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Good agricultural practices (GAP) concept initiated with the understanding that practices followed to produce food that is safe to eat and ecologically sustain resources. It is defined as optimization of technologies and resources for sustainable agriculture and food safety. GAP principle and standards that are required for production of quality produce are developed by FAO (2003). Technology transfer of GAP principles have been applied at farm level for soil fertility management, crop production, post harvest and animal production practices aspects, for three successive years from 2011-2014, in the study area of Rangareddy district of Telangana state. Small and marginal women farmers possessing 1-2 acres of land have fully benefitted from the GAP interventions in terms of knowledge and adoption. These women farmers were involved in on-farm demonstrations, farm field schools, training, field days, exposure visits and were also connected to ICT tools through SMS alerts. The GAP technologies included are soil test based fertilizers, application of biofertilizers like PSB and rhizobium, seed treatment of pulses, plastic mulching and stacking of tomatoes, zero tillage of maize and technologies for reducing post harvest losses and other animal production practices. In training the emphasis was placed on benefits of practicing green manuring, use of compost with crop residues and FYM, benefits of soil test based fertilizer application, benefits accrued with minimal tillage and less mechanical disturbances to soil, maintenance of clean and hygienic conditions at post harvest levels and providing clean drinking water and dry conditions for animals. Farm women benefited from GAP interventions in understanding the basic importance of of soil fertility management, crop production practices, post harvest technologies, and animal production practices. It was evident from significant differences in knowledge levels between beneficiaries and non beneficiaries that reflected from high mean scores. This change is however necessary to improve profitability and sustainability of small farms and its development.
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Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 15 (4), Special Issue, November, 2015 153
Impact of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) on
Small Farm Development: Knowledge and Adoption
levels of Farm Women of Rainfed Areas
G. Nirmala1
1. PS (Agrl Ext.), Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santhoshnagar, Hyderabad
Corresponding author e-mail: nirmalatadiparty@gmail.com
Paper Received on July 15, 2015, Accepted on October 09, 2015 and Published Online on October24, 2015
ABSTRACT
Good agricultural practices (GAP) concept initiated with the understanding that practices followed to produce
food that is safe to eat and ecologically sustain resources. It is defined as optimization of technologies and resources
for sustainable agriculture and food safety. GAP principle and standards that are required for production of
quality produce are developed by FAO (2003). Technology transfer of GAP principles have been applied at farm
level for soil fertility management, crop production, post harvest and animal production practices aspects, for three
successive years from 2011-2014, in the study area of Rangareddy district of Telangana state. Small and marginal
women farmers possessing 1-2 acres of land have fully benefitted from the GAP interventions in terms of knowledge
and adoption. These women farmers were involved in on-farm demonstrations, farm field schools, training, field
days, exposure visits and were also connected to ICT tools through SMS alerts. The GAP technologies included are
soil test based fertilizers, application of biofertilizers like PSB and rhizobium, seed treatment of pulses, plastic
mulching and stacking of tomatoes, zero tillage of maize and technologies for reducing post harvest losses and
other animal production practices. In training the emphasis was placed on benefits of practicing green manuring,
use of compost with crop residues and FYM, benefits of soil test based fertilizer application, benefits accrued with
minimal tillage and less mechanical disturbances to soil, maintenance of clean and hygienic conditions at post
harvest levels and providing clean drinking water and dry conditions for animals. Farm women benefited from GAP
interventions in understanding the basic importance of of soil fertility management, crop production practices,
post harvest technologies, and animal production practices. It was evident from significant differences in knowledge
levels between beneficiaries and non beneficiaries that reflected from high mean scores. This change is however
necessary to improve profitability and sustainability of small farms and its development.
Key words: Agricultural practices, Small farm development, Rainfed, Sustainable agriculture, Knowledge, Adoption,
Intensive agriculture based on adopting modern
seed-fertilizer technology model seems to be
unsustainable in terms of yield, maintaining soil health,
contamination of food with pesticide residues, poor
underground water quality, maintaining water reserves
and pathogen infested food due to poor food storage
methods and means of processing. Therefore,
management of soil, water and food safety needs special
attention for meeting high food production targets and
at the same time promoting good food safety measures
among the growing population and was found possible
with practicing good agricultural practices usually termed
as GAP’ and that usually should begin with farm
production (FAO, 2003). GAP has been envisaged to
stand on three pillars namely social equity (empowering
small holders and disadvantaged sections), sustainability
and food security.
Women play significant role in agriculture and allied
sectors: primarily crop production, livestock, horticulture,
post harvest and agro-forestry systems. However,
women farmers mostly adopt traditional methods
resulting in low productivity. Given access to appropriate
154 Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 15 (4), Special Issue, November, 2015
improved technologies and resources can develop
sustainable agricultural systems. Therefore, a transfer
of technology program based on GAP has been
envisaged in semi- arid areas of Andhra Pradesh and
major cropping systems being cotton and maize.
The GAP technologies included are soil test based
fertilizers, application of biofertilizers like PSB,
rhizobium seed treatment of pulses, plastic mulching and
stacking of tomatoes, zero tillage of maize and
technologies for reducing post harvest losses and other
animal production practices. In training emphasis was
placed on benefits of practicing green manuring, use of
compost with crop residues and FYM, benefits of soil
test based fertilizer application, benefits accrued with
minimal tillage and less mechanical disturbances to soil,
maintenance of clean and hygienic conditions at post
harvest levels and providing clean drinking water and
dry conditions for animals.
A study, therefore, was undertaken to understand
the impact of GAP interventions through demonstrations,
training, and exposure visits to field visits and field days
on level of knowledge and adoption practices of women
farmers and beneficiaries of the program.
METHODOLOGY
Technology transfer of good agricultural practices
was carried out in Rangareddy district of Telangana
State to women farmers possessing 1-2 acres land.
Fourty women farmers of 20 each of two villages:
Kandlapally and Gangupally of Pudur mandal were
imparted training and also involed in on-farm
demonstrations on GAP principles related to soil fertility
management, crop production practices, post harvest
technologies and animal production practices. On-farm
demonstrations and farm field schools on PSB
application; a biofertilizer was tried in maize-pigeon pea
intercropping systems; resistant wilt cultivar on pigeon
pea; zero tillage maize and other soil fertility management
programs with green manuring; application of neem seed
kernel extract and other good agricultural practices were
demonstrated and also regular training on the knowledge
of importance in conservation of resources were
thoroughly imparted to small farm holders of the the
district. A schedule was developed to measure extent
of knowledge and adoption of GAP principles and
technologies followed by the small holders particularly
by women beneficiaries and non beneficiaries
constituting equal sample size.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study had revealed that majority of respondents
had shown high mean knowledge scores on soil fertility
management in terms of advantages accrued through
intercropping systems with leguminous crop and of crop
rotations, both attributed with equal means of 2.83 each,
benefits of organic compost to soil (2.82), benefits of
minimum tillage and least score recorded for application
of green leaf manure (1.15) as given in Table-1. Crop
rotations and intercropping systems might have been
perceived as indigenous technical knowledge (age old
practices) transferred through many generations and this
might have reflected in high knowledge mean values in
terms of benefits accrued to soil fertility and crop
productivity. Farm women also possessed medium
knowledge on need for soil water conservation practices,
but low knowledge with regard to benefits of IPM and
Fig.- 1 Distribution of respondents based on adoption of good agricultural practices.
Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 15 (4), Special Issue, November, 2015 155
Table 1. Level of knowledge on Good Agricultural Practices of Women Farmer Beneficiaries
Good Agricultural Practices Beneficiaries Non beneficiaries Mean Mean
(Control group ) (A) (NA)
High Medium Low High Medium Low
Soil fertility management
Advantage of crop rotation 33(82.5) 7(17.5) - 3(7.14) 21(50) 18(42.5) 2.83 1.64
Need for intercropping with leguminous crops 33(82.5) 7(17.5) - 2(4.76) 24(57.4) 16(38.09) 2.82 1.66
Regular addition of NPK fertilizers in soil 11(27.5) 28(70) - 21(50) 18(42.85) 3(7.14) 2.25 2.42
Benefits of organic compost soil fertility 12(30) 20(50) 8(20) 7(16.66) 25(59.52 10(23.80) 2.10 1.92
Consequences of tank silt application 9(22.5) 11(27.5) 20(50) 21(50) 18(42.85) 3(7.14) 1.73 2.42
Benefits of minimum tillage option 2(5) 13(57.5) 15(37.5) 5(11.90) 16(38.09) 21(50) 1.53 1.61
Important of green leaf manures to soil 4(10) 18(45) 18(45) 1(2.38) 5(11.90) 36(85.71) 1.15 1.16
Crop production practices
Crop rotation uses 34(85) 6(15) - 2(4.76) 25(59.52) 15(35.71) 2.85 1.69
Cultivation of resistant verities 16(40) 23(57.5) 1(2.5) 0 3(7.14) 40(95.23) 2.38 1.09
Need for soil & water conservation methods, 15(37.5) 24(60) 1(2.5) 1(2.38) 10(23.80) 31(73.80) 2.35 1.28
bunds, trenches and farm ponds
Presence of agricultural important insects 6(15) 29(72.5) 5(12.5) 2(4.76) 24(57.14) 16(38.09) 2.03 1.66
Dependence of integrated weed control 3(7.5) 30(7.5) 7(17.5) 26(61.9) 14(33.33) 2(4.76) 1.9 2.57
Benefits accrued from adopting spacing and 4(10) 26(65) 10(25) 0 1(2.38) 41(97.61) 1.85 1.02
thinning practices
Can differentiate pests from friendly insects 6(15) 21(52.5) 13(32.5) 1(2.38) 3(42.00) 38(90.47) 1.83 1.11
Benefits of integrated pest management 2(5) 24(60) 14(35) 6(14.28) 18(42.85) 18(42.85) 1.7 1.71
Importance of mulching soil when crop - 3(7.5) 37(92.5) 0 0 42(100) 1.08 1.0
standing period
Post harvest technology
Consequences of threshing on roads -( 2 ) 35(87.5) 5(12.5) 0 7(16.66) 35(83.33) 2.85 1.16
Storing food grain on elevated & ventilated place 18(45) 21(52.5) 1(2.5) 0 11(26.19) 31(73.80) 2.43 1.26
Washing hands while processing food 16(40) 24(60) - 0 11(26.19) 31(73.80) 2.15 1.26
Need for reduction of moisture 18(45) 21(52.5) 1(2.5) 0 11(26.19) 31(73.80) 1.88 1.26
Benefits of food hygiene & safety 6(15) 34(85) - 0 3(7.14) 39(92.85) 1.83 1.07
Animal production practices
Feeding of mixture of leguminous with 7(28) 17(68) 1(4) 0 0 5(11.90) 2.64 0.11
non leguminous
Regular vaccination to animals 15(60) 10(40) - 0 2(4.76) 4(9.52) 2.64 0.19
Cleaning animal sheds 15(60) 10(40) - 0 6(14.28) 0 2.43 0.28
Benefits of washing hands before milking 16(64) 9(36) - 1(2.38) 2(4.76) 2(4.76) 2.4 0.21
Benefits of artificial insemination 20(80) 5(20) - 0 0 5(11.90) 2.24 0.11
Figures in parenthesis indicated percentage, crop mulching. This indicated that farm women require
more outreach programs in IPM and crop mulching. This
was confirmed with study from Atry Samee et al, 2009,
Jeyalakshmi and Santha Govind, 2008.
For achieving sustainable rainfed agriculture, GAP
principles on livestock management form important
component of farming system. From the Fig -1, it has
been clearly indicated that farm women possess high
knowledge mean value on regular vaccination (2.6)
Table 2. Level of knowledge of women beneficiaries and
Non beneficiaries on GAP technologies and principles.
GAP Technologies B NB t- value
Soil fertility management 2.059 1.83 .852NS
Crop production practices 2.00 1.46 2.493**
Post harvest technology 2.23 1.20 5.424**
Animal production practices 2.47 0.18 27.528*
B=Beneficiaries NB=Non -Beneficiaries (Control)
156 Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 15 (4), Special Issue, November, 2015
cleaning of animal sheds, benefits of washing hands
before milking and benefits of artificial insemination.
The reason might be that women’s participation in animal
production found to be high that reflected in high
knowledge in good animal production practices. This
was in line with findings of Akand and Atul, 2010.
There was significant difference in knowledge
levels between beneficiaries and non beneficiaries in
terms of knowledge in GAP principles on crop
production, post harvest and animal production practices
which might be due to availability and access to improved
cultivar use, PSB biofertilizers and other inputs etc., In
post harvest technologies there was significant
knowledge gain on consequences of threshing on roads
(2.85), storing food grains on elevated platforms (2.43),
and washing hands before processing of food (Table -
2)’ However, it was found to be non significant in soil
fertility management aspects alone which might be due
to the fact that most soil fertility management practices
documented are related to sustainable practices and
of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) nature, and
therefore, it was found that there was non significant
relationship existing between the groups.
Adoption of GAP technologies: Adoption of good
agricultural practices has been evaluated with farm
women (Fig. 2). The highest mean adoption scores
obtained on intercropping with leguminous crops (2.55)
and crop rotations (2.35). Some of the least adopted
technologies were attributed to vaccination of animals
(1.38), cultivation of green fodder (1.45), sheep penning
and manuring (1.43) and crop mulching (1.13). Some
of the soil based practices mentioned are mostly
represented ITK and have reported under high adoption
category but some practices, for example related to
animal vaccination mostly might depend on access to
technical assistance that decides technology adoption.
According to Ajayi, 2007, majority of the sustainable
practices are found to be knowledge intensive in nature
and poor adoption attributed to low availability of inputs
like seed and in such cases the adoption of such practices
depends on the extent of efforts put up by the extension
organization. Atry Samee et al 2009 has reported that
level of knowledge on sustainable practices play
significant role in extent of adoption of IPM practices.
CONCLUSION
GAP practices related to soil fertility management,
crop production practices are mostly sustainable
practices and by nature have close relationship with
indigenous technical knowledge (ITK ) and in many
instances it involves inputs which are non accessible
and costly such as green leaf manure, poultry manure
and crop mulching due to modernization of agriculture.
Adoption of such practices require long term efforts
from extension system through educational programs
such as farmer field school for farmer experimentation
and community action. Benchmarking of knowledge and
adoption of good agricultural practices, sustainbale in
nature, facilitates in design of extension programme for
effective development of small farms.
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Atry Samee, Ahmad Rezvantar and Elham Faham. 2009. Factors influence in the adoption of integrated pest management
(IPM) by wheat growers in Varamin County, Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol 4(5). pp 491-497.
Akand, A. H and Atul Borgohain. 2010. Knowledge level of farm women on selected animal husbandry practices of Dimoria
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FAO, 2003. Development of Framework for Good agricultural practices . Committee on Agriculture, seventeenth Session Food
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استهدف البحث بصفة أساسية محاولة بناء وقياس نموذج مقترح لمحددات الأداء المزرعي لمنتجي محصول العنب في ظل الممارسات الزراعية الجيدة Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) بمنطقة النوبارية بعينة الدراسة لعام 2018، وتم استخدام نموذج اللوجيت (النموذج الاحتمالي ثنائي الاستجابة في المتغير التابع)، كما تم الاستعانة بالبيانات الأولية من خلال عينة عشوائية من المزارعين بقرية سيدنا سليمان بمنطقة النوبارية عن طريق المقابلة الشخصية باستخدام استمارة الاستبيان وبلغ عدد مفردات العينة لمحصول العنب 50 مفردة، وكانت أهم النتائج التي توصلت إليها الدراسة على النحو التالي: بتحليل الجوانب المتعلقة بالممارسات الزراعية الجيدة لمحصول العنب بمنطقة الدراسة لعام 2018 تبين أنها تتكون من ثلاثة جوانب رئيسية هي:1) الجوانب الفنية الزراعية والتي تشمل أربعة معاملات هي معاملات الخدمة وتجهيز الأرض للزراعة، المعاملات الإروائية، المكافحة والتسميد، معاملات الحصاد وما بعد الحصاد، 2) الجوانب البيئية، 3) الجوانب الاقتصادية والإدارية.كما تبين من تقدير نموذج اللوجيت لقياس محددات الأداء المزرعي للممارسات الزراعية الجيدة لمنتجي محصول العنب بمنطقة النوبارية بعينة الدراسة لعام 2018وجود علاقة طردية معنوية إحصائية بين احتمال تحقيق كفاءة الأداء المزرعي لمنتجي العنب وكل من سنوات تعليم المزارع، العمل البشري، السماد البلدي والسماد الآزوتي. واستناداً إلى النتائج المتحصل عليها أمكن استخلاص أن كل من مكونات رأس المال البشري في عينة الدراسة معبراً عنها عدد سنوات التعليم والعمل البشري، ومكونات رأس المال المادي معبراً عنها بمتغيرات السماد البلدي والسماد الآزوتي لها تأثير حقيقي على زيادة الناتج الزراعي وتحسين الأداء المزرعي لمنتجي محصول العنب بمنطقة النوبارية بعينة الدراسة، فالموارد البشرية هي الثروة الحقيقية للأمم وهي أحد أهم عناصر الإنتاج حيث تمثل عنصرين من عناصر الإنتاج هما عنصري العمل والإدارة، كما أنها تُعد أهم ركائز التوسع في نشر وتطبيق الممارسات الزراعية الجيدة، وتحقيق الاستخدام الأمثل للموارد المتاحة لهم،كما أن التوسع في استخدام السماد البلدي يتوافق مع الحفاظ على البيئة الزراعية وتوفير غذاء آمن للمستهلك ويتسق مع دليل الممارسات الزراعية الجيدة. وأخير يوصى البحث بعدة توصيات عمل رئيسية يمكن تلخيصها على النحو التالي: 1) نشر وصف وتعريف نهج الممارسات الزراعية الجيدة المبني على الركائز الثلاث للاستدامة (الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والبيئية) بما في ذلك سلامة الأغذية وأبعاد الجودة على نطاق واسع، 2) تحديد ومقارنة البرامج الحالية المتعلقة بالممارسات الزراعية الجيدة جنباً إلى جنب مع الدوافع والخبرات المحلية، 3) تنظيم ورش عمل لأصحاب المصلحة المتعددين لتمكين تطوير التطبيقات الزراعية الجيدة، 4) خلق القدرة لجميع الجهات الفاعلة من خلال التوعية وتبادل المعلومات والتدريب والمشروعات الرائدة، 5) تعبئة الموارد لتطوير وتطبيق نهج الممارسات الزراعية الجيدة خاصةً للمزارعين بالأراضي الجديدة.
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