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Information on Public Transport: A Comparison Between Information Systems at Bus Stops


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Bus stops are a very important element in urban mobility, linking the user to the public transport. It is essential that the infrastructure be adequate to accommodate the user with comfort and safety, providing correct information about the city and the transport system. Therefore, this article presents a small theoretical framework and performs a comparison between information panels at bus stops in five cities around the world. The aim is to analyze whether these panels have clear and objective information related to the urban transport system. It was concluded that the bus stops in Brazilian cities had a very poor performance compared with those of other countries.
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2351-9789 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of AHFE Conference
doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.958
Procedia Manufacturing 3 ( 2015 ) 6353 6360
Available online at
6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the
Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015
Information on public transport: a comparison between information
systems at bus stops
A. S. Tavares
*, C. Gálvez
, Albuquerque
, A. L. Almeida
, R. Q. Barros
M. Soares
, V. Villarouco
Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235 - CDU, Recife-PE, 50670-901, Brazil
School of Human Kinetics, University of Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, s/n, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
Bus stops are a very important element in urban mobility, linking the user to the public transport. It is essential that the
infrastructure be adequate to accommodate the user with comfort and safety, providing correct information about the city and the
transport system. Therefore, this article presents a small theoretical framework and performs a comparison between informatio
panels at bus stops in five cities around the world. The aim is to analyze whether these panels have clear and objective
information related to the urban transport system. It was concluded that the bus stops in Brazilian cities had a very poor
performance compared with those of other countries.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
-review under responsibility of AHFE Conference.
Keywords: Urban mobility; Urban transport; Bus stop; Information panel; Informational ergonomics
1. Introduction
Public transport plays a key role in urban mobility because it aims to meet the needs of citizens for ease of
movement. The larger the urban center, the more complex it is to circulate in its areas and increasingly necessary to
have an efficient public transport system. This scenario is included wherever citizens want to perform some task or
satisfy a need, either in their place of work or study or at a leisure venue. Used by most of the world population,
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +55 81 2126-8316; fax: +55 81 2126-8300.
mail address: (A. S. Tavares)
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of AHFE Conference
6354 A.S. Tavares et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 3 ( 2015 ) 6353 – 6360
public transport can be divided into various categories of vehicles: buses, subways, trams and trains, with passenger
terminals or stops, the most numerous being the bus stops.
Focusing on urban buses (which is the most widely used means of public transport in Brazil) and centralizing this
search at the bus stops, it is observed that this type of urban equipment has several physical elements that work
together seamlessly: shelters against rain and sunshine, benches, signs and information boards. In this context we
include the local architecture and the physical conditions of streets and sidewalks, which are not part of this study.
At bus stops it is common to find information screens or plates. These panels contain key information so the user
can be guided within the city and move independently, quickly and efficiently. This information should give the user
the necessary conditions so that he will understand how to proceed to move more quickly, facilitating the users’
orientation and mobility. The way to use informational elements to accomplish this task can be quite varied,
according to the local culture with differences from one region to another. If panels of different countries are
analyzed, differences may be higher.
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of information panels at public bus stops in five cities of four
countries on three continents. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits and observation of the information
contained in the panels, regardless of the physical structure of the bus stop. We tried to identify the information in
the panels and whether they meet the demand users’ demands, as regards the collection of information for precise
movements from one point to another in the city, effectively, safely, comfortably, and in an autonomous and
dynamic way.
The end result showed that there are many differences in the amount and quality of information in the analyzed
panels. While some panels of some cities were efficient and complete in their aim of promoting good mobility,
others did not provide minimum useful information.
2. Urban mobility
Urban mobility is one of the major problems which the world population living in urban environments face. To
facilitate the circulation of large numbers of people, the public transport system is considered a good alternative [1].
Although many countries adopt public urban transport systems that favor collective circulation, in Brazil the
situation is quite different. The way the Brazilian population moves within cities is usually private (using private
cars), individual (sometimes one household has several vehicles), on streets and roads (railways and waterways are
not used) and with most vehicles using fossil fuels) [2].
As for public transport, the most widely means used in Brazil is the bus [3]. And ordinarily in Brazilian cities
there are fleets of buses belonging to private companies, which aim to profitability in the first place and are not
always concerned with the quality of service. Thus many problems encountered in this system are: aging of fleet
vehicles; structural problems at bus stops and terminals caused by vandalism and lack of maintenance; urban
violence; low investment in the quality of information panels at bus stops and so forth. This context keeps citizens
away from using urban transport.
This is common in several cities in Brazil. A special highlight is the cities with strong tourist features, receiving
people from other regions of the country or even from other countries who want to see the sights using buses. Many
of these tourists need an efficient and reliable information system in places intended for getting on or off buses. This
system provides also local citizens requiring route guidance for destinations other than the usual.
In this sense it is possible to note that a bus stop can be used by a people with different characteristics, cultures,
education, features and experiences. That is, they can be used by children, adolescents, adults, seniors, disabled
people, locals and tourists. Therefore, the information is essential and should suit everyone. However, if the system
of information and guidance is not efficient it can disrupt and even harm anyone needing to move from one point to
another in the city.
3. Information at bus stops
In Brazil a law was created in 2012 that forced the agencies responsible for national urban transport to provide
information on the transport system in the points of embarkation and disembarkation. Law No. 12.587 / 2012 refers
to the "National Policy on Urban Mobility" and its purpose is to help users of public transport to have universal
A.S. Tavares et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 3 ( 2015 ) 6353 – 6360
access to the city. This law established that users should get free information on routes, schedules, fares, and on their
rights and obligations, on service operators’ rights and obligations etc [4].
Brazil’s National Urban Mobility System is "an organized and coordinated set of modes of transport, services and
infrastructure that ensures the movement of people and goods in the territory of the Municipality". In this context,
focusing on the research object (information panel at bus stop), Law No. 12.587 / 2012 has some important
x Bus stops are for embarkation and disembarkation of people and are identified as an infrastructure of urban
The nature of the service is public and collective.
The object are passengers and the urban mode of transport are motor vehicles.
This is the minimum physical structure that should be available for the Brazilian population (or any other users)
to use public transport. However, urban mobility is complex and depends on other elements that allow users to know
where they are, where they want to go and how to achieve their goal, or reach their destination. An oriented user is
one who knows where he/she is, either in time or space, and also what he/she can do to move and set the target
location [5].
For this process to occur efficiently it is essential that the bus stop have adequate informational elements.
Without this information it is possible to feel disoriented and unable to get to the desired destination [6]. For
information to be effective it is very important that it is coherent and comprehensible. Also, public transport in a city
with many tourist attractions must meet two types of public [7]
Locals - use public transport regularly, moving for work, study or pleasure, but probably not needing much
information at the bus stop
Visitors and tourists - generally have little or no knowledge of the city and need a lot of information to get
The behavior of these two types of users is different and each values different attributes in the urban transport
system. Below is the result of two surveys conducted in order to identify the most valued attributes in a public
transport system
Security, scenery, flexibility, freedom, costs [8].
x Reliability, frequency, availability of stops, costs [9].
The attributes are varied and demonstrate the need for the existence of an efficient transport system to meet these
demands, especially the item "costs", which appears in both surveys. It indicates that the public transport system is
also valued for being a cheaper alternative for mobility. Therefore, the bus stop has become an important reference
point for the population, to the point where people give twice more importance to time spent at a bus stop than the
time spent on the bus during the trip [10].
In Brazil, the bus stop is the main source of information in an urban context [3]. However, the same study found
that the amount of information available to the public on public transport is considered bad to very bad for the
majority of the population, regardless of city size and number of inhabitants. The case study below reinforces this,
showing that the information at bus stops is actually inefficient.
4. The spatial orientation process
For a better understanding of the difficulty of human beings in getting from one point to another in the city, using
public transport and based on information that is set in panels of information is important to know the spatial
orientation process.
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This process corresponds to the individual's ability to define their location in an environment, to understand this
environment and also to be able to move and get to a desired destination. During the spatial orientation process there
are three aspects that complement one another [11]
Decision-making - the preparation and planning to define the choice;
Implementation of the decision how to act after making a decision;
x Information processing - matches understanding of the environment in which it operates.
One can see that the orientation process is complex and subjective, since it is related to individuals and their
characteristics, knowledge and experience. There is also a strong relationship with the environment that will provide
the necessary information for mobility. It is of great importance that the environment have physical media that
transmits such information, for example, sheets, displays, maps etc [5].
This demand requires studies and visual perception projects. These are complex and require research studies in
areas such as visibility, ergonomics, contrast, graphics, typography and colors. In this case it is important to refer to
the design of information. This activity is focused on the human being and aims to transform complex content into
something accessible without reduction or modification of the information content. By organizing the information it
is possible to reproduce it so that it will be legible and understandable for a large number of people [12].
Following this reasoning, this discussion enters the field of ergonomics and its part which deals with issues
related to the cognitive and the informational. The study and application of ergonomics principles allow the
generation of solutions and improvements in the conditions of human beings’ everyday life, and if it is inserted in
the urban transport area, it contributes to quality service which is more convenient and secure [13].
Inserting the discussion in the visual perception of design, ergonomics takes on a double role. While cognitive
ergonomics is intended to assist in the development of information systems that are compatible with the
characteristics of users, informational ergonomics is involved in the analysis and design of environment information
systems, taking into consideration the characteristics of the cognitive user [14]. It is understood that there is a strong
relationship between cognitive and informational ergonomics.
However, discussions on the above
-mentioned areas of study will not be deepened, although they are relevant in
the development of public transport system projects. However, it was possible to have an idea of the complexity
involved in public transport and its elements. Therefore, the aim was to compare the amount and diversity of the
information contained in information panels placed at bus stops.
5. Case study
The research adopted a comparative methodology, divided into theoretical review, field research and analysis of
results. A bus stop was selected in each city, with a total of five, randomly, ie, it was not necessary to determine
parameters for the choice of the point of origin or destination. However, the bus stop should be close to relevant
busy places.
The comparison took into consideration the amount of information needed to guide the public transport user to
identify the place where he is, identify the place where he wants to go and identify the means to reach the desired
location. Reasons for the trip were not needed. The questions about these three actions seek information that could
meet the diversity of users, young or old, locals or foreigners, literate or not.
The cities chosen were Recife and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Cruz Quebrada / Oeiras / Lisbon (Portugal), Toronto
(Canada) and Sydney (Australia). The bus stop in Portugal is not located within the city of Lisbon, but in the
municipality (county) of Oeiras, in the district (parish) of Cruz Quebrada. So this site will be mentioned here as "CQ
/ Lisbon". Table 1 contains information on the location of bus stops chosen:
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Table 1. Bus stops analyzed.
ity / Country Bus stop number Bus stop address Point of reference
Sydney / Australia
2031168 High St near Prince of
Wales Hospital, New
South Wales, Sydney
Sydney Children's Hospital
Toronto / Canada Unidentified Queens Street, 509
Street car Route
Harbourfront Centre
CQ/Lisbon / Portugal 04301 (776)
Estrada da Costa, s/n University of Lisboa,
School of Human Kinetics and Jamor
Rio de Janeiro / Brazil BRS 2
Rua Visconde de Pirajá Ipanema Beach, Ipanema Station,
Amsterdam Sauer Museum
Recife / Brazil 180301 Av. Conde da Boa Vista Post Office Building, Recife Plaza
Hotel, Atacadão dos Presentes
Generally, cities have several types of bus stops. To create a standard of comparison, those with a physical
infrastructure containing a road sign, an information panel, seats and a shelter against rain and sunshine were
chosen. The information boards should have an area above 1m²:
(a) (b)
Fig. 1. (a) Recife, Brazil; (b) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Fig. 2. (c) CQ/Lisbon, Portugal.
(d) (e)
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Fig. 3. (d)
The formal configuration is similar, with color panels, located in a central position, behind and above the seats
and a transparent protection. Looking at the layout of the elements one observed differences in color and size of the
letters and various pictograms. However, Table 2 indicates the information required to be compared.
It is important to inform that in the "type of information" column the attributes related to time and space are
listed. They can be used as a single set or not depending on the user's needs, but each has different characteristics
and the more attributes the panel has, the more efficient it will be in fulfilling its purpose: to inform about the urban
transport system.
Table 2. Desirable information at bus stops.
Type of Information Sydney Toronto CQ/Lisbon Rio Recife
Bus stop identification (number or name) XX
Exact location (street, ZIP code)
X- X --
Numbers / names of the bus (bus lines passing there) X
Full itinerary of the line (time leaving the terminal)
XX X - -
Map of area (neighborhood details) XX X X-
City Map (a general map of the whole city) --XX-
Attractions in the surroundings XX X X-
City Sights (the most important ones)
Additional public transport (proximity or connection to
subway, train, tram etc.)
XX X - -
Emergency contact numbers ( local transport center)
Night itineraries (bus stops of night lines)
XX X - -
Tips for use (how to use the system properly)
XX X - -
Tour tips (alternative routes to attractions)
--X --
Information on accessibility for disabled
XX X - -
Bus fare (day and night)
XX - - -
Alternative access to information (QR Code)
Information in English (for foreigners)
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Through the data contained in Table 2 one can observe large differences in the amount of information about the
urban system in the cities chosen. Although in one city there may be several types of bus stops, some infrastructure
requirements were specified and adequated. However, there are many different types of information. The following
considerations are made on each of the panels evaluated.
Sydney, Australia
- The information panel only has an image and the rest is text information. The map
corresponds to the region around the bus stop, containing the name of the main streets and many geographical
features and landmarks (parks, hospitals, supermarkets, schools). There is data on the bus routes or on the
environment, including timetables and destinations separated by day of the week. There are also connection points
between trains and buses etc. The information in this panel allows the user to move within the city, especially inside
the limits displayed on the map.
Toronto, Canada
- The information panel is rich in information. It has a city map of the downtown area and
virtually all bus stops are identified, including the number of bus lines. The data is organized on notice boards and
includes airport transfers, train itineraries and night buses, instructions on how to understand the routes, personal
safety information, transfer of routes, geographical features, landmarks, routes to the islands of Lake Ontario, the
names of the companies that perform all routes etc. There is a panel of information that enables efficient mobility to
the user in the area covered by the map panel.
Cruz Quebrada / Lisbon, Portugal
- Although it is the smallest city among the five chosen, its information panel
has many details. It includes the pass system of the Lisbon region and identifies the tram, train and bus stops, plus
the itinerary with times. The map displays transfers (connections) between the metro, trams and buses, and includes
transfers to the boats and the bus to the airport. There are also geographic features, landmarks and information on
using the bus system. This is a great example of information panel.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Rio is one of the most famous and visited cities in Latin America. But the analyzed panel
has little information with blanks without any data. It brings only specific information about the lines of the rapid
bus system (BRS) passing at that stop, including the line number, itinerary and some sights. There is a map of the
city and the region, but it has few details. No information regarding use of the transportation system, or transfer
(connection) with the subway. It is possible that some users will encounter difficulties when using the panel as a
source of information.
Recife, Brazil
- The information panel of this city has only one item: the numbers and names of the bus lines that
pass at that bus stop, and nothing more. Recife is one of the major cities in Northeast Brazil, has an important
political, academic, economic and touristic function in the region and also has a subway and an international airport.
However, nothing is informed at the bus stops, making the location and mobility very difficult. Even being located
in the central area of the city where there are major bus corridors, the panel does not provide details on the urban
transport system. It is very likely that most users cannot find their way and move around in the city.
The bus stops of the two Brazilian cities had a much lower than expected result and require their users to search
information from other sources, usually the Internet or by asking other users or even the bus drivers. However, cities
outside Brazil met expectations, having panels with many information for an effective, fast and safe mobility. An
example to be followed.
6. Final considerations
As we observed, the information panels at bus stops are critical to the use of public and collective transport with
ease and efficiency. One of the causes that hinder the user of this type of transport is the poor quality of their
services. And the information is included in this context. An effective information system is one of the
improvements in the system of measures that can attract more users, regardless of the city and its regional or
national influence. In this way, it reduces the number of cars on the road, the traffic flow and air pollution.
An important factor that needs to be highlighted is that each of the chosen cities have important differences
between them, such as the number of inhabitants, the tourist profile, economic, social and cultural importance, and
policy for the region and the country etc. However, the study served to bring up the discussion about the importance
of the quantity and quality of the information contained at bus stops.
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Despite the differences mentioned above, the need for information is essential for anyone who uses the public
transport system, regardless of the reason and time that the user has in the city. That is, both a tourist who will enjoy
a few vacation days and a local who was born and lived for decades there may depend on information to move
It is expected that in Brazil the Urban Mobility Law will be fulfilled and that users will be assisted in their needs.
This is a complex process that involves knowledge and professionals from various fields, including graphic design,
information design, informational ergonomics, environmental ergonomics of the built environment, traffic
engineering, architecture etc. However, if a bus stop is well laid out and allows users to obtain the necessary
information for their trip, it has certainly achieved its main goal: urban mobility and the use of urban space.
The authors thanks to the CNPQ
-National Council for the Development of Science and Technology, Brazil for
sponsoring their research at Federal University of Pernambuco, from which this article is extracted and Marcelo
Soares for his valuable supervision.
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Resumo: A aplicação dos princípios da acessibilidade em projetos arquitetônicos muitas vezes são negligenciados em sua complexidade e o atendimento as deficiências ficam resumidas as soluções destinadas aos deficientes físicos. Embora a instalação de equipamentos para auxiliar a locomoção e movimentação em ambientes, tais como rampas e corrimãos, são de fundamental importância, acabam por trazer uma falsa sensação de "dever cumprido". Nesse sentido, outras categorias de deficiência acabam ficando desassistidas. Este trabalho é um recorte de uma pesquisa mais abrangente e apresenta os resultados de visitas técnicas realizadas por estudantes de um curso de design de interiores em dois eventos públicos em Pernambuco onde foram observadas as condições infraestruturais e a instalação e disposição de equipamentos para os visitantes, tendo como foco as necessidades das pessoas com deficiência auditiva. Através do estudo da NBR9050 no que tange as recomendações para esse tipo de deficiência e dos preceitos do DeafSpace, foram realizadas vistorias e entrevistas com os respectivos representantes dos ambientes residenciais numa exposição de decoração e em estandes de uma feira de negócios. Após uma abordagem qualitativa e análises indutivas, chegou-se a resultados que reforçam a tese de que a aplicação da acessibilidade em ambientes se resume as soluções (muitas vezes simplória, incompleta e limitada) destinadas exclusivamente às questões de ordem física, atendendo apenas as necessidades dos deficientes físicos. Fica a reflexão de que a acessibilidade precisa ser enxergada de maneira mais abrangente para atender a maior parcela possível da sociedade e que a barreira social infelizmente continua sendo praticada. Palavras chave: Acessibilidade. Ensino. Deficiência visual. Eventos públicos.
... In intermodal transport field, information integration and sharing is one of the widely analysed problems [7] [13] [14] [15] [16]. Systems with different architecture are developed that align business process requirements [17]. ...
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During the operation of the ferry shipping different events take place that may cause ferries delays or cancellations. In these situations, it is important to provide real-time information to ferry lines customers, including road transport companies, to enable them to make the right decisions related to the further implementation of transport route. The purpose of the article is to identify improvement possibilities in the real-time data processing and IT tools to create information flow used to inform the transport companies’ operators/ drivers using ferry services about actual timetable including such disruption as delays or cancellations. As a case study, the ferry line connecting the ports of Liepaja (Latvia) and Travemünde (Germany) was analysed. The used methodology was based on market research analysis and shipping process analysis. On the basis of developed questionnaires the surveys were carried out among drivers and transport companies’ owners/operators to investigate the ways and tools used to inform them about ferries service disruption as delays and cancellations. Conducted process analysis allowed to make the conclusion that the way of analysed information flow may be improved using integrated data platform connected with mobile application that will significantly decrease time and increase confidence to the information flows for different ferry lines customers.
... Heute ist neben der Routenplanung vor allem die Angabe von Fahrplänen in Echtzeit über dynamische Fahrgastinformationen an Haltestellen von Bedeutung für die Fahrgäste (Monzon et al. 2013). Die Qualität und Zugänglichkeit von Informationen hat einen kritischen Einfluss auf die Entscheidung potentieller Fahrgäste für oder gegen die Nutzung des ÖPNVs (Tavares et al. 2015). MaaS-Konzepte mit dynamischem Routing könnten die feste Haltestelle in Zukunft obsolet machen, wenn der Nutzer einen Bus bedarfsorientiert bestellt und ein optimaler Einstiegsort mittels Algorithmen berechnet wird (Hensher 2017). ...
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Zusammenfassung Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland erlebt in jüngster Vergangenheit verstärkt Dieselfahrverbote in Großstädten. Gleichzeitig erfahren Großstädte als Lebensmittelpunkt eine steigende Beliebtheit. Für Verkehrsunternehmen gilt es, der Bevölkerung nachhaltige Mobilitätslösungen zu bieten, die ein Höchstmaß an Flexibilität ermöglichen. Moderne Mobility-as-a-Service-Konzepte und Innovationen in der Mobilität stellen den klassischen, planorientierten, öffentlichen Personennahverkehr und damit auch die Existenz von Bushaltestellen infrage. Mittels qualitativer Experten-Interviews lässt sich feststellen, dass sich die Bushaltestelle in den Innenstädten vor dem Hintergrund zunehmender digitaler Vernetzung von Mobilitätsanbietern und daraus resultierender modernen Mobility-as-a-service-Konzepte verändern wird. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Bushaltestelle in den Innenstädten auch in Zukunft bestehen bleibt und um „on demand“-Verkehre ergänzt wird. Ein radikaler Wandel, wie eine flächendeckende Einführung von autonom fahrenden Bussen, könnte langfristig eine Runderneuerung der Haltestelle zur Folge haben.
... Importance of value-added information in transportation has been recognized in several researches (Wydro 2011), pointing out that value of information can be measured as effect of its influence on decisions (Wydro 2010). The need for personalized information is also essential for each passenger, regardless of knowledge of the network and/or mobility services (Tavares et al. 2015). ...
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Increasing acceptance of electromobility is an important step towards sustainable transportation. However, besides its obvious environmental and economic benefits, the technology of Electric Vehicles (EVs) still has some significant operational drawbacks (e.g. relatively short driving range, long recharging time). Advanced mobile applications supporting travellers' decisions, improving predictability and reliability could play a key role in the promotion of a more widespread use of the technology. Mobile applications can serve as a "platform" between the human component and the integrated system. The aim of our research was to reveal the correspondences between functions, data groups and system components , to create the concept of a complex, integrated information application and to elaborate its innovative functions. As a result of our systematic analysis of the most important, currently available applications, it has been found that important, customizable functions (e.g. charger-point reservation, energy-efficient routing etc.) are not yet available, thus our innovation focused on these information management features. Based on our concept, integrated information applications can be developed, providing real-time personalized service for the users and including all functions related to electromobility.
... In this context, exclusive feeder-bus lanes could be of great benefit to supply fast and convenient access to captive users and make an effective influence on the priority of public transportation even without improving service frequencies. Although the reduction in access time through improved BRT frequencies is feasible, providing passengers with reliable and updated information in real time using information panels would also be recommended (see for example Tavares et al., 2015). ...
Transit-dependent users, far from being captives, may have other transportation alternatives. In some developing countries, depending on the characteristics of the city, instead of cycling or walking, captive users opt for informal services to commute. Although they are less safe and possibly less comfortable than regulated BRT services, demand for informal services such as motorcycle taxis has grown in recent years, affecting the self-sustainability of some BRT systems. This research aims to provide a richer explanation of the choice process between the BRT feeder service and motorcycle taxis in the context of the City of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Initially, we analyzed a set of effect indicators by diverging stacked bar charts, and then we used a hybrid discrete choice model to incorporate comfort and safety perceptions, in addition to the tangible attributes traditionally used. We found that safety perception, which varies by gender, age and income, is a key variable in modeling the choice process. Based on an empirical chart analysis and the modeling results, we proposed some policies aimed at changing user choices to stimulate the demand for BRT feeder system.
... The formation process of the first impression is often influenced by education and first impression shape the way in which we interpret behavior and decision [1]. Many studies are focused on the difference between different countries [2,3], cities [4], gender [5,6], experiences [7] etc., few papers pay attention to the same country's internal stages difference of knowledge cognition about the other country's culture. To analysis the difference under the Chinese different cultural education stages including junior school, senior high school, university not major in Japanese (abbr. ...
In the same country the knowledge acquisition and understanding under the different cultural education stages have the slight differences which can reflect on the making decision especially for the first impression. In order to analysis the differences of the Chinese students’ first impressions towards Japan and the corresponding knowledge acquisition ways under Chinese different cultural education stages, we firstly used the questionnaire through the nine-in-one drawing method to obtain the accurate first impressions and corresponding knowledge acquisition ways data, the different stages consist of the junior school, senior high school, university stage major in Japanese and not major in Japanese. Secondly, paired-t-test method was employed to access the differences degree of impressions and ways between the different stages. The results by analyzing the above difference suggested that, the knowledge shortage and corresponding acquisition ways during the different cultural education stages can be summarized for educational leader to make the personalized and reasonable decision.
Public transit plays a crucial role in society; many people rely on these services to access economic, social, and other activities. In most cases, these public transportation services are run by the government for the public, but there is a growing number of privatisations that give private companies control of transport operations. The study adopted an integrative literature review approach to critically review and synthesise the literature on marketing communications strategies for public transport organisations. This enables the development of a new theoretical perspective for adopting marketing communications as a strategy that can be utilised for brand positioning in the public transport sector and increase its usage. The study highlights the need to communicate a unique brand identity through touchpoints and liveries. Similarly, digital transformation deliverables such as websites, mobile apps, email marketing, live updates, social media, and chatbots as virtual assistants should be integral in transportation business operations.KeywordsMarketing communicationsPublic transportPublic organisationBrandingAdvertising
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Danfo Buses are one of the main means of transportation in Lagos. For commuters to move from one location to another, it is highly essential that they know their bus stops and how the Danfo bus conductors pronounce them. This is because an inability to understand how these bus stops are pronounced will make it difficult for commuters to locate their destination. This paper aims to classify Lagos bus stop names based on their languages and sources of origin and demystify their pronunciation by Danfo bus conductors. Data was gathered through audio recordings of the speeches of the Danfo bus conductors. Data shows that bus stops in Lagos were named using both the local and English languages. Data also reveals that the names of these bus stops were derived from several ancient landmarks, including religious landmarks, commercial activities, agro-related landmarks, ancient edifices, and long-standing handiwork practices around these bus stops either now or in time past. The data further shows that the Danfo bus conductors employ various phonological processes such as vowel deletion, nasal deletion, vowel lengthening, consonant deletion, and word deletion in the pronunciation of bus stop names. The public is urged to take cognisance of these pronunciations in order not to miss their locations.
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This study aims to evaluate the current bus stop shelter model used in Florianopolis, Brazil, through a functional analysis - focused in the relationship between the shelter, the users and their activities - and also to analyse users' perceptions. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits, anthropometric analysis, observation and interviews. The exploratory visit intended to survey the physical characteristics of the shelter (dimensions, materials, colors, displayed information) and its position on the sidewalk. The anthropometric analysis was made to verify whether the dimensions of the shelters were adequate to users' needs. The observation provided data for the analysis of users' behavior, which involved a biomechanical study of their postures, an ownership/occupancy analysis in terms of territoriality and studies about spatial requirements of interpersonal relations (proxemics). The interviews helped to analyze how the user perceives the quality of some of the main functions of the shelter: to provide physical and psychological comfort and to display information about the public transportation system. As a result, the overall conclusion is that shelters do not meet users' needs. Recommendations are provided in order to improve physical and psychological comfort and to display relevant information about the transportation system.
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In this article a tool for measuring customer satisfaction in public transport is proposed. Specifically, a structural equation model is formulated to explore the impact of the relationship between global customer satisfaction and service quality attributes. The public transport service analyzed is the bus service habitually used by University of Calabria students to reach the campus from the urban area of Cosenza (southern Italy). To calibrate the model, some data collected in a survey addressed to a sample of students were used. The proposed model can be useful both to transport agencies and planners to analyze the correlation between service quality attributes and identify the more convenient attributes for improving the supplied service.
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This paper outlines an information system for tourists using collective public transport based on mobile devices with limited computation and wireless connection capacities. In this system, the mobile device collaborates with the vehicle infrastructure in order to provide the user with multimedia (visual and audio) information about his/her trip. The information delivered, adapted to the user preferences, is synchronized with the passage of vehicles through points of interest along the route, for example: bus stops, tourist sights, public service centres, etc.
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Transit network planners often propose network structures that either assume a certain level of regularity or are even especially focused on improving service reliability, such as networks in which parts of lines share a common route or the introduction of short-turn services. The key idea is that travelers on that route will have a more frequent transit service. The impact of such network designs on service regularity is rarely analyzed in a quantitative way. This paper presents a tool that can be used to assess the impact of network changes on the regularity on a transit route and on the level of transit demand. The tool can use actual data on the punctuality of the transit system. The application of such a tool is illustrated in two ways. A case study on introducing coordinated services shows that the use of such a tool leads to more realistic estimates than the traditional approach. Second, a set of graphs is developed which can be used for a quick scan when considering network changes. These graphs can be used to assess the effect of coordinating the schedules and of improving the punctuality.
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The technique described in this paper builds on work in the customer service literature on the measurement of customer dissatisfaction to develop a new way of combining measures of performance (how well is this aspect of a service being delivered?) and importance (how important is it to you that this aspect is delivered well?) to give a measure labelled here user disgruntlement. This dissatisfaction measure is plotted against importance to provide a graphic representation of which aspects of service are in most urgent need of improvement. Examples are given from three recent studies conducted by the authors, showing how the technique may be used in the transport domain to compare different aspects of a particular service (e.g., user satisfaction with bus interchange), to compare across modes (e.g., user satisfaction with trips to a leisure location by car and bus), or to compare within a mode across population sub-groups (e.g., younger and older able-bodied pedestrians’ satisfaction with a walking environment).
Lei n° 12.587, de 03 de janeiro de 2012. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil
  • Brasil
Brasil. Lei n° 12.587, de 03 de janeiro de 2012. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 03 jan. 2012.
Buscando um Melhor Desempenho do Ambiente Físico
  • V H M Bins
  • Ely
  • + Ergonomia
  • Arquitetura
V. H. M. Bins Ely, Ergonomia + Arquitetura: Buscando um Melhor Desempenho do Ambiente Físico, Anais, Ergodesign, 3, Rio de Janeiro: LEUI/PUC-Rio, 2003.
Sistema Informativo no Transporte Público Urbano: Requisito Imprescindível para a Mobilidade dos Usuários
  • C S Silveira
  • M Dischinger
  • A Neto
C. S. Silveira, M. Dischinger, A. Debatin Neto, Sistema Informativo no Transporte Público Urbano: Requisito Imprescindível para a Mobilidade dos Usuários, Anais, Ergodesign, 14, Joinville: UFSC, 2014.
Wayfinding: people, signs and arquitecture
  • P Arthur
  • R Passini
P. Arthur, R. Passini, Wayfinding: people, signs and arquitecture, Oakville Ontario Canada: Focus, 2002.