Dutch Images of Indigenous Sámi Religion. Jan Luyken's Illustrations of Lapland

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In 1682, the Dutch artist Jan Luyken (1649–1712) made a novel set of copper engravings to illustrate the book Lapland (1682). The book was a Dutch translation of Lapponia (1673), the first scientific monograph about Sámi culture and written by the Swedish-German scholar Johannes Schefferus at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. Its original illustrations were woodcuts based on drawings by the author. According to the commission from the Swedish authorities, the book should enlighten Europeans about Sámi culture by using unbiased information, and thus refute misunderstandings that had occurred among many Europeans labouring under the false belief that Swedish military success was due to Sámi witchcraft. The illustrations in Lapland differ from those in Lapponia in several ways, for instance regarding composition, number of figures and choice of subject matter. Two illustrations of indigenous Sámi religion in Lapland are focused on, and the discussion relates them to the accompanying text and to illustrations in Lapponia. The questions asked are to what extent the illustrations play a part in the construction of meaning in Lapland; to what extent do they contribute to othering processes; and what role do the background figures in the illustrations have, i.e., do they have important functions or are they purely decorative? The discussions reveal that the illustrations play a part in the construction of meaning in several ways, for instance by playing a role in the negotiation of meaning in a semantic space between word and image. They contribute to othering processes by implicit references to ideas of witchcraft and by displaying differences in gesture between Sámi and Europeans. The background figures are more than purely decorative because they play a role in the narrative of the illustrations.

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... The results were published under the title Lapponia in 1673, 3 and quickly achieved widespread academic and popular interest, being translated into English in 1674, German in 1675, French in 1678, Dutch in 1682, but not into Swedish until as late as 1956 (Schefferus, 1956(Schefferus, [1673; see Figure 3; also Bergesen, 2015). The book increased the already considerable international interest in the Sámi and their material culture. ...
... The illustrations in Lapponia came to have a paramount importance for the general notion of Sáminess (Bergesen, 2015;Lindin and Svanberg, 1990). The emblematic motif, the Sámi with the ackja or geres and the reindeer, was already widely spread through the works of Olaus Magnus, but through Schefferus' work it was turned into a symbol, such as the naked Indian on the Armadillo (Mignolo, 1995;Nordin, 2013b; see Figure 4). ...
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... e.g. Löw 1956;Bergesen 2015). These rich finds of iron later became some of the most important in the Swedish iron industry (see further Hansson 2015). ...
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The seven articles of this special issue of Post-Medieval Archaeology provide a background to this paper. Their various interpretations and operationalizations have provided a plethora of perspectives and localities concerning past political economies. This paper aims to further the discussion of political economy and its relevance in historical archaeology. The very many connections between economy, identity, culture, production, mentality and perception are the foundations of this special issue and also of this article. The paper starts by looking back at how Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx used the concept of political economy and what it might mean in an archaeological context today. The examination then follows three brief cases of individuals in the early modern period and how they related to, and interacted with, the political economy of their time and space. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of putting material culture and spatial studies into the discussion in order to trace entanglements and connections of political economies of past societies.
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"Like Dewey, he has revolted against the empiricist dogma and the Kantian dualisms which have compartmentalized philosophical thought. . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." --Richard Rorty, The Yale Review
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Poetics of the Iconotext makes available the theories of the respected French text/image specialist Professor Liliane Louvel and introduces English readers to the most current thinking in French text/image theory and visual studies. Situated within the most significant recent debates in text/image studies, Louvel's work presents a sophisticated new typology of text-image relations that enable readers to think at once more precisely and more inventively about texts, images, and the intersections between the two.
iniciály, vlysy, viněty, versálky, marginálie, živá záhlaví, listové kustody, signatury, koncová viněta, kolofon, závěrečný signet - žena v antickém rouchu se lvem u nohou, devíza "MICHAEL FORSTER FORTITVDINE ET LABORE"
Research into the oral and literary traditions of scholastic education usually emphasizes the significance of the world in late medieval pedagogy. This paper suggests that coded hand signals provided early university scholars with an important non-verbal means of communication too. Using illustrations of classroom scenes from early university manuscripts, this paper analyzes the artistic conventions for representating gestures that these images embody. By building up a typology of these gesticulations, it demonstrates that the producers of these images and their audience shared a perception of scholastic education that embraced a sophisticated understanding of the activities associated with university education.
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