demographic behaviors in Central and Eastern Europe predominantly emerge as a lower class characteristic. In this respect, the Second Demographic Transition is suggested to have manifold faces, which are contingent on time and place. This book is of interest to social demographers, family sociologists and anyone who is interested in the determinants of partnership and family formation.
Chapter
Family life has changed. While the standardized life courses of men and women during the “Golden Thirties” has been replaced by a magnitude of different lifestyles, politicians struggle with the development of adequate reactions. Meanwhile lifestyles continue to diversify.
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Die für Deutschland beobachtete Flexibilisierung des Arbeitsmarktes ist im int ernationalen Vergleich kein Ausnahmephänomen. Auch viele andere OECD-Staaten hatten in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten eine starke Zunahme atypischer Beschäftigung zu verzeichnen. In welcher Form und in welchem Ausmaß sich diese neuen Gegebenheiten am Arbeitsmarkt auf das Privatleben der Beschäftigten auswirken, ist dabei von institutionellen Filtern des jeweiligen Landes, wie z. B. der wohlfahrtsstaatlichen Ausrichtung und dem Beschäftigungssystem abhängig (Mills et al. 2005).
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How much do young people’s daily activities differ according to where they live? As a global generation, young people are disproportionally subject to the risks and insecurity of globalization. However, countries differ in their support for young people’s inclusion through economic and social participation. Using time use surveys from Australia, Italy, Finland, France, Korea, Spain, the UK and the USA (n = 23,271), this paper investigates national differences in the amount of time young people (20–34 years) spend on paid and unpaid work, study and leisure in each country. Gender gaps in market work and non-market work were widest in the Anglo and southern European countries. In France and Finland, gender differences in daily market and non-market activity were narrower. Young women spent more daily time in study than young men in all countries except Korea, where study time was highest. Young men and young women in social democratic Finland had more leisure time than young people elsewhere. Results suggest that young people’s experience of the consequences of globalization is not universal, but that nation-states remain relevant in determining their welfare.
Article
This paper aims to describe, from the standpoint of the life course, how young people's trajectories are shaped through the articulation between history and biography, emphasizing the changes associated with the meaning of the family and, from an economic standpoint, how the growing uncertainty resulting partly from the impact of the globalization of the labor market, social changes and cultural transformations, causing young people to stop experiencing linear trajectories, leaving current itineraries and collective identities at risk.
Chapter
The sharp rise in unemployment among the under-35s since the start of the crisis in 2008 has not brought down the total fertility rate, which stood at 1.98 children per woman in metropolitan France in 2014, only marginally below its 2008 level (2.01). But this stability does not mean that unemployment does not affect individual behaviours. This chapters shows, first, that childless unemployed people less frequently plan to have a child in the short term. Second, beyond fertility intentions, person with experience of unemployment less frequently have a first child. However, the birth of another child (generally the second) follows a very different rationale. Having a second child is frequent in France (the ideal family has at least two children) and the decision depends mainly (but not solely) on the desired spacing between births. All in all, unemployment does not directly affect women’s childbearing plans, nor those of men who are already fathers.
Article
Background: There is a well-documented decline in fertility treatment success with increasing female age; however, there are few preconception cohort studies examining female age and natural fertility. In addition, data on male age and fertility is inconsistent. Given the increasing number of couples attempting conception at older ages, a more detailed characterization of age-related fecundability in the general population is of great clinical utility. Objective: To examine the association between female and male age with fecundability. Study design: We conducted a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada. Participants enrolled between June 2013 and July 2017. Eligible participants were aged 21-45 years (females) or ≥21 years (males), and not using fertility treatments. Couples were followed until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. We analyzed data from 2,962 couples who had been trying to conceive for ≤3 cycles at study entry and reported no history of infertility. We used life-table methods to estimate the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 and 12 cycles by female and male age. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios, the per-cycle probability of conception for each age category relative to the referent (21-24 years), and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Among females, the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 cycles of attempt time ranged from 62.0% (age 28-30 years) to 27.6% (age 40-45 years); the cumulative pregnancy proportion at 12 cycles of attempt time ranged from 79.3% (age 25-27 years) to 55.5% (age 40-45 years). Similar patterns were observed among males, although differences between age groups were smaller. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a nearly monotonic decline in fecundability with increasing female age, with the exception of 28-33 years, where fecundability was relatively stable. Fecundability ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.11) for ages 25-27, 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.08) for ages 28-30, 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-1.08) for ages 31-33, 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.05) for ages 34-36, 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.81) for ages 37-39, and 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.73) for ages 40-45, compared with the reference group (ages 21-24 years). The association was stronger among nulligravid women. Male age was not appreciably associated with fecundability after adjustment for female age, although the number of men over age 45 years was small (n=37). Conclusion: In this preconception cohort study of North American pregnancy planners, increasing female age was associated with an approximately linear decline in fecundability. While we found little association between male age and fecundability, the small number of men in our study over age 45 years limited our ability to draw conclusions on fecundability in older men.
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Jugendliche sind häufig die Leidtragenden wirtschaftlicher Krisen, andererseits ist man beim Übergang ins Erwachsenenalter anfällig für persönliche Krisen. Der Übergang ins Berufsleben ist zunehmend unsicher geworden, Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit als Stressfaktor ist in dieser Lebensphase jedoch wenig erforscht. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, Einflussfaktoren der Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit junger Beschäftigter sowie deren Zusammenhang mit Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden zu untersuchen. Analysen mit Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels zeigen, dass soziodemografische, arbeitsbezogene und psychosoziale Faktoren sowie der zeitliche und regionale Kontext mit Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit zusammenhängen. Der negative Zusammenhang von Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit mit Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden wird bereits zu Beginn des Berufslebens sichtbar. Präventionsmaßnahmen sollten auf Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, aber auch auf strukturelle Rahmenbedingungen abzielen, um Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit zu verringern.
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