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Archaeometric characterization and 3D survey: new perspectives for monitoring and valorisation of Morgantina silver Treasure (Sicily)


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The Morgantina silver Treasure belonging to the collections of the Archaeological Museum of Aidone (Sicily) were involved in a 3D survey and diagnostics campaign for monitoring over time of the finds, in anticipation of their temporary transfer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, for a period of four years. According to a multidisciplinary approach, it has been developed a scientific and methodological protocol based on non-invasive techniques to achieve a complete and integrated knowledge of the precious items, of their conservation state and increasing their valorisation. All acquired data, i.e. 3D models, UV fluorescence and X-Ray images and chemical information, will be made available, in a integrated way, within a web oriented platform, that will represent a in progress tool to deepen the existing archaeological knowledge and technologies of production and to obtain referenced information of the state of preservation, before and after moving of the finds from their exposure site.
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Met ro l og y
for Archaeo l og y
1st International Conference on
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento - Italy - October 21 - 23, 2015
ISBN 978-88-940453-3-8
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, nor may it
be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, without written permission from
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Welcome to 1st International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology
On behalf of the organizing committee, we cordially welcome you to the 1st International Conference on Metrology
for Archaeology (MetroArcheo).
The growing interest of archaeological sciences to new technologies and analysis techniques, has recently improved
the combined use of numerical approach and metrology systems to get more detailed archaeological purpose. For
example, advances in computer science, data acquisition and modeling, new spectrometric techniques, analysis and
remote sensing have encouraged interactions among these scientific disciplines based on measurement data and
archaeological interpretations. The benefits of a multidisciplinary approach have reduced the level of uncertainty in
archaeological studies.
The 1st International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology involve researchers and practitioners interested in the
enhancement, characterization and conservation of the archaeological heritage, with the main objective to focus the
discussion on the production, interpretation and the reliability of the measured data. The meeting was designed to
give the community of archaeologists a complete picture of knowledge of the "fit" of the archaeological heritage,
generally addressed in several conferences with restricted areas of interest.
The first edition of MetroArcheo will be held in Benevento, a small town in Southern Italy with a significant historical
heritage. It was a base for Roman expansion in Southern Italy and an important stop on the Appian Way, the ancient
Roman road connecting the West and East coasts. After being sacked in 452, Benevento was ruled by the Lombards
(or Longobards) and Byzantines, and finally by the Pope who ruled the town for 800 years. Benevento, in a beautiful
setting in the hills, is a pleasant place to visit, a good break from the heavily touristic areas near Naples and the Amalfi
Coast and a chance to experience the feel of a Southern Italian town. Visiting Benevento is like a journey through
history: the prehistoric and the Egyptian finds at the Museum of Sannio, Traianos Arch and the Roman theatre, the
Dome and the Church of Santa Sofia of Longobardian times, the undergrounds of the Prefectural Palace that hosts
ARCOS, the contemporary art museum.
Benevento is included, for the Santa Sofia Complex, in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites for The Longobards in Italy,
Places of Power, 568 - 774 A.D.”. It comprises seven groups of important buildings (including fortresses, churches, and
monasteries) throughout the Italian Peninsula. They testify to the high achievement of the Lombards, who migrated
from Northern Europe and developed their own specific culture in Italy where they ruled over vast territories in the
6th to 8th centuries.
We are sure that the universally recognized historical beauty of Benevento will be a perfect frame for this prestigious
conference. It is, in fact, a further occasion, not only to meet old friends and new people from all over the world, but,
moreover, to engage with them a continuous comparison directed to make wider the views on the technological
progress of Metrology for Archaeology.
The MetroArcheo organization was a complex task due to the large and increasing interest of our research and
application areas. Efforts from many people were required to shape the technical program, arrange accommodation,
manage the administrative aspects, and set up the social functions. We like to take this opportunity to thank all and
each of them. We like also to thank the public and private organizations that supported the meeting in different ways.
The MetroArcheo Technical Program consists of 17 oral and poster sessions scheduled over two days. With the wide
range of technical sessions covering the many fields of metrology for archaeology we are happy to welcome you to
the variety of technical presentations that await you this year. Thanks to all of the Technical Program Committee
members and the reviewers who have contributed to make this outstanding program possible.
We received 152 abstracts from all over the world. The technical program encompasses several events and activities.
The keynote speeches will be held by experts in the field of metrology for archeology; Prof. Massimo Osanna,
Soprintendenza speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Pompei, Ercolano e Stabia, will speak about Contexts and Objects,
Prof. Jean- Pierre Brun, Collège de France France, will present the Archaeology of Production, Prof. Hans-Arno Synal,
ETH Zurich Switzerland, will describe the Progress in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. We are honored to have them
as plenary speakers and thank them in advance for coming to our conference to share their knowledge and
experiences with us.
Furthermore, attendees have the possibility to follow a half day of Tutorials organized and managed by
Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania. The tutorials include discussions and visit at Arch of Trajan and Sant'Ilario
Church with Museum of the Arch, Archaeological Area of Arco del Sacramento, Cathedral's Hypogeum, Roman
Theatre and Ponte Leproso.
With the aim of providing a common ground for researches to share their findings about the metrology for
archaeology, the conference includes a significant number of Special Sessions. A first reason is that so many are the
application fields of the metrology for archaeology that a single track could have been too much dispersive. A second
reason is that, in spite of a centralized research address definition, a spontaneous aggregation of well-focused themes
has been gathered, with specific aim of providing a forum of dedicated debate very close to the single research field.
Therefore, several application-oriented Special Sessions have been organized. We wish to thank the organizers of
these Special Sessions for their cooperation and support to the conference organization.
Several Awards will be assigned, in particular to young researchers.
The 1st International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology is about to begin. You are now in a position to enjoy
the fellowship of colleagues and experts and to pass free time in natural and artistic beauties. It is up to you to
appreciate the conference worth! Be critical! We, metrologists, archaeologists, geologists, colleagues, and friends, all
know that this is the best way to improve quality, and to achieve lasting excellences.
General Co-Chair
Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania,
General Co-Chair
University of Salerno,
General Co-Chair
Pasquale DAPONTE,
University of Sannio,
General Co-Chair
University of Sannio,
Welcome Message from the Mayor of Benevento
I am glad to give my welcome to all participants at the First International Conference on Metrology for Archeology, in
collaboration with the University of Sannio.
My thanks go especially to Professor Pasquale Daponte and Professor Alessio Langella who have decided to make this
conference in our wonderful City, Benevento.
About the event that will take place in these days, the presence in our Sannio of so many researchers and scientists
from every part of the world is a source of pride and trust for our city and I wish to express heartfelt gratitude also to
all the people from the University of Sannio who have been involved in the organization of the event.
As Major of Benevento I am very proud to have a significant event like this in our City and I really hope all of you will
get the occasion to visit our City.
Benevento, besides being a university city, it has also a remarkable entrepreneurial vitality in the areas of
technological innovation. I would like to emphasize that our city in the Campania region is one with the highest
number of production sites in the advanced tertiary sector.
For this we must thank the vitality of young graduates who have invested their expertise at the service of the territory
with startups and spinoff.
Besides this, I have to underline that the city of Benevento has a huge historical, monumental and architectural
fortune, and with the complex of Santa Sofia Church has obtained UNESCO recognition entering in the World Heritage
Lists in 2011.
The enhancement of our cultural heritage has allowed us in recent years to achieve this important goal in a clear
manner that testifies not only that Benevento is a town rich in places of art and history, but also that we are taking the
right strategy to valorize and enhance our heritage. Important events, such as this Conference on Metrology for
Archeology, represent the right opportunity to call attention to internal areas of Campania region, and above all to our
beautiful city Benevento and wonderful Sannio.
The conference will be surely a moment of scientific investigation and a good opportunity to offer useful discussion
among scientists working in this important field.
I wish a good job to all the participants and organizers for these two days.
Fausto Pepe
MetroArcheo 2015 Committee
Adele Campanelli, Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, Italy
Luca Cerchiai, University of Salerno, Italy
Pasquale Daponte, University of Sannio, Italy
Alessio Langella, University of Sannio, Italy
Celestino Grifa, University of Sannio, Italy
Carmine Lubritto, Second University of Naples, Italy
Mariano Mercurio, University of Sannio, Italy
Alfonso Santoriello, University of Salerno, Italy
Luigina Tomay, Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, Italy
Emma Angelini, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Giovanni Azzena, University of Sassari, Italy
Salvatore Barba, University of Salerno, Italy
José Antonio Barrera Vera, University of Seville, Spain
Luca Bondioli, University of Naples L'Orientale, Italy
Jean-Pierre Brun, Collège de France, France
Gert - Jan Burgers, VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands
Lucio Calcagnile, University of Salento, Italy
Franco Cambi, University of Siena, Italy
Stefano Campana, University of Siena, Italy
Piergiulio Cappelletti, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Massimo Carpinelli, University of Sassari, Italy
Andrea Cataldo, University of Salento, Italy
Giuseppe Cultrone, University of Granada, Spain
Egidio De Benedetto, University of Salento, Italy
Claudio De Capua, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy
Héne Dessalles, Ecole Normale Supérieure, France
Christian Fischer, UCLA/Getty Conservation IDP, USA
Venice Gouda, National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt
Sabrina Grassini, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Maria Iacovou, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Giovanni Leucci, National Research Council - Istituto per i Beni Archeologi e Monumentali, Italy
Lara Maritan, University of Padova, Italy
Vincenzo Morra, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Priscilla Munzi, Centre Jean Bérard, France
Marco Parvis, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Alessandra Pecci, University of Barcellona, Spain
Salvatore Piro, National Research Council, Italy
Gianluca Quarta, University of Salento, Italy
Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, University of Pais Vasco, Spain
Fabio Remondino, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy
Marco Rendeli, University of Sassari, Italy
Carmen Maria Rosskopf, University of Molise, Italy
Elda Russo Ermolli, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Maria Rosaria Senatore, University of Sannio, Italy
Emanuela Sibilia, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
Martijn Van Leusen, University of Groningen, Netherland
Panayota Vassiliou, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece
Chiara Germinario, University of Sannio, Italy
Francesco Izzo, University of Sannio, Italy
Gianluca Mazzilli, University of Sannio, Italy
Daniela Musmeci, University of Salerno, Italy
Carmine Sementa, University of Sannio, Italy
Giusy Sica, University of Salerno, Italy
Liliana Viglione, University of Sannio, Italy
Marianna Vigorito, University of Salerno, Italy
MetroArcheo 2015 Keynote Speakers
Massimo Osanna
Soprintendenza speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Pompei, Ercolano e Stabia
Keynote Thursday, October 22nd, 2015
"Contexts and Objects"
Jean-Pierre Brun
Collège de France
Keynote Friday, October 23rd, 2015
"Archaeology of production"
Hans-Arno Synal
ETH Zurich
Keynote Friday, October 23rd, 2015
"Progress in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry"
MetroArcheo 2015 Academic Patronage
University of Sannio
University of Salerno
Research Institute for the Heritage
and History of the Cultural
Landscape and Urban Environment -
VU University
University of Salento
University of Sassari
Politecnico di Torino
MetroArcheo 2015 Institutional Patronage
Prefettura di Benevento
Provincia di Benevento
Comune di Benevento
Centre Jean Bérard
Fondazione Bruno Kessler
Scuola di specializzazione in beni
archeoligici "Dinu Adamesteanu"
Club UNESCO Benevento
Gruppo Misure Eletriche Elettroniche
Group of Mechanical and Thermal
Distretto ad Alta Tecnologia dei Beni
Ancient Appia Landscapes
Socie Italiana di Mineralogia e
Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi
Ambientale - CNR
Georisorse, Ambiente e Beni
Ordine dei Geologi della Campania
MetroArcheo 2015 Sponsors
Thursday, October 22nd
SS1 (Part 1): Special Session on Methodologies, measurement techniques and data analysis
Room: Red Hall, Palazzo San Domenico
Chairs: Emanuela Sibilia, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
Piergiulio Cappelletti, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
1Bayesian analysis and the way to look at absolute dating
Francesco Maspero, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
Emanuela Sibilia, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
Marco Martini, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
5Medieval glazed pottery of the Treviño castle (Treviño Shire, NW of Spain)
Ainhoa Alonso-Olazabal, University of Basque Country, Spain
Luis Angel Ortega, University of Basque Country, Spain
Maria Cruz Zuluaga, University of Basque Country, Spain
Iranzu Guede, University of Basque Country, Spain
Xabier Murelaga, University of Basque Country, Spain
Juan Antonio Quiros, University of Basque Country, Spain
9The use of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of archaeological ochre in the Upper Paleolithic
of Colli Albani (Rome, Italy)
Eliana Catelli, University of Cantabria, Spain
Flavio Altamura, University of Rome Sapienza, Italy
Delia Gazzoli, University of Rome Sapienza, Italy
Margherita Mussi, University of Rome Sapienza, Italy
15 Multimethod provenance analyses of white marbles - the Carrara-Göktepe entanglement
Walter Prochaska, University of Leoben, Austria
Donato Attanasio, National Council of Research, Italy
20 Primary raw materials, finished products and exchange circuits. Archaeometry, petrography and traces
of the use of stone materials from the prehistoric excavation of Spinazzola in Paestum
Paola Aurino, Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, Italy
Viviana Germana Mancusi, External Collaborator Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania,Italy
SS2: Special Session on Urban Landscapes
Room: Blue Hall, Palazzo San Domenico
Chairs: Luca Cerchiai, University of Salerno, Italy
Alfonso Santoriello, University of Salerno, Italy
26 3D survey technologies applied to the archaeology for the new "Municipio" underground station in Naples
Daniela Giampaola, Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, Italy
Vittoria Carsana, Assistant of the Superintendence Archaeology Campania, Italy
Cristiana Achille, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy
Sebastiano Ackermann, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy
Francesco Fassi, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy
Luigi Fregonese, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy
Alessio Nobile, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy
361 From observed successions to quantified time: formalizing the basic steps of chronological reasoning
Bruno Desachy, University Paris-1 & UMR, France
367 The time, a modeling tool of ancient landscapes
Francesco Uliano Scelza, University of Salerno, Italy
373 Information and time in predictive modelling
Nevio Dubbini, University of Pisa, Italy
Gabriele Gattiglia, University of Pisa, Italy
378 Spotting temporal co-occurrence patterns: the historySkyline visual metaphor
Jean-Yves Blaise, CNRS, France
Iwona Dudek, CNRS, France
SS7: Special Session on Sustainable methodologies and measurements for preventive conserva-
tion of archaeological metallic artefacts
Room: Blue Hall, Palazzo San Domenico
Chairs: Sabrina Grassini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Marco Parvis, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
384 An EIS solution for the in situ characterisation of metallic heritage artefacts
Sabrina Grassini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Emma Angelini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Simone Corbellini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Marco Parvis, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Fabrizio Zucchi, Centro di Studi sulla Corrione e Metallurgia Aldo Daccò, Italy
389 Near-IR laser cleaning of Cu-based artefacts: a comprehensive study of the methodology standardization
Mahir Hrnjic, University of Evora, Portugal
Luis Alberto Angurel, University of Zaragoza, Spain
Ruth Lahoz, University of Zaragoza, Spain
Sabrina Grassini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Emma Angelini, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy
Nick Schiavon, University of Evora, Portugal
German F. de la Fuente, University of Zaragoza, Spain
395 Archaeometric characterization and 3D survey: new perspectives for monitoring and valorisation of Mor-
gantina silver Treasure (Sicily)
Maria Francesca Alberghina, ECOX, Italy
Filippo Alberghina, ECOX, Italy
Dario Allegra, University of Catania, Italy
Francesco Di Paola, University of Palermo & IEMEST, Italy
Laura Maniscalco, Museo Regionale di Aidone, Italy
Filippo L. M. Milotta, University of Catania, Italy
Salvatore Schiavone, S.T.Art-Test, Italy
Filippo Stanco, University of Catania, Italy
401 Monetary systems in Southern Italy and Sicily in the Middle Ages (IX - XII century)
Giuseppe Maria Ruotolo, Accademia Italiana di Studi Numismatici, Italy
407 Research of 10th century silver coins from Semenovoskoe settlement (Volga Bolgaria).
Rezida Khramchenkova, Kazan Federal University & A. Kh. Khalikov Institute, Russia
Eugeniy Begovatov, Kazan Federal University,Russia
Eugenia Shaykhutdinova, Kazan Federal University & Kazan National Research Technical University, Russia
Ilvina Safina, Kazan National Research Technical University, Russia
Airat Sitdikov, Kazan Federal University & A. Kh. Khalikov Institute, Russia
Artyom Zinnatullin, A. Kh. Khalikov Institute, Russia
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
Archaeometric characterization and 3D survey:
new perspectives for monitoring and valorisation
of Morgantina silver Treasure (Sicily)
Maria Francesca Alberghina
, Filippo Alberghina
, Dario Allegra
, Francesco Di Paola
Laura Maniscalco
, Filippo L.M. Milotta
, Salvatore Schiavone
, Filippo Stanco
ECOX di M. Alberghina & C, Niscemi (CL) – Italy,
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy,
{allegra, milotta, fstanco}
Department of Architecture, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy,
IEMEST, Euro Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology,
Department of “Communication, Interactive Graphics and Augmented Reality”, Palermo, Italy
Museo Regionale di Aidone ,
S.T.Art-Test di S. Schiavone & C, Niscemi (CL) – Italy,
Abstract The Morgantina silver Treasure
belonging to the collections of the Archaeological
Museum of Aidone (Sicily) were involved in a 3D
survey and diagnostics campaign for monitoring
over time of the finds, in anticipation of their
temporary transfer to the Metropolitan Museum of
Art in New York, for a period of four years.
According to a multidisciplinary approach, it has
been developed a scientific and methodological
protocol based on non-invasive techniques to
achieve a complete and integrated knowledge of the
precious items, of their conservation state and
increasing their valorisation. All acquired data, i.e.
3D models, UV fluorescence and X-Ray images and
chemical information, will be made available, in a
integrated way, within a web oriented platform,
that will represent a in progress tool to deepen the
existing archaeological knowledge and technologies
of production and to obtain referenced information
of the state of preservation, before and after moving
of the finds from their exposure site.
The Morgantina Treasure, (Fig. 1) one of the most
precious collections of the Archaeological Museum in
Aidone, consists of 16 pieces that were returned to
Italy in 2010, following the 2006 agreement between
the Italian and Sicilian governments and the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. A police
investigation determined, in fact, that the provenance
of the objects was the house of Eupolemos in
Morgantina, where the precious items probably were
hidden during the chaos of the Second Punic War.
According to the 2006 Agreement, every four years the
silver set must be shared by one museum and then the
other, and since the beginning of 2015 the precious
finds are now on display at the Metropolitan Museum.
The group consists of several table vessels plus an
arula, a phiale and two pyxides probably used for the
ritual libations of a symposium. Most of the silver
objects bear punch-dotted and incised inscriptions that
give names, monograms or weight indications. The
chiseled and embossed techniques on the bowls, the
medallion, the pyxides and the arula are among the best
examples of Hellenistic metalworking.
Fig. 1. The silver hoard from the Eupolemos’s House -
Archaeological Museum of Aidone (Sicily)
The silver set has been considered to be a composition
made in early Hellenistic times from different groups –
the “result of acquisitions or juxtapositions” from
ISBN-15: 978-88-940453-3-8
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
different contexts, as P. G. Guzzo [1] puts it in his
remarkable edition of this hoard. The slight differences
observed in the silver objects through diagnostic non-
invasive investigation, as shown in the following,
corresponds fairly well to the groupings made by
Guzzo [1] on the basis of the inscription techniques
that appear on the objects. Despite the internal
articulation in the material composition and the
epigraphy, these three groups all seem to belong to the
same period.
Unfortunately not much analysis has been performed
on Hellenistic silver comparable to that from
Morgantina, and we know relatively little about
Hellenistic metal-working techniques. Pure native
silver is very rare. Commonly silver is derived from
minerals with significant lead content, such as galena,
and the process of purification is very complex. The
refining process, which seems to have been developed
in Asia Minor in the third millennium B.C., remained
unchanged for centuries and spread throughout the
Before the trip to New York have been decided to
examine the silver pieces through a campaign of non-
invasive diagnostic analysis and 3D survey in order to
collect useful data both to monitor the conservation
state over time (to check after four years) and to
guarantee the virtual visit of the item during their
absence. Finally, all provided data and information will
be organized in a web-oriented interface framework for
different level user and application aims.
Among the new technologies currently proposed for
the application to Cultural Heritage, the potentialities
of the 3D scanning technique represents a significant
example of how originally far apart fields, such as the
one of conservation, that of research and that of
advanced industry, can find a common interest ground.
Noninvasive experimental use of methodologies and
innovative tools have been developed for analysis
procedures of geometric dimensional data, restoration
and monitoring.
In our case study, the innovative applied technologies
had the purpose of creating a 3D collection data to
assist the restoration and conservation of the
Morgantina Treasure.
Now, after the transfer of the collection, the 3D
digitalization is bringing to restorers and archeologists
in documenting the process of investigations and
presenting it to the public.
The geometric survey helps us to evaluate the state of
material preservation of the external and internal
portions of the object and permits, each time the
collection is moved to a new location, the registration
of anomalies and stresses to which the object has been
subjected through a systematic program of monitoring.
The process started on physical models is defined
Reverse Engineering and the digital resolution up to
0.1 millimeters for each object was realized using a 3D
portable scanning system with a structured light flash
bulb (Artec 3D Scanner_Spider), permitting highly
detailed digital models to be produced (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Acquisition phase via 3D scanning
of a piece of the collection.
The choice of this technology was greatly determined
by the physical characteristics of the 16 objects of
collection to be scanned, including the size of pieces,
the complexity of its outer surface, the light-reflecting
properties of the surface of the metal object and the
constraints on access/manipulation.
The size of the pieces varied greatly, ranging from
large piece of kyathos (diameter 26 cm; height 20 cm),
to pieces of average size, such as the concave cups
(diameter 22 cm), down to smaller pieces, such as the
Émblema with Scylla shown (diameter 8,3 cm; height
5,5 cm).
The selection of the specific instrument is influenced
also by the characteristics of the 3D model required, in
terms of accuracy and resolution, which depend on the
intended use for the digital model [2]. In the case of the
Morgantina Treasure, the process with a high surface
detail can be managed also to ensure enjoyment to
various categories of users: cataloging, restoration
work, promotion, consumption and diffusion.
The campaign of indirect detection was carried out by
the team in 20 working days, under the supervision of
museum staff.
The acquisition structured light system is based on the
capture of the points that make up the surface of a
physical object returning a digital 3D model with a
high degree of geometric correspondence to the real
The extremely versatile system (it do not require any
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
special markers to be placed on the object being
scanned), functional, rapid and capable of acquiring
almost 1.000.000 points/sec., turned out to be
particularly suitable for the geometric-dimensional
characteristic of the object. The used tool captures
images also (texture resolution1.3 mp; image color 24
Fig. 3. Synthesis scheme describing the 3D scanning
and data registration processing steps.
The structured light system works with a light source
projecting a series of light patterns on the object to be
scanned(blue led). The reflected image is captured by
cameras and from the analysis of the distortion of the
pattern the position is evaluated of each point of the
surface to be scanned.
To obtain a complete 3D model, it is sufficient to move
uninterruptedly around the object and filming it from
various angles. Although the technical characteristics
tell about an alleged irrelevance of the camera angle, it
is easy to observe how rays, which are perpendicularly
incident and/or not tangent, assure a greater final
The related proprietary software (Artec Studio)
automatically joins all the acquired frames in a single
mesh. The algorithm, in fact, recognises the geometry
of the object (points clouds processing)and it allows
the correct alignment of the various captured 3D
frames to visualise them in a single model (therefore
conserving the reference system), eliminating as much
as possible the presence of holes and shadows due to
back drafts.
We acquired from a minimum of 5 to a maximum of 20
scans for each pieces of collection. A total of 180 scans
were shot and 12GB of raw data were collected.
After the scanning and data registration process (the
workflow includes the following stages: revising and
editing the data; alignment of scans; global data
registration; fusion of data into a single 3D model;final
editing of the 3D model; texture mapping), the
procedural phases of post processing and of polygon
mesh tessellation have been performed through the
software Leios (Fig. 3).
Thanks to semi-automatic algorithms, that is able to
take account of the surface geometry (curvature,
adjacency edges, density of the polygonal mesh), it
removes artifacts scan.
The high-quality 3D digital models are responsive to
the complexity of the geometric-formal of the analyzed
objects and the digital collection reproduces really well
the decorations in organic form (Fig. 4).
The collected data so far are a great start to deepen the
existing knowledge from the archaeometric to
conservative point of view [3-4].
Fig. 4. 3D digital model of the Émblema
with Scylla shown.
Digital X radiographs, UV fluorescence data and X-
ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of all the silver objects
were carried out directly in situ using portable
instrumentation [5-7]. The acquisitions carried out on
the sixteen silver objects have produced:
- 110 XRF spectra for the analysis of silver and gilded
surfaces, and of the area affected by corrosion
phenomena, that is, the formation of silver and or
copper degradation products;
- 40 hours of UV fluorescence (450 nm, 540 nm, 600
nm) acquisition for the identification of materials
present on the surface, that is, integration, adhesives,
protective materials;
- 27 X-ray exposures (2 projections for each objects)
for structural analysis.
These non-invasive methods have provided
complementary results, for a more comprehensive
evaluation of the state of conservation and of executive
technique. In particular, the non-invasive diagnostic
study was directed to:
i) distinguishing the original material from degradation
and/or restoration materials;
ii) obtaining a deeper knowledge of the production
iii) assessing the current state of conservation and
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
acquiring useful data for scheduled monitoring.
The X-Ray imaging has allowed to document details
related to the technology of assembly and the execution
of embossing (Fig. 5).
The radiographic data, which analyzes the internal
structure of the object by comparing the varied
absorption of X-rays, has provided information on the
presence of fractures, which for the most part were
subject to previous restoration (Fig. 6), also highlighted
by observations under Wood's light.
Fig. 5. X-Ray acquisition on Mastòs (NI 9): upper-
lower projection
Simultaneous observation of UV fluorescence image
shows along the discontinuities the presence of organic
material (adhesive) applied during prior restoration
work carried out to solve fractures visible on X-ray.
This deformation allows to suppose that the fractures
are due at the time of the clandestine excavation.
For most of the analyzed finds, UV fluorescence in the
visible range acquisition has allowed us to map
materials present on the surface, which were used for
protection or integration during the past restorations.
This technique highlights the use of different types of
adhesives present in fractures already evident in the X-
ray images.
Such mapping has not always been done in
documenting previous conservation efforts.
Fig. 6. X-Ray and UV fluorescence acquisition on
find NI 16a
Finally, the analysis of the X ray fluorescence has
enabled us to identify chemical elements, which
provide information on both the silver alloy and the
application of gold leaf decoration, as well restoration
material localized by X- ray and UV fluorescence
imaging (Fig. 7a-b).
Among the constituent materials of precious artifacts,
in addition to gold and silver in the silver matrix it was
also found copper, but in this variable ratio with to
silver, splitting the 16 findings in three clusters (Fig. 8).
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
80000 Ca K
Zn K
Fe K
intensity (counts)
Energy (keV)
Ca K
Au L
Ag K
Au L
Ag K
Cu K
Fig. 7. a) X-Ray image on Mastòs (NI 15): inverted
grey levels of the upper-lower projection; b) XRF
spectra acquired on the original surface(P2, grey) and
on the integration (P3, red) shown in RX.
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20 0,22 0,24
Intensity ratio
Cluster I (NI 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 15)
Cluster II (NI 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16)
Cluster III (NI 7, 8, 10)
Intensity ratio
Fig. 8. Bi-plot of the whole set of Silver (NI 1-16)
based on the XRF data relating to characteristic
emission lines of copper (K
) and Silver (K
Different colour highlights the three groups obtained
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
on the basis of the Cu/Ag ratio.
The copper content was probably added voluntarily
into alloy to modify properties rheological and
mechanical properties of the melt, since the copper
(above 3%) allow to increase the resistance of the
silver and lowers the melting point.
In correspondence with the gilded surfaces it has not
been found the presence of mercury (attributable to the
technique of gilding with amalgam) and consequently
it is likely that the gold leaf has been applied to the
silver surface by thermal treatment.
Moreover, useful chemical markers were also
identified for the monitoring of the blackened areas due
to the formation of silver or copper sulfides, as shown
for find NI 7 in figure 9, bromide or chloride.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Pb L
Au L
Au L
Cu Kβ
Cu K
Ag K
intensità (conteggi)
Energia (keV)
Ag K
1,01,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8
Fig. 9. Silver Skyphos (NI7): Spectra acquired at the
surface in good preservation state (P1) and the one
affected by blackening (P4). From the zoom reported is
well evident the high signal counts of sulfur peak.
Using the 3D scanning approach applied on Cultural
Heritage [8-12], the Morgantina silver gilt Treasure
collection, has been converted into 3D digital model
In order to make this collection accessible in a user
friendly way, we are developing a web-oriented
interface framework.
Its main functionalities are the cataloging of already
existing or totally new 3D scans and the management
of additional metadata. Indeed, one of our main aims is
to augment the digital version of the artifact with
semantic annotations about it, such as the history,
measurements data, expert comments and so on.
Another point of value of the proposed system, raises
from the possibility of subdivide the initial scanned
mesh into several layers of interest: each layer can
show different aspects of the artifact.
Archeomatica project:
The proposed framework could be useful also in the
implementation of a versioning catalogue for the
monitoring and preservation of the cultural heritage
state. Moreover, developing the framework in a web-
oriented way will help the researchers from over the
world since data will be eventually available online.
The prototype is developed by using the Unity engine,
version 5.0. Unity is a platform with an integrated
game engine and is developed by Unity Technologies.
It is mainly employed to develop video games for
different platform, such as PC, consoles, mobile
devices and websites. It allows to handle 3D model and
other kinds of assets, as material, light, image, and
video. Unity 5.0 provides an IDE called Mono Develop
to code in two different program languages: C# and
JavaScript. For this work C# has been used. Although
Unity is usually used for game development, it is also
suitable for generic purpose application related to 3D
Fig. 10 An example of textured 3D model into the
viewer of the proposed system. The red sphere on the
bottom is used as marker for semantic annotation.
Through the developed software, Morgantina artifacts
can be selected from a list of the digitally acquired
objects. Each of them, has its own 3D environment,
with the mesh located in the center. Typical navigation
actions, as rotating and zooming are provided, so that
the surface and details of the object can be analyzed
from all the points of view. The user can navigate the
environment with the mouse or using the proper
buttons on the GUI. Moreover, two visualization
modes are provided: shaded and textured. Shaded
mode (Fig. 10) is better for geometric details analysis,
since general shape is usually clearer without texture.
Using this mode, the alteration in the original structure
of the Cultural Heritage could be investigated (e.g.,
deformation, missing parts). On the other hand, Texture
mode (Fig. 10) gives information about the colors and
generally the state of conservation of the surface.
Indeed, it could be helpful in finding chemical reaction
(e.g., oxidation) or pigments scratches.
In each scene, the rendered object contains semantic
1st International Conference on
Metrology for Archaeology
Benevento, Italy, October 22-23, 2015
annotation, as textual and visual data. Among the latter,
we provide images and graphs, that are useful for
comparisons with the same artifacts in different time.
Interactive parts of the mesh, are enriched with these
major details and are emphasized with markers. When
users select a marker, a tooltip appears or a sided info-
box shows the related information. The sided info-box
window is particularly useful to show visual data.
The kinds of semantic information are: X-Ray for
fractures analysis and manufacturing techniques
identification; UV spectral image to detect previous
restoration evidences; XRF spectral data for chemical
composition analysis and corrosion material detection;
optical microscopy for details about the manufacturing
techniques. All the semantic annotations onto the
meshes, are labeled with one or more tags. For
instance, all additional notes concerning corroded
regions are labeled with tag “alteration”. This
functionality will be useful in future version, because
we are considering to develop a query system to filter
annotations selecting just some of them identified by
specified tags.
As other future works, we are planning to improve the
framework with several functionalities. For instance,
the possibility to subdivide the visualization of an
object into subparts (e.g., the handles of an amphora).
Another improvement is to add an editing system to
allow the user to add their own 3D models, and add
annotations wherever they wish. We are considering to
release the software for several platforms (like
smartphones or tablets), and exploit a 3D engine
different from the Unity and to use novel libraries like
WebGL, specifically developed for web.
The data so far collected represent a key starting point
to deepen the existing knowledge from the
archaeometric point of view, but also to provide an
objective reference for monitoring the state of
conservation of the precious items constituting the
Morgantina Treasure belonging to the Archaeological
Museum in Aidone (Sicily). The ongoing web-oriented
platform consists an active tool to management of
metadata, which will gradually be implemented
through knowledge acquired by specialists and at the
same time contribute to the valorisation of these
archaeological findings to the wide public.
[1] P.G.. Guzzo, “A Group of Hellenistic Silver
Objects in the Metropolitan Museum”,
Metropolitan Museum Journal 38 (2003).
[2] L. Arbace, et al, “Innovative uses of 3D digital
technologies to assist the restoration of a
fragmented terracotta statue”, in Journal of
Cultural Heritage, 14, 2013, Elsevier, 332-345,
[3] F. Di Paola, P. Pedone, L. Inzerillo, C. Santagati,
“Anamorphic Projection: Analogical/Digital
Algorithms” in International Nexus Network
Journal Architecture and Mathematics, 16, Kim
Williams Books, Turin. 2014. ISSN (online):
1590-5896, Springer.
[4] F. Di Paola, S.Lo Presti, S.Mineo, “Artificial stone
in architecture: new techniques of intervention in
the Utveggio Castle in Palermo” in Conservation
Science in Cultural Heritage, 11, 2011, 195-217,
DOI: 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/2698.
[5] Alberghina M.F., Barraco R., Brai M., Pellegrino
L., Prestileo F., Schiavone S., Tranchina L.,
“Gilding and pigments of Renaissance marble of
Abatellis Palace: non-invasive investigation by
XRF spectrometry”, X-Ray Spectrometry. 2013,
42, 68–78.
[6] M. F. Alberghina, R. Barraco, M. Brai, T.
Schillaci, L. Tranchina, “Integrated analytical
methodologies for the study of corrosion
processes in archaeological bronzes”,
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic
Spectroscopy, Volume 66, Issue 2, 2011, 129-137
DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2010.12.010
[7] F. Alberghina, M.F. Alberghina, L. Damiani, E.
Massa, A. Pelagotti, S. Schiavone, “I raggi X per
l’imaging diagnostico delle opere d’arte”, Proc. of
XV National Congress AIPnD 2013 Trieste, Italy
[8] G. Marchand, E. Guilminot, S. Lemoine, L.
Rossetti, M. Vieau and N. Stephant, Degradation
of archaeological horn silver artefacts in burials,
Heritage Science 2014, 2:5
[9] F. Stanco, D. Tanasi, G. Gallo, M. Buffa, B.
Basile, “Augmented perception of the past - The
case of Hellenistic Syracuse”, (2012) Journal of
Multimedia, 7 (2), pp. 211-216.
[10] F. Stanco, D. Tanasi, “Beyond virtual replicas: 3D
modeling and maltese prehistoric architecture”
(2013), Journal of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, art. no. 430905.
[11] Dario Allegra, Enrico Ciliberto, Paolo Ciliberto,
Filippo L. M. Milotta, Giuseppe Petrillo, Filippo
Stanco, Claudia Trombatore. “Virtual Unrolling
Using X-Ray Computed Tomography”. European
Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), 2015
[12] F. Stanco, S. Battiato, G. Gallo, “Digital Imaging
for Cultural Heritage Preservation - Analysis,
Restoration, and Reconstruction of Ancient
Artworks”, Series: Digital Imaging and Computer
Vision, published July 28th 2011 by CRC Press
523 pages, ISBN: 978-1-4398217-3-2.
... The first one has a high resolution and it is suitable for small and detailed object, while Artec Eva is though for architectural elements such as doors, statue etc. An example of Cultural heritage application can be find in [1]. ...
Surface reconstruction of objects using photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning systems (TLS) has been a topic for research for many decades, especially for culture heritage data recording. Recently, many advances into these systems are now available in the market, which give the availability of collecting a huge number of geo-referenced 3-D points covering any object surface. Due to speed and efficiency of data acquisition by means of terrestrial laser scanners, researchers and designers can select the reliable technique, depending on their application, that can be complete to give good results for the complex surfaces such as heritage objects. As Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), located nearby the Giza Pyramids, is set to open by 2020, which considered as the largest museum from its type all over the world, with a huge area covered about a half million m2. GEM is proposed to be a unique museum all over the world for presenting a huge number from old history Egyptian artifacts. Consequently, there is a vital need for building a huge digital database containing complete information for this large number of artifacts. Mobile applications are presently at the primacy of documenting historical and archaeological sites. The current paper examine the methodological framework adopted for one high copy of Pharaonic artifacts, namely Offering Carrier, using hand held laser scanning and convert the results to a mobile application.
... and thus present an appropriate handle for a practical scan. It is important to note that these scanners need to be linked with a computer of mid-high range hardware. Artec 3D scanners are selected for different purposes and applications, such as industrial manufacturing, quality control, plastic surgery, and study, scanning of cultural heritages (Alberghina et. al, 2015) Why Digital Preservation? ...
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All the cumulative actions undertaken by an individual or an organisation to ensure that any content is usable across generations of information technology is known as digital preservation. Although digital preservation is not a new concept for libraries as it almost started in mid 1980s, right from then the libraries have been migrating and refreshing their OPAC records as well as their databases to keep them updated with the emerging systems, software’s and technologies. The libraries are spending larger portions of their budgetary allocations either for procuring or accessing digital products and services (digital content). Archiving and preservation of digital contents has become a serious concern of libraries for collection which is acquired through subscription, purchased in the form of digital media or converted in-house. In recent years 3D scanning has become an important resource in many fields; in particular it has played a key role in study and preservation of cultural heritages. One among such devices that has remarkably invaded the world of digitization is the portable, hand held scanners which are relatively cheaper and easy to use. As technological change occurs, the digital preservation communities/organisations must detect relevant technological developments; determine their implications and real applicability for preserving digital content. Such communities/organisations must also develop timely and appropriate responses to take full advantage of the said progress and minimize obsolescence.
Conference Paper
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In recent years the virtual restoration of ancient papyri has become an important research challenge. This is because the papyrus degradation is often very serious, so physical analysis could damage the artifact. In this paper we address the problem of virtual unrolling to read papyrus scroll by avoiding a dangerous physical unrolling. To this aim we propose a virtual restoration method based on software manipulation of X-ray tomographic images. To test the proposed approach, a realistic papyrus model has been made using the ancient method and pigments compatible with the Egyptian use. The stack of 259 slices, obtained through X-Ray Tomography device , has been processed in order to obtain a digital unrolled papyrus that is quite similar to the hypothetical unrolled sheet.
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The study presents the first results of a wider research project dealing with the theme of ‘‘anamorphosis’’, a specific technique of geometric projection of a shape on a surface. Here we investigate how new digital techniques make it possible to simplify the anamorphic applications even in cases of projections on complex surfaces. After a short excursus of the most famous historical and contemporary applications, we propose several possible approaches for managing the geometry of anamorphic curves both in the field of descriptive geometry (by using interactive tools such as Cabrı` and GeoGebra) and during the complex surfaces realization process, from concept design to manufacture, through CNC systems (by adopting generative procedural algorithms elaborated in Grasshopper).
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Background Archaeological silver objects from burial sites are of a grey-lavender aspect. The formation of AgCl leads to an increase in the volume of the objects, which may undergo a complete transformation into corrosion products. This degradation process has been little studied to date. In this paper, eight horn silver objects were studied by SEM and XRD. Results Analyses showed a corrosion system composed of bi-layers: a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer. Corrosion products were mainly silver chlorides (AgCl), chlorargyrite. Some objects displayed copper inclusions both in the metallic core and in the inner layer. Highly mineralized objects contained other oxygen-rich phases (with Si, Ca) in the inner layer. Soil markers were detected in the outer layer. Conclusion Based on these results, we put forward a corrosion mechanism for horn silver objects. Silver chloride is formed by the disappearance of the initial silver oxide layer. This AgCl layer is not protective and supports ion transport. Thus an outer layer of silver chloride, incorporating soil markers, is formed.
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In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.
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This paper describes how some innovative methodologies have been designed and employed to support the restoration of the Madonna of Pietranico, a terracotta statue severely damaged in the 2009 earthquake. The statue, fragmented in many pieces, has undergone a complex restoration performed by a multidisciplinary working group. The contribution of digital technologies was planned from the very beginning, since the complexity of this restoration originated the design of innovative procedures for managing the reassembly and restoration process. The Madonna test bed was therefore an example of how technology innovation could be pushed by clear application needs. A first important contribution was the study of the recombination hypothesis of the fragments. This initial phase was performed on digitized 3D models of the statue fragments, with the aim of reducing fragments manipulation, preventing further damages and increasing the capabilities to rehearse and evaluate different reassembly options. The accuracy of the 3D scanned models and the new recombination procedure introduced in this paper allowed to manage this phase in the digital domain with successful results. The digital 3D models were also used to design and produce an innovative supporting structure, constructed with a rapid prototyping device. Another important contribution concerned the study and virtual restoration of the polychrome decoration of the statue; our aim was to reproduce and restore in the virtual 3D domain the very complex original polychrome decoration, on the base of the remaining traces. Consequently, new virtual painting functionalities have been designed on the MeshLab platform (an open-source tool for 3D models visualization and manipulation) for reproducing pictorial decorations over digital 3D models and have been assessed on this specific test bed. This allowed us also to investigate the complexity of the virtual repainting process and to identify further technology enhancements. Finally, computer graphics technologies have been also used to produce a video that tells the story of the restoration.
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The aim of this paper is to present a real-time interaction system for ancient artifacts digitally restored in a virtual environment. Using commercial hardware and open source software, Augmented Reality versions of archaeological artifacts are experienced on mobile devices both in a real outdoor site as well as an indoor museum. The case study for this project is represented by two artifacts of Syracuse, Italy, a statue and an altar, dated back to Hellenistic time. Virtual replicas of the two artifacts were produced applying different techniques. Later the two projects became part of the same research plan aimed to virtually rebuild the most significant artistic and architectural features of Hellenistic Syracuse. Besides the simple production of 3D models, via laserscanning and 3D modelling, a digital process of visual improvement of the statue was preliminary carried out based on photographic documentation of some archetypes. The commercial framework for mobile devices, ARToolworks, has been used for developing Augmented Reality applications. Using a pattern that is recognized by the device, the virtual model is shown as it is in the real world. The novelty of this work is that graduate students in virtual archaeology and non computer programmers such as museum staff, could benefit of this work and implement such a system.
Most of the artworks constituting the collection of Renaissance statuary of Abatellis Palace in Palermo (Sicily) show evidence of colour layers and fragments of gold foil that probably once covered the whole marble surface. The restoration of some of these statues has allowed to carry out archaeometric studies about the painting technique and to highlight the original materials and inclusion present on the precious marbles by two famous Italian sculptors of the Renaissance, Francesco Laurana and Antonello Gagini. The measurements have been performed in situ through the integrated use of two non-invasive techniques: visible fluorescence stimulated by ultraviolet light and X-ray fluorescence. The ultraviolet-induced fluorescence analysis has provided additional information on the conservation status of marble surfaces by differentiating the pictorial materials and highlighting the presence of gilding and pigment traces through their characteristic fluorescence response. The observation in ultraviolet light has been used as valuable guide for the identification of the significant points to be analysed by X-ray fluorescence to characterise the original materials. X-ray fluorescence measurements have cast light about their chemical composition and stratigraphical structure. Pictorial layers were identified: vermilion for red layers, blue pigment based on copper for blue layers and pure gold leaf for gilding layers. Principal component analysis of the data was capable of clustering the different painting materials, discriminating through their chemical content. The results represent an important scientific support both to the hypotheses about the original look of the artworks and to the resolution of restoration and conservation questions still open. Copyright