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Potency of natural sweetener: Brown sugar

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This research about the substitutes of sugar cane that have the characteristics of a natural, valuable health, and have many functions for the preservation of nature. Brown sugar is a sugar substitute derived from palm plants, such as aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill), kelapa (cocos nucivera), siwalan (Borassus flabellifer L.). This research aims to investigate the potential of resource, social and economic of brown sugar as a natural sweetener that can substitute sugar cane. The study shows that the aren trees which is the raw material of brown sugar is available in abundance, especially in mainland Southeast Asia, has high adaptability, it also serves as a forestry crop. Furthermore, brown sugar business can be done by people with low education, and in all age groups but predominantly in the range of productive age. Brown sugar is a natural sweetener because of its natural raw materials and the way of processing so valuable health. Economically, brown sugar has proven to be a source of livelihood and feasible to be developed. The implication of this study is about information to explore the potential of resources, social, and economics of brown sugar as a natural sweetener internationally. © 2015, World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society. All rights reserved
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Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
AENSI Journals
Advances in Environmental Biology
ISSN-1995-0756 EISSN-1998-1066
Journal home page: http://www.aensiweb.com/AEB/
Corresponding Author: Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah, Agribusiness Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Halu
Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232, INDONESIA
Tel: +82852 4171 7983 E-mail: wkgusmiarty09@yahoo.com
Potency of Natural Sweetener: Brown Sugar
1Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah, 1Usman Rianse, 1Raden Marsuki Iswandi, 1Sitti Aida Adha Taridala,
2Weka Widayati, 1Ilma Sarimustaqiyma Rianse, 1Zulfikar, 1La Rianda Baka, 1Abdi, 3Wa Kuasa Baka,
4Muhidin
1Agribussiness Department,Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232,
INDONESIA
2Environment Department,Faculty of Forestry and Environment,Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu,
Kendari 93232, INDONESIA
3Antrophology Department,Faculty of Culture Science, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232,
INDONESIA
4Agrotechnology Department,Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232,
INDONESIA
A RT I CL E I N FO
A B ST RA C T
Article history:
Received 4 September 2014
Received in revised form 24 November
2014
Accepted 8 December 2014
Available online 16 December 2014
Keywords:
Natural Sweetener,Brown
Sugar,Potential, Aren Tree, Sap,
Feasibility
This research about the substitutes of sugar cane that have the characteristics of a
natural, valuable health, and have many functions for the preservation of nature. Brown
sugar is a sugar substitute derived from palm plants, such as aren (Arenga pinnata
(Wurmb) Merrill), coconut (Cocos nucivera), siwalan (Borassus flabellifer L.). This
research aims to investigate the potential of resource, social and economic of brown
sugar as a natural sweetener that can substitute sugar cane. The study shows that the
aren trees which is the raw material of brown sugar is available in abundance,
especially in mainland Southeast Asia, has high adaptability, it also serves as a forestry
crop. Furthermore, brown sugar business can be done by people with low education,
and in all age groups but predominantly in the range of productive age. Brown sugar is
a natural sweetener because of its natural raw materials and the way of processing so
valuable health. Economically, brown sugar has proven to be a source of livelihood and
feasible to be developed. The implication of this study is about information to explore
the potential of resources, social, and economics of brown sugar as a natural sweetener
internationally.
© 2014 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved.
To Cite This Article: Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah, Usman Rianse, Raden Marsuki Iswandi, Sitti Aida Adha Taridala, Weka Widayati, Ilma
Sarimustaqiyma Rianse, Zulfikar, La Rianda Baka, Abdi, Wa Kuasa Baka, Muhidin, Potency of Natural Sweetener: Brown Sugar. Adv.
Environ. Biol., 8(21), 374-385, 2014
INTRODUCTION
Sugar is a strategic commodity because it has beenused worldwidely. Sugar is used as an additive in various
foods and beverages consumed daily by the world community. According to [1] that sugar consumption was the
smallest in Sub-Saharan Africa, at8 million tons ofsugar or 15.2 kg in per capita terms, then comes North
America at 11 milliontons, Eastern Europe at around 13 milliontons, the Middle East and North-Africa at
around 15 milliontons, and Western Europe at around 18 milliontons. All these four regions showed a per capita
consumption of at least 32 kg or more. Both the Indian Subcontinent and Latin America are consuming around
27 milliontons ofsugar a year, but per capita consumption in the Indian Subcontinent was only 16.3 kg while in
Latin America it was much greater at 47.2 kg.
Increase in sugar consumption also occurred in the countries with dense populations such as India and
Indonesia. [2] said that India’s sugar consumption has increased steadily. Per capita sugar consumption has
steadily increased from 5.3 kg per annum in the early 1960’s to around 18 kg per annum at 2011.
Indonesia is the country with the fourth largest population in the world also has high dependence on sugar
Increased consumption of sugar cane in Indonesia occurred every year but is not followed by the increasedof
production. It is pointed out by the [3] that sugar cane industry in the Indonesia is not able to meet the needs of
the national consumption of sugar cane. This situation is shown in the Table 1below.
375 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
Table 1: Production, Consumption, and Import of Sugar cane in Indonesia, 2005-2013
Year
Import (Ton)
Consumption (Ton)
2005
1,980,487
3,057,536
2006
1,405,942
3,760,000
2007
2,972,788
3,750,067
2008
983,944
3,508,000
2009
1,373,546
4,850,109
2010
2,300,089
4,289,000
2011
2,060,000
4,670,770
2012
2,350,000
5,200,000
2013
2,260,000
5,516,470
Source: [4]
Table 1 showed that production, imports, and consumption of Indonesia on an upward trend generally,
despite the downturn in certain years. Average increase in consumption is much greater than the average
increase in production as well as imports. Decrease in production occurred in two consecutive years in 2009 and
2010. The highest increase of production occurred in 2012. Decline in imports occurred 4 times. The biggest
decline in imports occurred in 2008. While the consumption is drop in last occurred in 2010, and after that sugar
consumption continues to rise. Thus, it required a solution to meet the needs of the sugar in addition to sugar
imports that can reduce foreign exchange without being followed by public welfare.
All the data about sugar consumption in the word and especially in Indonesia is about sugar cane. The high
sugar demand of world community cannot be met by the sugar producers sustainably basis due to the limited
resources of sugar beet or sugar cane. Thus, recent years thefulfillment of sugar demands by artificial
sweeteners that came from beet plants genetically modified and other half comes from sugar cane [5].Crops
genetically modified (GM) in production by transferring genes from one species to another genetic code. GM
foods have not been scientifically proven safe [6]. According to [7] that some countries have banned all GM
crops, especially Switzerland and Bulgaria. Throughout Europe there is widespread consumer opposition to GM
products. Next,[7] said that several animal studies indicate serious health risks associated with GM food,
including infertility, immune problems, accelerated aging, faulty insulin regulation, and changes in major organs
and the gastrointestinal system.
It was suitable with [8] who said that artificial sweeteners are regulated by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) as food additives. Next, he said that all of artificial sweetener must be reviewed and
approved by the FDA before being made available for sale. There was consumers want to use many artificial
sweetener that did not require FDA approval before sale or consume.
Therefore, there is the phenomenon that there is a great need for sugar as a sweetener, but people want a
healthyand low-calorie sweetener. It is suitable with [9] who said that sugar is a purified (refined) sugar cane or
beet juice after all the vitamins, minerals, proteins, enzymes and other beneficial nutrients discharged. As a
result, the sugar does not contain a variety of nutrients and fiber found in other, more complex carbohydrates
such as grains, fruits, and vegetables.
There is an alternative sugar. It is call low calorie sweeteners that its ingredients many times sweeter than
sugar (sucrose). Examples include acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin, stevia and sucralose which are between
150 and 600 times sweeter than sucrose, and neotame which is between 7,000 and 13,000 times sweeter. Low
calorie sweeteners are a valuable and safe tool for providing consumers with the opportunity to choose foods
and beverages with different calorie levels [10]. According to [10] that in Europe and around the world, low
calorie sweeteners, like other food additives, undergo a rigorous assessment process.
Sugar consumers turn to other sources of natural sweetener for health issues. Stevia is a commodities that is
booming as natural sweetener. Lately, many people complain about the aftertaste of stevia, and it doesn't melt or
cook like sugar does [11]. Therefore, many people in the natural health community have been turning to agave
nectar, a low-glycemic sugar made from the bulbous roots of agave plants. [11] continued that agave plantshas
also been embroiled in controversy about whether it is truly "natural" or even low glycemic.
Next, [12]said that theemphasis on theconsumption of natural foods has resulted in the useof palm sugar
concentrate as an alternative sweetener. There is brown sugar as the substitute ofsugar cane. Brown sugar is a
natural sweetener derived from the sap of palm trees, like aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill), coconut
(Cocos nucivera), and siwalan (Borassus flabellifer L).Productivity of sap from the aren (Arenga pinnata
(Wurmb) Merrill) was the highest among the sap of coconut (Cocos nucivera), siwalan (Borassus flabellifer L).
Thus, the study of the natural sweetener will be focused on brown sugar derived from aren trees.
Natural sweetener (brown sugar) could be solution of that wants. Besides that, brown sugar is not refined or
bleached so it retains its nutrients.Thus the brown sugar as a natural sweetener that have valuable health should
be explored to meet the sweetener needs of the community. But, previously it is require a depth study on the
potential of brown sugar that can be known whether or not it is thoroughly explored as an alternative natural
sweetener.
376 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
The aims of this research was to investigate the potential of resource, social and economic of brown sugar
as a natural sweetener that can substitute sugar cane. Conceptual framework to achieve the research aims was
shown on Figure 1.
Fig.1: Research Conceptual Framework.
Figure 1 illustrates the connection between the problem about high consumption of sugar cane as sweetener
for daily food and beverage and the effort to find and explore its substitute that have valuable health and big
potency in resource, social, and economic. It could be explained that there was a phenomenon of consumers
want about natural sweetener.
Methods:
Qualitative and quantitative methods were be used in this research. Potency in resource, and social of brown
sugar were be investigated by qualitative method. The data were be collect by survey in South east Sulawesi
Province in Indonesia and by study of literature. Require data in this case were distribution and characteristic of
aren (Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill), sap productivity, and its adaptability, demographic of brown sugar
producer, and their habit in processing brown sugar.
Potency in economics of brown sugar were be investigated by quantitative method, namely R/C ratio
analysis. R/C ratio shows feasible or not the brown sugar business.
R/C ratio = 𝑅
𝐶
Where R is revenue of brown sugar producerfrom brown sugar business ($/month), and C is total
production cost ($/month). Total production cost contain of fixed and variable cost. Brown sugar business is
feasible if R/C ratio >1, and it is not feasible if R/C ratio <1. The result of R/C ratio will be compare with
previous studies in order to obtain generalization about economic feasibility of brown sugar business.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Brown sugar has great potential as a natural sweetener, substitution of sugar cane for the fulfillment of
sweetener consumption of society in the world and Indonesia in particular. The potential assessed in three
aspects, namely resources, social, and economic potency.
377 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
Resource potency:
Discussion about the resource potency of brown sugar include the assessment distribution of aren trees in
the world with their advantages and disadvantages as the main source of raw material (sap) on the manufacture
of brown sugar. In this case the content of the natural nutrient in the sap and the brown sugar was examined
also.
The raw material of brown sugar is derived from the sap of palm plants, such as aren (Arenga pinnata
(Wurmb) Merrill), coconut (Cocos nucivera), siwalan (Borassus flabellifer L.). Among the types of palm plant,
aren (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill)produce abundant sap. Average sap of aren10-15 liters per tree per day
[13]. The other study by [14] said that the average production of sap was highest was produced by aren in 10 to
20 years as much 20.83 liters per tree per day while aren in 21 to 30 years only produce 7.95 liters per tree per
day. Compare with other palm trees, namely; according to [15] that the sap production of siwalan (Borassus
flabellifer L.)is 5-6 liters per tree per day, and [16] said that the sap production of coconut (Cocos nucivera)is 3-
5 liters per tree per day.
Aren grows naturally in the tropical regions. Spread of aren region cover: Southeast Asia to Papua east part,
Japan (Ryukyu Island), Vietnam (Annam) and east Himalaya [17]. Native to Southeast Asia (Indonesia,
Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh,
Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar,), occurring in tropical rainforest and dry forest [16].In southern Thailand,
aren is widely grown in Petchaburi and Songkhla Provinces [12].
Fig. 2: Distribution of native countries of aren Source: [18]
Table 2: Palm planted area in Indonesia, 2002
No
Province
Aren tree area (Ha)
1
Moluccas
1,000
2
South Kalimantan
1,442
3
Banten
1,448
4
Bengkulu
1,748
5
West Sumatra
1,830
6
North Moluccas
2,000
7
Southeast Sulawesi
3,070
8
Central Java
3,078
9
Nangro Aceh Darussalam
4,081
10
North Sumatera
4,357
11
North Sulawesi
6,000
12
South Sulawesi
7,293
13
Papuan
10,000
14
West Java
13,135
Total 60,482
Source : [19]
The map above shows countries where the species couldgrowth. But, it did not mean the species could not
growth in other countries than those depicted.
Aren has a different name (local name) in each country, namely : Indonesia (aren, ejow, gomuti, kaong);
Thailand (tao,chok, kaong); Vietnam (doasc,busng basng); Burma (taung-ong); Lao (Sino-Tibetan) (taw tad);
378 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
English (arenga palm, sugar palm, sagwine); French (palmier areng, palmier à sucre); German (Zuckerpalme);
Italian (palma dello zucchero, palma arenga); Spanish (palma azucarera), Holand (suiker palm), [18].
Indonesia has a large resource potential of aren trees. Arentrees found inmost parts of Indonesia.[19] said
that in Indonesia, there are 14 province from 34 province that have the abundance of aren tree. It is showed in
Table 2.
Table 2 showed that West Java as the highest aren tree area, while the Southeast Sulawesi has the fifth
largest area plantation among the fourteen provinces in 2002 (3,070 Ha). However, there has not been definite
data about aren tree area until now. This is because aren has not been cultivated specifically but only grows
wildly. Aren trees are also found in several other areas that are not mentioned in the table, but with a smaller
population distribution, such as: East Java, East Kalimantan, Yogyakarta, Gorontalo, West Sulawesi, South
Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, and Central Sulawesi.
Breadth distribution of aren trees was caused its height adaptability. [20], [21], [22] said that aren tree has
well adapts to a variety of agro climate, ranging from lowlands to 1,400m. [23] also reported that the aren trees
grows from sea level to an altitude of 1,300 m above sea level,but this plant is more like a place with a height of
500-1,200 m [24]. Aren trees will give satisfactory results when it is cultivated in places with an altitude of 500-
700 m above sea level [23]. Soil conditions are adequate nest or excess water can pass, such as loose soil,
volcanic soil on the slopes, and the soil is sandy land around the banks of the river is ideal for growing of aren
trees. The best environmental temperature 250C with an average annual rainfall of 1,200 mm on average.
In addition, to the excellence of its adaptation power so as to ensure the availability of raw material for
brown sugar on a large scale, aren trees also has a very good conservation benefits. [21] said that aren trees has
a high tolerance in a mixed cropping pattern including the fast growing woody plants as well as have a lot of
roots and dense canopy is suitable to be developed as well on marginal lands. In addition, [25] said that the aren
trees produces biomass above-ground and in the soil that are very large so it plays an important role in the CO2
cycle.
In line with what was said by [17] about some advantage of aren trees, namely: a) it has high adaptability to
various soil and agro climate condition, even though no intensively cultivation. b) it has high hydrolical function
(relatively fast growing and has dense root and crown) making it suitable for plant conservation, c) it has high
tolerance in mixed cropping pattern including timber plants. It was reported by [26] that aren treesconstitute an
important resource at the local level that has a great potential as a component in agro-forestry systems.
Another advantage is that the aren trees can thrive even without fertilization. This as the result of research
by [27] wherethe non-fertilizer application gave a better net benefit than the three fertilizer formulations for the
sugar palm (aren trees)growth. Therefore, [28] recommend that the sugar palm could be planted in community
forests in northern Thailand using plenty of water, with a propertillage practice, and without costly
fertilizer.This condition is also supporting the naturalness of brown sugar made from sap of aren trees(sugar
plant).
One indicator that brown sugar is a natural sweetener is raw materials derived from aren tree sthat grow
naturally without the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. No pest and diseases have been
reported[28].Next, [28] said that brown sugar does not use artificial colorants and aroma enhancer. Moreover,
brown sugar is a nutrient-rich, low-glycemic crystalline sweetener that looks, tastes, dissolves andmelts almost
exactly like sugar, but it's completely natural, unrefined and it has a far superior taste [11].
Actually brown sugar has been known and used by some countries since some years ago. This is shown by
the variation of the local names which vary by country and even in some regions within a country. Indonesia,
Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, India, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela has developed to produce palm sugar.
There is some local name of brown sugar in some country[29] as follow: Indonesian: gula kelapa, gula aren,
gula merah, gula Jawa; Malaysia: gula anau, gula Melaka (coconut palm), gula kabung (arenga pinnata
palm/sugar palm); Philippines: Pakaskas; Thailand: nam tan pip (ำตำลปี๊; pronounced [náːm.tāːn.píːp]) or nam
tan puek (ำตำลป ; pronounced [náːm.tāːn.pɯ
̀k]); Vietnam: đường thốt nốt; Sri Lanka: jaggery, kitul-hakuru, tal-
hakuru, pol pani; Laos: nam tan pip (
ຳຕຳນປ
; pronounced [nâm.tàːn.píp]); Bangladesh/Bengal: gur (cane
sugar), taal patali (solid palm sugar), khejur gur (date palm sugar); Cambodia:
ករនោ ត
(skor tnot); Burma: jaggery,
htanyet (pronounced: [tʰəɲeʔ]); Telugu: nalla bellam, thaati bellam (Palm Jaggery); India:kerala, karippati atau
karipotti, Kannada: bella.
[19] also reported that brown sugar is produced by country who has tropic climate, namely
Indonesia,Thailand, Vietnam, India, Korea Selatan, China,Bolivia, and Brazil.Indonesia as one of develop
country that produce brown sugar have big potency as exporter country of brown sugar. Develop country as a
producer country as well as a potential market of brown sugar. It is suitable with [30] who said that emerging
markets have become an important economic pole, and rising interest in investment opportunities in these
markets has spread among investors.
Brown sugar was a widely used health food in ancient India. Even now in many Indian Villages it is being
widely used. This is especially significant for women’s health[31].Next, [31] reported that traditionally that
379 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
brown sugar has lots of medicinal qualities. It is widely used in Indian medical sciences like Siddha and
Ayurveda. It is known to be effective against cold and lung related ailments.
Brown sugar potential as a sugar cane substitute is not only caused by the same function as a sweetener, but
also because of its nature, unique flavor and aroma, as well as its nutritional content. Compared tosugar cane,
brown sugar content has calcium, phosphorus, and iron higher, also contains thiamineandriboflavin[32]. It is
showed by Table 3.
Other health benefits of brown sugar has been reported by [33] that smaller calories contained ina brown
sugar than sugar cane. Palm sugar or brown sugar has aglycemic index value that is lower by 35whilethesugar
can eglycemic indexof58. Brown sugar still have the main benefit such environmentally friendly. It is because
brown sugar is made from palm sap that free from pesticide. [34] also reported about comparison between palm
sugar (brown sugar) and sugar cane. It is shown on Table 4.
Table 3: Comparison ofmacro and micromineralsinbrown sugarandsugar cane
Mineral
Brown Sugar
Sugar cane
Micro Mineral mg/L (ppm) in dry matter
Manganese (Mn)
1.30
0.00
Baron (B)
0.30
0.00
Zinc (Zn)
21.90
1.20
Iron (Fe)
2.30
1.20
Copper (Cu)
2.30
0.60
Macro Mineral mg/L (ppm) in dry matter
Nitrogen (N)
2.02
0.00
Phosphorus (P)
790.00
0.70
Potassium (K)
10.30
25.00
Calcium (K)
60.00
60.00
Magnesium (Mg)
290.00
10.00
Sodium (Na)
450.00
10.00
Chlorin (Cl)
4.70
100.00
Sulfur (S)
260.00
20.00
Source: [33]
However [35] said that brown sugar processing is still traditional business and only done by a household. In
contrast to the processing of sugar cane, it is produced by large-scale industries. Similarly in Province of
Southeast Sulawesi of Indonesia, Brown sugar processing business is generally characterized by a very simple
technology and rely solely on family labor or even just doing one or two people. Supply of brown sugar
fluctuates widely in these conditions.
Table 4: Comparison Palm Sugar with Sugar cane.
No
Palm sugar
Sugar cane
1
Free from Chemicals, bleaches, preservatives and
GMO.
Bleached using harmful chemicals and bleaches, the traces of which
are very much present in the Sugar.
No
Palm sugar
Sugar cane
2
Highly Nutritious, contains about 24 nutrients
including Vitamins, Minerals and Protein.
Contains hardly any nutrients.
3
All nutrients are natural and not fortified or
artificially added.
Contains hardly any nutrients.
4
Contains Vitamin B12, which is very rare to find in
Plant Sources. Consumption of 15 gram of Palmyra
Palm Sugar daily takes care of daily Vitamin B12
requirement of an adult.
Contains hardly any nutrients.
5
Traditionally in India women are suggested to
consume palm sugar as a first thing after giving birth
to a child and immediately after Puberty, because of
its high nutritional content.
Contains hardly any nutrients.
6
Contains Low Glycemic Index. The Glycemic index
is only 40. Replacing cane sugar with palm sugar is a
big step for diabetics, heart patients, cancer patients
and obese people. Normal people by replacing Palm
Sugar with sugar cane, the risk of diabetics, obesity
and heart ailments are reduced.
Contains High Glycemic Index. The GI of cane sugar is more than
92. This makes it harmful for Diabetic patients, heart patients, cancer
patients and Obese people.
7
Safe for infants to have Palm Sugar as it is free from
chemicals and bleaches.
Because of presence of harmful chemical, unsafe for infants to
consume.
8
Consumption of Palm sugar does not make children
hyperactive.
Consumption of cane sugar makes children hyperactive.
No
Palm sugar
Sugar cane
9
Palm sugar is certified organic.
Most of the cane sugars available in the market are not organic.
10
Palm sugar is free from flocculent, surfactants,
viscosity modifiers
The process of making cane sugar crystals includes these process
11
Adds unique exotic flavor apart from sweetening the
Merely sweetens the dish.
380 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
dish.
12
Contains medicinal properties. Used in many
Ayurveda medicines and in varieties of indigenous
medicines of India. By itself it is considered as a
medicine for cough cold and breathe related
problems.
Does not known to have any medicinal properties.
13
Palm trees are dry land flora. They consume very less
water. Consuming Palm Sugar is ecofriendly way of
living. An acre used for Palmyra tree cultivation can
give more than one and half times of Palm Sugar
yield than that of cane sugar. In today’s population
pressure over land this is very significant.
Sugar cane consumes lots of water. To get 1 kg of cane sugar, the
water consumed is much higher than that of Palm Sugar.
14
Palm sugar consumption brings in equality in
economy as this supports unprivileged palm tree
tappers life. Since palm sugar comes with minimal
processing, the proportion of money spent on
processing is less and proportion paid to the farmers
is more.
Proportion of money which goes to palm tree tappers out of every
sale price paid by the customer is high than that of cane sugar. Large
share of the money paid by the end customer goes to big sugar mill
owners and to meet out huge processing expenditure.
15
Palm Sugar is the Traditional staple sweetener of
India. This is the cause of health of Indians for many
centuries.
Introduced and popularized to Indians by the British. Cane Sugar is
one of the cause of current health problems of majority of Indians
through prolific Diabetes, Anemia and Malnutrition.
Source: [36]
The fluctuating of brown sugar supply can weaken the Southeast Sulawesi potential market of brown sugar.
Meanwhile, the certainty supply is requirement for good trade of brown sugar mainly for export purpose.
Understanding of risk analysis is also important in this case. This is as proposed by [36] that is not everyone
knows the inherent risks involved in investing or how to strike a correct balance between risk taking and making
a profit. Next [37] said that Business risk is fundamental to the long term success of a company and the
achievement of its goals.
Social potency:
Discussion about the social potency of brown sugar include the assessment of the social aspect of the brown
sugar processing. These include: how to acquire knowledge about the processing of brown sugar, andthe
characteristics of brown sugar producers (age, education).
Many social activities became a cultural community around brown sugar producers. Knowledge about
creating and managing of brown sugar business are not obtained through a training or special education.
Knowledge in managing brown sugar business is obtained based on personal experience and participate in
helping a neighbor or family relatives. There is some of brown sugar producer who obtain their knowledge from
generation to generation in his family. That is one of the social potential of brown sugar. There is an easily
transmitted knowledge of brown sugar processing that only based on emotional relationship between one to
another person. It could be used to expand the spread of brown sugar business in many aren trees center.
Brown sugar business became source of livelihood for many people in the central areas of the aren trees In
Indonesia. Thus the characteristics of brown sugar producers needs to be studied as one of the potential
development of brown sugar business.
Brown sugar processing business consist of two types of activities, namely tapping and cocking the sap.
These activities are still carried out without involving labor rent (labor outside the family). This is because a
very small scale of that business. Brown sugar producers only tap averages 7of aren trees every day. Small
number of workers as well because they can maximize their energy in that business. This is because their
average age in the range of productive age. It is shown in Table 5.
Table 5: Characteristic of brown sugar producers by age in the South East Sulawesi, 2014
No
Location (district)
Age
Productive
(15 - 54 years)
Non productive
(>54years)
Total
∑ (people)
%
∑ (people)
%
∑ (people)
%
1
Kolaka
113.00
77.40
33.00
22.60
146.00
100.00
2
Bombana
140.00
70.00
60.00
30.00
200.00
100.00
3
Muna
13.00
65.00
7.00
35.00
20.00
100.00
Source: [38]
Table 5 showed the characteristic of brown sugar producers by age in the South East Sulawesi, contained in
three districts, namely Kolaka, Bombana and Muna. Table 5 showed that there is no old less than 15 years of
brown sugar producers, and only 30% at most of brown sugar producers over the age of54years.
The research by [39] also showed the dominance of people on productive age range who produce brown
sugar. It is shown in Table 6.
381 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
Table 6: Characteristic of brown sugar producers by age in the Rejang Lebong District Bengkulu Province, 2013
Age (year)
Quantity (%)
25-40
40.69
41 55
45.36
55-80
13.95
Source: [39]
Brown sugar processing business is dominated by processing the productive age. It indicates that the
business of processing of brown sugar can be used as a potential jobs for people in the productive age who do
not have jobs. This case as well as a solution for unemployment in Indonesia. The number ofunemployed in
Indonesia 2014 at 7.15 million people or 5.70% of the total labor force in Indonesia [40].
The level of education is usually a requirement to get a job, but not in the brown sugar business. It can be
seen in Table 7.
Table 7: Characteristic of brown sugar producers by education in the South East Sulawesi, 2014
No
Formal
education
Location (District)
Kolaka
Bombana
Muna
∑ (people)
%
∑ (people)
%
∑ (people)
%
1
No school
10.00
6.85
15.00
7.50
3.00
15.00
2
Elementary School (SD)
70.00
47.95
97.00
48.50
13.00
65.00
3
Junior High School (SMP)
58.00
39.73
63.00
31.50
4.00
20.00
4
Senior High School (SMA)
8.00
5.48
25.00
12.50
0.00
0.00
5
University
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total
146.00
100.00
200.00
100.00
20.00
100.00
Source: [38]
Table 7 showed the characteristic of brown sugar producers by education in the South East
Sulawesi,(District of Kolaka, Bombana, dan Muna). Brown sugar business is done by those who have only 9
years of basic education (elementary school, middle), mostly. It can be explained that the no school certificate
and no special skills required to run this business.
The research by [3] also showed the dominance of people on primary education who produce brown sugar.
It is shown in Table 8.
Table 8: Characteristic of brown sugar producers by education in the Rejang Lebong District Bengkulu Province, 2013
Education level
Quantity (%)
Elementary School (SD)
30.25
Junior High School (SMP)
66.27
Senior High School (SMA)
3.48
Total
100.00
Source: [39]
These data in accordance with [40] who reported that in February 2014, Unemployment Rate (TPT) for
senior high school education in the highest position in the amount of 9.10 percent, followed by junior high
School by 7.44 percent, while the TPT lowest for the primary education level down in the amount of 3.69
percent.
Skill about how to process brown sugar that have been mastered though by less educated population is a
potential for the development of brown sugar business in terms of business scale, and it can more easily in the
development of quality and product differentiation, also. It is because they have learned the basic skills in the
business a long time ago.
Economic potency:
Economic potential is explored by analyzing the financial feasibility of the business of brown sugar
processing. Brown sugar business was done in traditional way at household industry. In this condition, brown
sugar business was highly depend on forest natural resources where aren trees grow. Therefore many inputs that
were not counted as costs. However, it is need to be assessed all costs incurred by brown sugar producers for the
existence and development of brown sugar business in the future.
The feasible was be showed by the value of R/C ratio. R is revenue and C is cost. Therefore we will
describe about costs and revenue of brown sugar business, firstly. There are two kinds of cost namely fixed and
variable cost. It were shown on Table 9 and 10 as below. Brown sugar processing was done every day, actually.
It mean that fixed and variable cost expenses every day.
Some types of equipment (the source of fixed costs) are used in the processing of brown sugar (in Table 9),
described as follows:
Container are used to hold sap when tapping on a palm tree. There are two or three bunches that could be
tapped and one jerry for one bunch.
382 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
Bamboo ladder are used to help brown sugar producer to climb anaren trees for tapping. One of bamboo
ladder for one aren trees.
Machete is used to slice as thin as possible so that the bunch can spend abundant sap.
Skillet is used to cook the sap until thickened and ready to be molded into brown sugar.
Kitchen was a special kitchen for brown sugar processing. This is outdoor or on the farm where the aren
trees grows.
Brown sugar mold is used to print saps that has been cooked and thickened.
Spoon stirrer is used to stir the sap while cooking process so as not to scorch.
Table 9: Fixed costs (FC) of brown sugar business
No
Equipment
Depreciation cost ($/month)
%
1
Container
0.07
4.26
2
Bamboo ladder
0.36
21.32
3
Machete
0.09
5.33
4
Skillet
0.36
21.32
5
Kitchen
0.71
42.64
6
Brown sugar mold
0.06
3.84
7
Spoon stirrer
0.02
1.28
Total
1.68
100.00
Source: primary data
Table 9 showed various kinds of fixed cost of brown sugar business that came from the use of all the
equipment for one arentree in a month. Fixed cost was be accounted by depreciation cost. The biggest
depreciation cost came from kitchen building (42.64%), while spoon stirrer was the smallest depreciation cost
(1.28%). There were the same depreciation cost for bamboo leader and skillet, namely 21.32% from total
depreciation cost.
Various kinds of variable cost less than fixed cost. There were four variable cost at Table 10 as bellow.
Table 10: Variable costs (VC) of brown sugar business
No
Equipment
Variable cost ($/month)
%
1
Sap
78.26
27.44
2
Lime
0.43
0.15
3
Wood fire
43.48
15.24
4
Labor
163.04
57.16
Total
285.22
100.00
Source: primary data
Most of brown sugar producers obtained sap from aren trees that grows wild in his plantation. Even so the
sap should be counted as variable costs for development of brown sugar business in the future, and so for wood
fire and labor. An aren tree could produce minimal 10 litters and maximal 50 litters of sap per day, where 1 kg
of brown sugar was produced from 4.4 litters of sap. Therefore, an aren tree produced 6.82 kg of brown sugar
by price $1.45 per kg. Lime purchased by brown sugar producers and used to inhibit the acidification process
sap. This is the smallest variable cost.
Table 10 showed that labor cost was the highest variable cost. It could be explained that brown sugar
processing needs a long time, about 10 hours. After ten hours of which brown sugar has been molded, the work
of a brown sugar producers is not finished, actually. He have to cook the sap that was tapped in the afternoon
until the next morning with a small flame. It is done to prevent the sap became acid so it still can be mixed with
morning sap and then processed into brown sugar. This continuous cooking process of sap resulting in high
demand for fuel.
Base on all information above, now we can analysis the feasibility of brown sugar business like Table 11
below.
Table 11: R/C ratio of brown sugar business in the Province of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, 2014
Brown sugar Production (kg)
Price ($/kg)
FC
($)
VC
($)
TC
($)
R
($)
R/C
204.55
1.45
1.68
285.22
286.89
296.44
1.03
Source: primary data
Table11 showed the difference between revenue (R) and cost (C), where R > C. Therefore the value of R/C
ratio bigger than one (R/C ratio >1). It mean that brown sugar business is feasible, so it can exist and develop
for the future business. However, the small value feasibility is not disputed by brown sugar producers because of
the circulation of brown sugar is very fast. Brown sugar produced every day is always sold out, and even when
there is some orders for the next day.
383 Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah et al, 2014
Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21) October 2014, Pages: 374-385
The feasibility of very small numbers even close to one, which means the breakeven point (R=C). This
happens because of the very large dependence against the nature of brown sugar producers in processing brown
sugar. As a result, many production inputs are not counted as expenses so that they cannot take into account how
the price of brown sugar per kg that they deserve or that can cover the expenses for production inputs as well as
providing a profit. In this condition, regardless of the price of brown sugar in the level of trader will still be
accepted by brown sugar producers. It is also caused by brown sugar business that is very small scale so that
these businesses bear higher costs. It can be overcome by expanding the production scale so that the production
cost becomes more efficient. The feasibility can be improved by increasing the sap raw material acquisition to
more than 30 liters per tree. This can be done by intensive cultivation of aren treesand improve the skills in
tapping activities.
Some researchers have examined the business feasibility of brown sugar in various regions in Indonesia
such as follow:
[41] showedR/C ratio = 1,12 for brown sugar business in the Dukuh Village, Ngadiluwih Sub District,
Kediri District, East Java Province, [42] showedR/C ratio = 1,63 for brown sugar business in the Tuhaha
Village, Saparua Sub District, Maluku Tengah District, Maluku Province, [43] showed R/C ratio =3,06 for
brown sugar business in the Mungka Sub District, Lima Puluh Koto Kota District, West Sumatera Province,
[44] showed R/C ratio = 1,32 for brown sugar business in theMakian Village, Bacan Selatan Sub District,
Halmahera Selatan Province, [45] showed R/C ratio = 1,56 and 1,65 respectively for the wet and dry seasons for
brown sugar business in the Rejang Lebong District, Bengkulu Province, [46] showed R/C ratio =1,5 for brown
sugar business in the Bekoso Village, Pasir Belengkong Sub District, Paser District, East Kalimantan Province,
[47] showed R/C ratio =1.26 for brown sugar business in theKulon Progo District Yogyakarta Province, and
[48] showed R/C ratio =1.86 for brown sugar business in the Cikuya Village, Culamega Sub District,
Tasikmalaya District, West Java Province, [49] showed R/C ratio =2.12 for brown sugar business in the Tulo’a
Village Bulango Utara Sub District, Bolango District, Gorontalo Province.
All of these studies indicate that the brown sugar business in various regions in Indonesia is financially
feasible. It shows the economic potential of brown sugar business. Therefore brown sugar business can also be
carried out in various regions in Indonesia and in other countries in Southeast Asia, also. This business can also
be scaled up so that it can supply more natural sweetener needs of the world community.
Conclusion:
This paper is a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some things are studied in this paper is on the various
potentials of brown sugar as a natural sweetener in terms of resource, social, and economic potential.
First, potential resources in the form of a broad distribution of aren trees as a source of raw material of
brown sugar in mainland Southeast Asia and there is abundant population in the Province of Southeast
Sulawesi, Indonesia, the high productivity of sap of aren trees, length productive age of aren trees, high
adaptability to various climatic and soil conditions coupled with the additional benefits of plant conservation.
Resource potential is also indicated by the naturalness of aren trees that are free of artificial fertilizers and
pesticides, the excellence nutrient content of aren sap and brown sugar, and the uniqueness aroma of brown
sugar, also.
Second, social potential in the form of easily transfer skills to produce brown sugar through the emotional
closeness of the relationship between the brown sugar producers. Social potential is also shown in the form of
easily recognized and run of brown sugar business by people who only have primary education, so that the
business as employment for the population in the productive age. And third, economic potential is indicated by
the feasibility value of the brown sugar business.
The implication of this study is about information to explore the potential of resources, social, and
economics of brown sugar as a natural sweetener internationally.
Contribution of this study to the knowledge is a belief that the community needs for health valuable natural
sweetener is feasible, both on a local scale in the Province of Southeast Sulawesi, a national scale in the Country
of Indonesia, as well as on a world scale. This is because (a) the availability of aren treesas a source of raw
materials brown sugar (natural sweetener) which also has a variety of advantages abundant in mainland
Southeast Asia, and particularly in the state of Indonesia, (b) availability of abundant human resources that have
been very familiar with the processing of brown sugar, and (c) the feasibility of brown sugar business which has
been analyzed in this study and also by previous researchers.
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... Sugar processing business is an effort to diversify sugar and increase of the utilization of palm sap economically and stimulate the participation of rural communities in increasing the family income, even though the processing is still using simple equipments or done traditionally with limited human resources [1]. Generally, the palm sugar processing businesses in Southeast Sulawesi are characterized by very simple technology and rely solely on family labor or even done by one or two people [2]. ...
... Results of the calculation of economic feasibility analysis of palm sugar domestic industry in Kolaka Regency can be seen in Table 4 below. (11,258) was greater than t table (2,646). The results of statistical test showed that H 0 was rejected, so that the palm sugar domestic industry was feasibly to run. ...
... The Net Value Extended Benefit-Cost Ratio value higher than one showed that the palm sugar domestic industry in Kolaka Regency has an environmental feasibility. The result of one-sample t-test showed that the t value (12,022) was greater than t table (2,646). The results statistical tests showed that H 0 was rejected, so that the palm sugar domestic industry was environmentally feasible to run. . ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the household agro-industries that have been run for a long time by the people in Southeast Sulawesi is palm sugar agroindustry. Production activities often led to externality or external impact. Benefit externality in palm sugar industry is that the palm trees producing saps used to make palm sugar have ecological value. The existence of these plants can absorb carbon emissions and supports land and water conservation. The palm sugar production can also generate negative externalities because the needs for fuel are met by forest firewood. The environmental feasibility of an industry is now an important and strategic issue that must be addressed properly and the industrial performance should be improved continuously, so does the palm sugar domestic industry. Therefore, this study aims at determining the financial, economic, and environmental feasibility of the palm sugar domestic industry. The analytical method used was the Extended Benefit-Cost Ratio. The results of the study indicate that the palm sugar domestic industry was financially feasible (BCR 1.63) with Net Present Value (NPV) of IDR 79,108,459.75, economically feasible (SBCR 8.69) with NPV of IDR 613,547,754.74 and environmentally feasible (EBCR 9.48) with NPV of IDR 636,521,858.41.
... It was because the main raw material source (aren sap) obtained free of charge from the natural resources around the respondents. The main auxiliary material for aren sugar processing such as firewood was for free (no fee), as well as labor because they used family labor (wife) only [4]. The benefit of aren sugar processing business could not be said to be high. ...
... Only about 1.67% respondent who have high motive of self-actualization because of his awareness that aren sugar was a healthy sweetener and white sugar substitute. It was suitable with the result of [4] that palm plants that are free of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, the excellence nutrient content of aren sap and brown sugar and the uniqueness aroma of brown sugar. Aren sugar processing business actually has great potential developed as a prestigious or competitive business as a container self-actualization for the respondents. ...
Conference Paper
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The objectives of the research were to analyze socioeconomic characteristics and motivation of farmers in aren sugar processing business in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that average state of socioeconomic characteristics of aren sugar farmer that were in the category of productive age, which was 46.12 years old, has fulfil basic education category (9 years education), low category of dependents as many as three people, the Average experience of aren sugar processing business during 18 years, and the average aren trees were tapped as much as seven trees, every day, (b) farmer's motivation in aren sugar processing business in low category, with the indicator is the motive of imitation, economic, security, affiliations, awards, and self-actualization.
... It was because the main raw material source (aren sap) obtained free of charge from the natural resources around the respondents. The main auxiliary material for aren sugar processing such as firewood was for free (no fee), as well as labor because they used family labor (wife) only [4]. The benefit of aren sugar processing business could not be said to be high. ...
... Only about 1.67% respondent who have high motive of self-actualization because of his awareness that aren sugar was a healthy sweetener and white sugar substitute. It was suitable with the result of [4] that palm plants that are free of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, the excellence nutrient content of aren sap and brown sugar and the uniqueness aroma of brown sugar. Aren sugar processing business actually has great potential developed as a prestigious or competitive business as a container self-actualization for the respondents. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of the research were to analyze socio-economic characteristics and motivation of farmers in aren sugar processing business in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that average state of socio-economic characteristics of aren sugar farmer that were in the category of productive age, which was 46.12 years old, has fulfil basic education category (9 years education), low category of dependents as many as three people, the Average experience of aren sugar processing business during 18 years, and the average aren trees were tapped as much as seven trees, every day, (b) farmer's motivation in aren sugar processing business in low category, with the indicator is the motive of imitation, economic, security, affiliations, awards, and self-actualization.
... [2] stated thad aren sugar home industry also have great potency because of its financial, economic, and environmental feasibility. [3] also said that economically, brown sugar has proven to be a source of livelihood and feasible to be developed. ...
Article
Everyone has different preferences in addressing risk. Different types of risk preferences can lead to different treatment given to a person who would be facilitated optimizing its ability to manage risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the preferences of agribusiness actors of aren sugar in particular brokers and retailers toward marketing risk. Multiple linear regression was used in this study. The result of this study showed that risk preferences of aren sugar brokers was affected by the variation of length of business and revenue, negatively where the revenue as the dominant factor, while the risk lover preferences of aren sugar retailers was affected by the revenue only, negatively. The implication of this study is the importance of risk preferences serve as the basis for consideration of policy making about the empowerment of aren sugar agribusiness actors.
... Brown sugar has been used and consumed worldwide as sugar substitute because of its natural, valuable health benefit, and many promising functions for the preservation of nature (Abdullah et al., 2015). In most sugarcane growing regions of the world, brown sugar is consumed traditionally as a sweetener where it is known by different names including Jaggery and gur (south Asia), panela (Latin America), muscovado (Brazil) and Kokuto (Japan), (Jaffe, 2012). ...
Article
Brown sugar is consumed worldwide as sugar substitute because of its natural, valuable health benefits. However, there is paucity of data specifying the effects of brown sugar on liver enzymes, lipid profile and sex hormones. The present study investigated the effects of cane brown sugar (CBS) on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), testosterone and estradiol in vivo in Wistar rats. Twenty four adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-300g were used. Animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8). Group 1 served as the control and was administered distilled water. Groups II and III were administered 2500mg/kg and 5000mg/kg CBS for 4 weeks, respectively. Serum levels of substances were determined using commercially available kits (Randox kits, UK and Monobind Inc., USA) according to manufacturer's instructions. Results showed significant increase in HDL (p < 0.05) in 5000mg/kg CBS-treated groups (26.102.51 mg/dl) compared to control (17.281.39 mg/dl). There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of CBS on total cholesterol and triglycerides by both the CBS doses. Result of CBS treatment on AST (l61.661.24 u/l/), ALT (192.642.57 u/l), estradiol (58.507.21 ng/ml) and testosterone (0.740.46 pg/ml) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to controls. It was concluded that cane brown sugar improved lipids profile but have no significant effects on liver enzymes, testosterone and estradiol in male Wistar rats.
... Aren sugar agroindustry is an effort to diversifying sugar and increase the utilization of aren sugar economically and stimulate the rural community to participate actively in small scale or household industry. Aren agroindustry is also a container to obtain or increase family income even though the processing is still very simple (process and its equipment), with limited human resources [2][3][4][5]. Discussion about income distribution concerning poverty and inequality was released in the 1970s in both developed and developing countries [6]. Assessment of the welfare problem is also widely done in Indonesia, including the distribution problem of land, farm income, and household incomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the research were to analyze socio-economic characteristics and motivation of farmers in aren sugar processing business in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that average state of socio-economic characteristics of aren sugar farmer that were in the category of productive age, which was 46.12 years old, has fulfill basic education category (9 years education), low category of dependents as many as three people, the Average experience of aren sugar processing business during 18 years, and the Average aren trees were tapped as much as seven trees, every day, (b) farmer's motivation in aren sugar processing business in low category, with the indicator is the motive of imitation, economic, security, affiliations, awards, and self-actualization
... The health benefits of aren sugar commodity is supported by the cultivation of aren tree (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill) that tends to organic (grown naturally, do not use chemicals). Abdullah, (2014) explained that the aren trees as the main raw material source is a plant that does not require chemical fertilization (free of artificial fertilization) but can produce abundant juice. Abdulah (2015) also explained that there was 10 to 30 liters of aren sap per tree in one day (each day for about 15 years), where 4.4 liters of aren sap will produce 1 kg of are sugar. ...
Article
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Aren sugar’ is one potential alternative of sweetener environmentally friendly. Aren sugar business also face risk and uncertainty problems. The objective of this study were to mapping and analyzing the marketing risk level of eco sweetener eco sweetener ‘aren sugar’ and to analyzing the preference of brokers and retailers towards marketing risk of eco sweetener ‘aren sugar’ in the Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The research methods were qualitative and quantitative method (coefficient variation ‘CV’ and quadratic utilities function. The results of this study showed that there was six types of marketing risks mapping (3 types of risks in the purchase phase, two types of risk in the storage phase, one type of risk in the selling phase) in the marketing business eco sweetener ‘aren sugar’, based on the likelihood and consequences. The type of risks with great possibilities and consequence was the risk of damaged packaging in the buying phase. The type of risk with small possibility and great consequences were aren sugar without packaging, brown sugar receivable by processing, damage packaging in the selling phase, and the length of time aren sugar sold out. Next, the marketing risks at the level of traders and retailers are at low risk category. Almost of Marketing risk preference of brokers and retailers was risk lover, only 25% of brokers that have risk neutral preference.
... [2] stated thad aren sugar home industry also have great potency because of its financial, economic, and environmental feasibility. [3] also said that economically, brown sugar has proven to be a source of livelihood and feasible to be developed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Everyone has different preferences in addressing risk. Different types of risk preferences can lead to different treatment given to a person who would be facilitated optimizing its ability to manage risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the preferences of agribusiness actors of aren sugar in particular brokers and retailers toward marketing risk. Multiple linear regression was used in this study. The result of this study showed that risk preferences of aren sugar brokers was affected by the variation of length of business and revenue, negatively where the revenue as the dominant factor, while the risk lover preferences of aren sugar retailers was affected by the revenue only, negatively. The implication of this study is the importance of risk preferences serve as the basis for consideration of policy making about the empowerment of aren sugar agribusiness actors.
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This study was carried out to compare the antioxidant and nutritional properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) sap with other natural sources of sugar such as sugar palm (Borassus flabellifer) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Coconut sap and juice from sugar palm and sugarcane were analyzed for proximate composition, pH and total soluble solid (TSS), color, sugar profile, vitamin profile, antioxidant properties (total phenolic contents, DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS), and mineral content. The results indicated that coconut sap possesses high DPPH (23.42%), FRAP (2.09 mM/ml), and ABTS (21.85%) compared with the juices. Coconut sap also had high vitamin C (116.19 µg/ml) and ash (0.27%) contents, especially in potassium (960.87 mg/L) and sodium (183.21 mg/L) which also indicating high content of minerals. These properties showed that coconut sap could be served as a potential healthier sugar source compared with sugar palm and sugarcane juices. Coconut sap could be served as a potential healthier sugar source compared with sugar palm and sugarcane juices as it carries more minerals, antioxidants, and vitamins.
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Banyumas regency is the largest producer of brown sugar in Indonesia. One location which produce brown sugar is in Ketanda Village. Unfortunately, most of brown sugar farmers have been trapped to bad middlemen for decades since they are lack of capital and market access. The farmers pay debt to middlemen with their sugar then the price is determined by the middleman. Moreover, middlemen buy brown sugar in much lower price than the market price. Both the buying price and the debt scheme determined by the middlemen are unfair to brown sugar farmers. This research used action research method. In the first step of action research, diagnosis, it was found that brown sugar farmers need an institution which can facilitate them to be free from middlemen, strengthen the farmers community, and also develop their business model. Therefore, the intervention made by gathering local actors and they committed to build a cooperative. There are two implications from this study. First, this study will enrich literature in cooperative as a social enterprise which has a main goal to manage social problem. Second, if successfully implemented, the cooperative model can be replicated in other regions to manage the same social problem, thus farmer’s economic independence will be achieved.
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This study purposes to find a practical method to increase the number of sugar-palm (Tao) trees and restore the community forest in northern Thailand. The experiments dealt with three aspects of sugar-palm seedlings. These were: 1) to find the most efficient method of propagation, 2) to search for the best way for separation and transplantation, and 3) to find the best growth promoter. This project was conducted from October 2005 to June 2007 at San Charoen Village, Pha Thong Community, Tha Wang Pha District, Nan Province. The results were as follows: Firstly, trimming both ends of 36-month-old sugar-palm seeds provided the shortest period of germination. As a side benefit, it was easier to peel the seeds out of the fruit. Secondly, the most efficient way of separating seedlings was transplanting them immediately with their one leaf cut two-thirds off. Spraying with water every two hours during the first week guaranteed 82 percent of survival of the seedlings. Lastly, 15-15-15, 13-13-21 and 46-0-0 fertilizer formulations promoted the growth of one-to three-year sugar-palm seedlings. These seedlings produced more new green emerging leaves than the unfertilized plant. However, when economics are considered, the non-fertilizer application gave a better net benefit than the three fertilizer formulations. Therefore, we re-commend that the sugar-palm be planted in community forests in northern Thailand using plenty of water, with a proper tillage practice, and without costly fertilizer. We also imply that farmers will be more confident in restoring their sugar-palm forests using this technique because they have an active role in the research project.
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Five species of the SE Asian palm genus Arenga occur in Thailand. Three of these are treelike and referred to here collectively as Sugar Palms. They are quite similar and their identity is often confused. The aim of this paper is to clarify the current status of sugar palms in Thailand and to address a number of pertinent questions in relation to their exploitation. The semi-cultivated Sugar Palm, Arenga pinnata, is economically important but has a restricted distribution in Thailand. It is mostly used for sugar tapping, but it is also exploited for edible endosperms. The other economically important Sugar Palm in Thailand, A. westerhoutii, is widespread throughout the country and constitutes a main source of edible endosperms. Sugar palms constitute an important resource at the local level that has a great potential as a component in agro-forestry systems. Future research should concentrate on sustainability of extraction, climato-edaphic requirements of different proveniences, genetic improvement and conservation of genetic resources.
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The present article deals with the management of business risk. Business risk is fundamental to the long term success of a company and the achievement of its goals. Risks can be classified in various ways. There are basic categories of risk such as systemic risk, market risk, production risk, etc. Enterprises can substantially eliminate a certain part of the risk, although some risks cannot be controlled by the company. The financial crisis has had a major impact on the success of firms. This crisis was due to the mortgage crisis in the U.S. In order to verify the relevance of the chosen measures for crisis management, a survey has been carried out in the Czech Republic. Selected results of this research are presented in the article.
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Investment can increase your wealth. However, not everyone knows the inherent risks involved in investing or how to strike a correct balance between risk taking and making a profit. There are two ways in which to achieve the target - either to ask professionals or consultants for their choice of what they believe to be the best investment alternative(s) or to determine our own strategies in selecting our own risk level and attempt to find our own best investment alternatives. This paper will briefly describe some possibilities for how prospective investments with the knowledge of mutual funds can be made; some basic methods for how to analyse such information, and how to create the right strategy given the investor's risk and return goals. This paper will present an alternative option, without the need to ask or pay for professional recommendations.
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Eastern European Emerging Markets (EEEM's) have been superficially analysed in the literature. In this paper, the authors use a T-GARCH and E-GARCH approach to model volatility in eleven EEEM's, being one of the most comprehensive analysis in terms of number of markets. Data includes daily returns from 2004 to 2011. Main findings show higher unconditional volatility in EEEM's than in developed markets, but risk premium is statistically negative or non significant in this markets. Almost all markets show an important and significant leverage effect, contrary to previous results in the literature. According to the news impact and decay parameters, volatility is more difficult to predict in EEEM's than in developed markets. Greece, Hungary, Poland and Turkey seem to be the maturest EEEM's markets. Finally, no significant differences are found among countries inside and outside European Union.
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Gula merah atau biasa yang disebut dengan gula jawa merupakan kebutuhan pokok manusia yang selalu mengalami perubahan yang cenderung meningkat. Peningkatan tersebut terjadi seiring meningkatnya pendapatan penduduk, jumlah penduduk serta semakin banyak industri pangan yang menggunakan gula merah sebagai bahan bakunya. Namun keberadaan agroindustri ini ternyata belum mampu menjalankan peran-nya secara optimal. Produsen harus mengahabiskan waktu yang cukup lama untuk me-ngembangkan usahanya ini, bahkan ada dari mereka yang tidak bertahan dalam usaha ini. Faktor yang menyebabkan antara lain modal yang terbatas, pasar yang masih lokal daerah, teknologi belum modern. Faktor-faktor tersebut secara langsung maupun tidak langsung akan berpengaruh pada kualitas, kuantitas maupun kontinyuitas produksi gula merah yang dihasilkan masih rendah sehingga keuntungan yang diperoleh produsen gula merah tidak bisa maksimal. Akan tetapi produsen yang mampu memanfaatkan peluang-peluang ekonomi dan memiliki strategi dalam mengusahakan agroindustri gula merah akan mampu bertahan bahkan dapat meningkatkan pendapatan dan skala usaha. Sebagai barang konsumsi, maka gula merah mempunyai peran dalam sistem pangan manusia. Selain sebagai penyedia rasa manis, gula merah juga merupakan salah satu pemasok kalori. Oleh karena itu gula merah banyak dibutuhkan oleh manusia untuk dikonsumsi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) Untuk mengetahui proses pembuatan gula merah di Desa Dukuh Kecamatan Ngadiluwih Kabupaten Kediri, (2) Untuk mengetahui struktur biaya, produksi, dan efisiensi usaha pengolahan gula merah di Desa Dukuh Kecamatan Ngadiluwih Kabupaten Kediri, dan (3) Untuk mengetahui hambatan dan peluang usaha pengolahan gula merah di Desa Dukuh Kecamatan Ngadiluwih Kabupaten Kediri. Penentuan daerah penelitian dilakukan secara sengaja. Pengambilan sampel (responden) dilakukan secara sensus. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara, observasi, data primer dan data sekunder. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif menggunakan analisis pendapatan, keuntungan usaha dan analisis efisiensi usaha/RC Ratio. Biaya produksi dihitung dengan rumus TC = FC+VC, pendapatan kotor atau penerimaan dirumuskan dengan TR=PXQ dan pendapatan = TR-TC, RC Ratio = TR + TC. Jumlahbersih atau keuntungan adalah responden sebanyak 10 orang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dan pembahasan, maka pendapatan kotor yang diterima oleh pengusaha gula merah dalam satu hari proses produksi adalah sebesar Rp. 3.183.600,- sedangkan keuntungan atau pendapatan bersih yang diterima oleh pengusaha gula merah dalam satu hari proses produksi adalah sebesar Rp. 329.745,-. Analisis efisiensi usaha atau R/C Ratio menunjukkan tingkat efisiensi pada pengolahan gula merah rata-rata sebesar 1,12. Artinya setiap Rp. 1,00 yang diinvestasikan oleh produsen akan memperoleh pendapatan sebesar Rp. 1,12. Usaha gula merah di Desa Dukuh Kecamatan Ngadiluwih Kabupaten Kediri efisien untuk diusahakan dan diteruskan, karena diperoleh R/C ratio sebesar 1,12 yang lebih besar dari 1 sehingga efisien untuk diusahakan.
A Study on Financial Performance of Sugar Industry in India
  • G Malyadri
  • A Pradesh
Malyadri, G. and A. Pradesh, 2013. A Study on Financial Performance of Sugar Industry in India. International Journal of Management and Strategy, 4 (6). http://www.facultyjournal.com /webmaster/upload/__A%20Study%20on%20Sugar%20industry%20in%20India.pdf.
Analisis Tren Produksi dan Impor Gula serta Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Impor Gula Indonesia
  • R I Hairani
  • J Aji
  • J Januar
Hairani, R.I., J.M Aji and J. Januar, 2014. Analisis Tren Produksi dan Impor Gula serta Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Impor Gula Indonesia. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian, 1(4): 77-85. (In Indonesian).
Modified Beet Gets New Life
  • B Kilman
  • Tomson
Kilman and B. Tomson, Modified Beet Gets New Life, 2014. Retrieve fromhttp://online.wsj. com/articles/SB10001424052748704709304576124454083334630.