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Phosphorus is important for cowpea production in many tropical African soils with inherent low phosphorus fertility. Most farmers in Africa, however, do not have access to phosphorus fertilizer. Selection of cowpea lines that produce good yield under low soil phosphorus or those with high phosphorus use efficiency can be a low input approach to solving this problem. This research work was conducted in pot trials at the teaching and research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, in the south eastern part of Nigeria to determine the effect of different phosphorus levels on growth and yield of three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), obtained from the germplasm unit of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The experiment consists of five phosphorus levels (0kgha-1, 20kgha-1, 40kgha-1, 60kgha-1 and 80kgha-1) each of which contains seven replicates. Phosphorus fertilizer significantly enhanced growth and yield characters of the cowpea varieties used; plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and number of branches in all the weeks of measurement were significantly improved. Phosphorus also had a significant effect (p>0.05) on seed yield per treatment, weight of 50 seeds, number of nodules, weight of nodules and total aboveground dry matter in all varieties used. However, variations were observed in the responses of the different cowpea varieties to phosphorus application. High yield values were observed in variety three; IT99K-573-2-1, followed by variety two; IT99K-573-1-1 and variety one; IT97K-499-35. Highest value in all the yield characters measured was observed in variety three: IT99K-573-2-1 at phosphorus fertilizer rate of 40kgha-1. When phosphorus is available, IT99K-573-2-1and 40kgha-1 phosphorus application rate is recommended.
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Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3):51-54
Published September, 2011
Osaigbovo and Orhue, 2011
NJAFE VOL. 7 No.3, 2011 51
EFFECT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON SOME SOIL
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF MAIZE (Zea mays L)
Osaigbovo
1
, A. U. and Orhue
2
, E. R.
ABSTRACT
1
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
2
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
A greenhouse study was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to evaluate the effect
of palm oil mill effluent on some soil chemical properties and growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Five rates of the effluent namely
0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ml per 2 kg soil were used in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Results revealed
that the soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus, potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, organic carbon, exchangeable acidity, Effective Cation
Exchange Capacity and sodium increased with increasing effluent applications while soil pH was in acidic condition. The
plant height, leaf area, number of leaves stem girth and nutrients uptake by the plant significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with
increasing palm oil mill effluent treatments.
Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, rate, soil properties, maize, uptake, chemical,
INTRODUCTION
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is of domestic and industrial importance because of the oils obtained from it.
The palm oil is obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit while the palm kernel oil is obtained from the kernel. The
sequence of processing of palm oil from oil palm include; reception of bunches, sterilization, threshing,
digestion/crushing, settling, purification, clarification, packaging, storage and distribution. The waste generated
during these processes is known as the palm oil mill effluent. The waste is let out into the environment of which
soil is one of the major recipients. Thrillaimuithus (1978) observed that for every ton of palm oil processed, two
or three tons of palm oil mill effluents are generated. Thus, this may pose a disposal problem in a large-scale
production.
Studies on the use of palm oil mill effluent as soil amendments have gained attention in recent times. The
controlled application of the effluent has been reported to increase soil pH, K, Ca, Mg and organic matter (Poon,
1982; Lim and P’ng 1983; Lim et al., 1983; Onyia et al., 2001; Akwute and Isu, 2007), soil water holding
capacity and porosity (Logan et al., 1997) The application of palm oil mill effluent has been reported to increase
the growth, dry matter, grain yield and nutrient content of maize (Nwoko and Ogunremi, 2010) and the growth of
tomato plant (Nwoko et al., 2010). A lot of palm mill effluent is generated in Edo state with little or no
utilization agriculturally to ascertain its potentials. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of palm oil
mill effluent on some soil chemical properties and early growth of maize (Zea mays L.).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The preliminary investigation was sited in the greenhouse at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin,
Benin City, Nigeria. Benin City the capital of Edo State lies within latitude 6.5
o
N and longitude 5.8
o
E and is in
area described generally as Benin lowland. The climate of Benin is tropical with two major seasons namely the
rain (April-October) and dry (November-March) seasons. Rainfall is bimodal, peaking usually in July and
September, with a brief drop in August. Minimal rainfall occurs in January and February, followed by the onset of
heavy rainfall in April. The mean annual rainfall is 2300 mm while the entire average temperature is 32
o
C. The
mean relative humidity in the area is about 70%. Benin City is both commercial and agrarian City producing
varieties of arable crops including maize.
The palm oil mill effluent was obtained from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) in Edo State,
while the maize seeds were obtained from the Plant Breeding Unit of the Department of Crop Science, University
of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The soil used was collected from top 15 cm of an uncultivated field left fallow for
three years after several years of continuous cropping with maize plant. The soil was bulked, mixed thoroughly
and air-dried and then sieved to remove debris. Thereafter, 2 kg of the composite soil was weighed and put into
each of the polythene bag. The palm oil mill effluent was applied at the rates of 0, 50, 100, 150; 200 ml per 2 kg
soil were used in a completely randomized design and replicated three times. The effluent applied was thoroughly
mixed with the soil, watered and left for 4 weeks to allow for adequate mineralization and equilibration before
planting.
Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3):51-54
Published September, 2011
Osaigbovo and Orhue, 2011
NJAFE VOL. 7 No.3, 2011 52
Four seeds were sown per polythene bag and thinned to one, two weeks after germination. Growth parameters
were measured at 2 weeks interval, starting from the second week after planting. At 8 weeks after planting, the
plants were harvested; the shoots were dried in the oven at 72
o
C for 72 hours to a constant weight used in
computing the nutrient uptake
Soil and palm oil mill effluent analysis
The soil and the palm oil mill effluent as well as the plant analyses were carried out before and after the
experiment, respectively. The soil pH was determined in a 1:1 soil to water ratio using glass electrode pH meter
while the palm oil mill effluent pH was read directly. The total solids was determined by methods of Ademoroti
(1996). The soil particle size was determined using the hydrometer method of Day (1965). The organic carbon
content of both soil and the effluent was determined by using the chromic acid wet oxidation procedure as
described by Jackson (1962). The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases as well as
exchangeable acidity were determined using methods of Udo et al. (2009). The effective cation exchange capacity
was calculated as the sum of exchangeable bases and exchangeable acidity.
Plant analysis
The ground 50 g plant materials were digested with a mixture of 5 ml HNO
3
and 2 ml HCIO
4
acids. Thereafter, 15
ml of water was added and the digest solution filtered through an acid-washed filter paper into 50 ml volumetric
flask. The filter paper was washed with water and the filtrate dilutes to volume with deionized water. The
sodium, potassium, Calcium, Magnesium contents were determined by the use of atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. Phosphorus content was determined by perchloric acid digestion method (AOAC, 1970).
Nitrogen was determined by the micro-kjeldhal method of Jackson (1962). The data obtained were analysed by
Genstat statistical version. Duncan Multiple Range Test was used in separating the means at 5% level of
probability.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Properties of palm oil mill effluent
The physico-chemical properties of the palm oil mill effluent (Table 1) showed that it contains nutrient elements
such as N, P, K, Mg, Ca and Na. The effluent is acidic and higher in total solids.
Pre-trial soil properties
The pre-trial soil properties are shown in Table 2. The soil used was acidic and have low percentage base
saturation. The nutrient components of the soil were also low. The N, P, K, Mg and Ca were below the critical
values of 1.5-2.0 gkg
-1
, (Sobulo and Osiname, 1981), 10-16 mgkg
-1
(Adeoye and Agboola, 1985), 0.16-0.25
cmolkg
-1
, (Akinrinde and Obigbesan, 2000), 0.2-0.4 cmolkg
-1
(Adeoye and Agboola, 1985) and 2.50 cmolkg
-1
(Akinrinde and Obigbesan, 2000) respectively.
Post-trial soil properties
The soil organic carbon, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, exchangeable acidity and ECEC significantly (P < 0.05) increased
with increasing levels of palm oil mill effluent. The increase in the soil nutrient components may be attributed to
the palm oil mill effluent applied. This result further strenghten earlier findings of Nwoko et al. (2010) and
Akwute and Isu (2007). The soil pH however remained in acidic conditions at all levels of palm oil mill effluent
treatments probably due to acidic nature of applied effluent.
Effect of palm oil mill effluent on the growth of maize (Zea mays L)
The influence of palm oil mill effluent on number of leaves, height, leaf area and stem girth are shown in Tables
3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The results showed that the maize grown in the control treatment was significantly (P <
0.05) higher than palm oil mill effluent treated plants in all the growth parameters measured. The oily nature of
the effluent may have created anaerobic condition in the soil which led to reduced uptake of nutrients needed for
maize growth. Similar result was earlier reported by Kitikum et al. (2000).
Effect of palm oil mill effluent on maize nutrient uptake
The nutrient uptake as influenced by palm oil mill effluent is depicted in Table 7. The nutrient uptake declined
significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing effluent application. The decrease in nutrient uptake may be due to oily
nature of the effluent. Furthermore, the reduced nutrient uptake in the presence the effluent could be due to strong
adsorption in the soil as earlier reported by Drewes and Blume,(1977).
CONCLUSION
In the trial, the soil nutrient content of the treated soil increased while the nutrient uptake and the plant growth
were reduced with increasing effluent application. Though, palm oil mill effluent contains nutrients that are
necessary for the growth of maize, positive effects of these nutrients were not reflected as indicated by the growth
and nutrients uptake by maize plant.
Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3):51-54
Published September, 2011
Osaigbovo and Orhue, 2011
NJAFE VOL. 7 No.3, 2011 53
REFERENCES
Ademoroti, C. A. (1996). Standard methods for water and effluent analysis. Published by Foludex Press, Ibadan,
Nigeria. 182pp
Adeoye, G. O. and Agboola, A. A. (1985). Critical levels of soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mn and maize ear
leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soil of Southwest Nigeria. Fertilizer Research 6: 65- 71
Akinrinde, E. A. and Obigbesan, G. O. (2000). Evaluation of fertility status of selected soil for crop production in
five ecological zones of Western Nigeria. Proceeding of the 26
th
Annual Conference of Soil Science
Society of Nigeria. University of Ibadan. October 30 - November 3 279-288
AOAC (1970). Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Ed
11Washington D. C
Day, P. R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle size analysis Agronomy 9: 545-567
Drewes, H. and Blume, H. P. (1997). Effect of movement and sorption of herbicide in agricultural soils. Forsh
Sonderh 33: 104-113
Jackson, M. L. (1962). Soil chemical analysis New York: Prentice Hall.
Lim. K. H., Wood, B. J. and Lal, A. L. (1983). Effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on oil palm through
flatbed system. Proceeding of the seminar on land application of oil palm and rubber factory effluent
Serdang, October 1983 401p
Lim, K. H. and P
,
ng T. C. (1983). Land application of digested palm oil mill effluent by sprinkler system.
Proceeding of the seminar on land application of oil palm and rubber factory effluent. Serdang, October,
1983. 401p
Logan, I., Linsday, B. J., Goins, I. E and Ryan, J.A. (1997). Field assessment of sludge metal bioavailability to
crops: Sludge rate response Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 534-550
Nwoko, C. O. and Ogunremi. S (2010). Evaluation of palm oil mill effluent on maize (Zea mays L) crop: yield,
tissue nutrient content and residual soil chemical properties Australian Journal of Crop Science 4(1) 16-
22
Nwoko, C. O., Ogunremi. S., Nkwocha, E. E. and Nnorom, I. C. (2010). Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of
palm oil mill effluent and cassava mill effluent on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) after pretreatment
option. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development 1: 67-72
Okwute, L. O. and Isu, N. R. (2007). The environmental impact of palm oil mill effluent(pome) on some physic-
chemical parameters and total aerobic bio-load of soil at a dumpsite in Anyigba, Kogi State Nigeria.
African Journal of Agricultural Research 2(12): 658-662
Onyia, C. O., Uyub, A. M., Akuma, J. C. L., Norulaimi, N. A and Omat, A. K. M. (2001). Increasing the fertilizer
value of palm oil mill sludge: Bioaugmentation in nitrification. Water Science and Technology 44(10):
157-162
Poon, Y.C. (1982). Recycling of palm oil mill effluent in the field. Proceeding of Rubber Research Institute of
Malaysia, Kualar Lumpar, October, 1982. 386p
Sobulo, R.A. and Osiname, O. A. (1981). Soils and fertilizer use in Western Nigeria. Research Bulletin. No 11.
I.A.R.T University of Ife.
Thillaimuthus, S. (1978). The environment and the palm oil industry: a new solution, incineration of sludge.
Planter 54: 228-236.
Udo, E. J., Ibia, T. O., Ogunwale, J. A., Anuo, A. O. and Esu, I. E. (2009). Manual of soil, plant and water
analysis. Sibon books Ltd, Lagos, Nigeria.
Table 1: Properties of palm oil mill effluent
Characteristics Value
pH 4.8
Organic C % 23
TOTAL N mg/l 1400
Available P mg/l 400
Potassium mg/l 1800
Magnesium mg/l 700
Calcium mg/l 439
Sodium mg/l 120
Total solids mg/l 2899
Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(3):51-54
Published September, 2011
Osaigbovo and Orhue, 2011
NJAFE VOL. 7 No.3, 2011 54
Table 2: Soil Chemical Properties before and after the experiment
Treatment
ml/2kg soil pH
(H
2
O)
1:1
Org
C
gkg
-1
Total
N
gkg
-1
Avail
P
mgkg
-1
Mg
K
cmolkg
-1
Na
Exch
Acidity ECEC
Before trial
5.22
8.60
4.00
3.16
0.07
0.22
0.07
0.06
1.86
2.28
After trial
0 5.51a 5.70e 2.00c 1.79d 0.04d 0.18b 0.04b 0.04c 0.12c 0.42d
50 5.56a 19.10d 10.00b 2.37cd 1.40c 0.21ab 0.11a 0.08b 0.16bc 2.03c
100 5.33a 25.30c 13.00ab 2.91bc 1.92b 0.31ab 0.13a 0.10ab 0.20bc 2.66b
150 5.20a 32.90b 18.00ab 3.26b 2.24a 0.38a 0.13a 0.12a 0.24b 3.06a
200 5.18a 39.90a 20.00a 4.04a 2.28a 0.33a 0.15a 0.13a 0.36a 3.30a
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not significantly different from one another at P< 0.05
Table 3: Effect of palm oil mill effluent on maize (
Zea
mays L) number of leaves
Treatment Weeks after planting
ml/2kg soil 2 4 6 8
0
a
a
a
a
50 3.27
b
4.07
b
3.73
b
4.37
b
100 3.07
b
3.80
b
3.60
bc
4.20
b
150 3.00
b
2.87
c
2.60
cd
3.77
c
200 3.00
b
2.73
c
2.33
d
2.80
c
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not significantly
different from one another at P< 0.05
Table 4: E
ffect of palm oil mill effluent on height (cm)
of maize (Zea mays L)
Treatment Weeks after planting
ml/2kg soil 2 4 6 8
0
a
12.10
a
19.99
a
23.77
a
50 5.60
b
7.15
b
10.27
b
12.28
b
100 4.99
bc
6.13
bc
8.99
b
11.64
b
150 4.55
cd
5.37
c
6.13
c
9.25
bc
200 3.79
d
4.13
d
5.23
c
6.44
c
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not significantly
different from one another at P< 0.05
Table 5: Effect of palm oil mill effluent on leaf area (cm
2
) of maize (Zea mays L)
Treatments Weeks after planting
ml/5kg soil 2 4 6 8
0 148.41
a
439.48
a
853.00
a
1232.80
a
50 68.15
b
157.12
b
203.90
b
324.60
b
100 51.29
bc
108.10
c
201.30
b
299.30
b
150 42.17
bc
59.24
bd
53.24
c
138.40
b
200 37.18
c
45.57
d
25.35
c
60.20
b
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not significantly different from one another at P< 0.05
Table 6: Effect of palm oil mill effluent on stem girth (cm) of maize (Zea mays L)
Treatments Weeks after planting
ml/2kg soil 2 4 6 8
0 1.55
a
2.02
a
2.87
a
3.33
a
50 1.21
b
1.39
b
1.83
b
2.10
b
100 1.14
bc
1.30
b
1.75
b
2.03
b
150 1.09
bc
1.20
bc
1.36
c
1.69
bc
200
c
c
c
c
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not significantly different from one another at P< 0.0
Table 7: Effect of palm oil mill effluent on nutrient uptake by maize (
Zea
mays
L) (gkg
-
1
)
Treatment
ml/2 kg soil
N P K Ca Mg Na
0 0.13
a
0.02
a
0.13
a
0.03
a
0.01
a
0.01
a
50 0.11
a
0.01
a
0.02
b
0.02
b
0.01
a
0.003
b
100 0.08
b
0.01
b
0.02
b
0.03
a
0.01
a
0.003
b
150 0.02
c
0.01
b
0.003
c
0.01
c
0.004
ab
0.002
b
200 0.01
d
0.01
b
0.003
c
0.01
c
0.002
b
0.001
b
Mean values with the same letters in the column are not
significantly different from one another at P< 0.05
... Legumes use more P for growth, seed development and most especially in nitrogen fi xation. Though legume crops can fi x up to 11-20 kg N ha -1 , this is not achievable due to the low soil fertility in the tropics (Nkaa et al. 2014). There are many evidences that indicate noticeable diff erences between cowpea genotypes and P uptake. ...
... cm) in P 90 . Similar results were also found by Magani and Kuchinda (2009) and Nkaa et al. (2014). ...
... At maturity, the highest number of branches plant -1 (5.70) was obtained in the treatment of P 90 and the lowest (4.53) in P 60 . These results are in agreement with the fi nding reported by Nkaa et al. (2014). ...
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The cultivation of rice in Ethiopia has a history of fewer than fifty years. However, its production and consumption have been increasing from year to year progressively. Genotype evaluation should be conducted in multiple locations for multiple years to fully sample the target environments. In light of that, an investigation was underway to evaluate high-elevation rice genotypes and identify desirable genotypes. The study was conducted across seven environments using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The result showed that spikelet fertility ranged from 74.72% for G5 to 95.05% for G1. Genotypes G1, G12, G13, G16, Ediget and Shaga are highly fertile (≥90% fertility) implying that these genotypes are better in terms of cold tolerance; G1 had the highest thousand-seed weight followed by G12 and G6. Grain yield varied from 1.578 t ha-1 for G4 to 4.023 t ha-1 for G12. The AMMI analysis of variance showed that genotypes, environments and their interaction were highly significant (p<0.01) and explained 28.29%, 24.16% and 47.56% of the treatment variation, respectively; signifying that GxE was the predominant contributor of the variation. The first four significant IPCAs captured about 96.63% of the total GE variance. The environment Jimma19 followed Fogera19 contributed higher to the GxE variance, indicating that these environments were important in discriminating the genotypes. The GGE biplot identified G12 and G13 as stable and high-yielding genotypes for the environments under study. These genotypes are cold tolerant and had acceptable yield improvements over the checks. On top of that, the white caryopsis color of the two genotypes is also an additional advantage over the latest check.
... These increments of biomass and haulm yield of lentil at the highest rate of P application might be due to the availability of P nutrient in the soil which increases their uptake by plants, which result in increased dry matter accumulation in leaves and stem at earlier growth stages and better translocation to yield during later stages. Nkaa et al. (2014) and Zike et al. (2017) reported an increased rate of phosphorus application from 0-30 kg/ha increased dry matter of lentil. In contrast, the seed yield was significantly lower at the highest rate (90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) than at 30 and 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha rates (Table 4). ...
Conference Paper
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A field experiment was conducted in the rain-fed upland rice producing areas of Assosa, Tepi in 2017 and 2019 while at Guraferda and Chewaka in 2018 cropping seasons. Thirteen upland rice varieties were evaluated in a randomized complete block design replicated three times to evaluate the agronomic performance and adaptability of the varieties. A plot size of 7.5 m2 was used. The combined analysis of variance at Tepi revealed a significant difference (P≤ 0.01) only for grain yield while non-significant for number of days to heading, number of days to maturity, panicle length, plant height, number of filled grains per panicle, thousand seed weight. On the other hand, at Assosa the genotype by year interaction showed a nonsignificant difference for the number of filled grains per panicle and thousand seed weight, while other traits revealed significant differences (P≤ 0.01). Performance evaluation of the varieties across years differs in each testing location. As a result, variety NERICA-4 with earlier heading (88 days), with high number of filled grains (137.4) and high grain yield (5025.8 kg ha-1) followed by Chewaka with high thousand seed weight (30.8 g) and grain yield of (4700.2 kg ha-1) and Pawe-1 (4624.4 kg ha-1) were recommended for Tepi and similar areas. In Assosa, variety Hidassie with a high number of filled grains (157.8 g) and grain yield of (4814.5 kg ha-1) followed by NERICA-4 (4551.3 kg ha-1) is the good performing variety for production. In the Guraferda area, variety Chewaka (5924.2 kg ha-1) followed by Adet (5126.8 kg ha-1) and Hidassie (4685.0 kg ha-1) showed better performance. On the other hand, variety Pawe-1 (3094.0kg ha-1), Tana (2920.1 kg ha-1) and NERICA-4 (2721.5 kg ha-1) perform well among the tested varieties in Chewaka.
... These increments of biomass and haulm yield of lentil at the highest rate of P application might be due to the availability of P nutrient in the soil which increases their uptake by plants, which result in increased dry matter accumulation in leaves and stem at earlier growth stages and better translocation to yield during later stages. Nkaa et al. (2014) and Zike et al. (2017) reported an increased rate of phosphorus application from 0-30 kg/ha increased dry matter of lentil. In contrast, the seed yield was significantly lower at the highest rate (90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) than at 30 and 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha rates (Table 4). ...
Conference Paper
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Selam is the common name given to the rice (Oryza Sativa L.) genotype-Yungeng 31 after it’s officially released in 2020. It was introduced from China through Green Super Rice (GSR) project in 2014; and its performance evaluation (2014-2018) and verification (2019) trials were conducted. The mean grain yield performance across locations over years of Selam was 4840 kgha-1 with a yield advantage of 35.8% and 37.5 % compared to Ediget and Fogera 2, respectively. During the verification trial, Selam gave a mean grain yield of 5200 kg ha-1 from three on-stations and 4700 kg ha-1 from four on-farm sites and had a 17.6% yield advantage over Shaga. Moreover, it was cold-tolerant, resistant to major diseases, and has white caryopsis color. Selam was recommended for commercial production for Fogera, Dembia, Jimma, Shire-Maitsebri and similar agro-ecologies in Ethiopia.
... highest number of pods of 6 was observed in T2 and lowest number of pods of 3 was observed in T1. At 2 nd picking, the highest number of pods of 8 was observed in T2 and lowest number of pods of 4 was observed in T1 and T4. Foliar application of multi nutrient fertilizer enhanced the number of pods per okra plant than control(Abbasi et al., 2010).Nkaa et al. (2014) noted that the number of pods per plant of the cowpea variety was significantly enhanced by phosphorus foliar application. According toSandeep et al. (2019) who stated that foliar application of micronutrients treated plants enhanced the number of pods per plant than control. ...
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Improved soil fertility is a requirement for enhanced crop production. Combination of inorganic and organic fertilizers improve crop productivity while reduce environmental degradation. An experiment was carried out at Eastern University, Sri Lanka to study the effect of Foliar Application of Banana Pseudostem Sap on Yield of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in sandy regosol. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design having five treatments viz; recommended inorganic fertilizer N, P, K as basal and N as topdressing (T1), N, P, 1⁄2 K as basal with recommended N as topdressing and foliar spray of 1% , 3%, 5% and 7% banana pseudostem sap solution (T2-T5) at 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th and 9 th week after planting. The results revealed that significant difference (P<0.05) were noted on number of pods per plant at 1 st and 2 nd picking. Higher number of pods per plant, maximum pod length and girth were in T2 while low in T1. Sun dried weights of pods and number of seeds per pod were significantly (P<0.05) varied at each picking. Further, cowpea yield at each picking were higher in T2 compared to tested treatments. The present study suggested that, among the tested treatments N, P, 1⁄2 K as basal with recommended N as topdressing and foliar spray of 1% Pseudostem sap solution at 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th and 9 th WAP would be the most suitable for cowpea production in sandy regosol.
... Therefore, a proper combination of external phosphorus applications and intracellular phosphorus content is crucial to improve plant yield and quality of production and at the same time minimize the negative impacts on the environment. Furthermore, for cow pea production, phosphate fertilizer application has significantly enhanced the number of nodule and weight by influencing the efficiency of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis relationship (Nkaa et al., 2014). On the other hand, it was also reported that different content of phosphate in the different types of fertilizer between manure and commercial fertilizers will result in different growth and increment rate of the dry matter in plants. ...
Article
Phosphate is an important macronutrient essential for various enzymatic reactions, biological processes and biosynthesis of different compounds in plants. There are multiple factors affecting phosphate uptake such as crop physiology, soil structure and texture, plantation management and environmental conditions. There is no specific solution that can be employed for better phosphate uptake by plants but clearly, sustainable agriculture management facilitated by precision crop assessment could be an effective solution. The ability for a better phosphate uptake by plants and that information will ensure the success of small and big scale farmers role in securing the demand for food by the growing population. Therefore, various approach has been taken to identify the phosphate uptake hence with the help of digitalization, we believe there will be innovated phosphate uptake studies compared to how these were previously carried out. In the next decade, more phosphate uptake information data with seamless accessibility will be available to various users. However, data alone will not be able to produce anything, analysis and advisory services are required in helping farmers to use and apply those obtained information for subsequent application in the field. Software applications with advance machine learning will customized the interactions between devices and data for the user. As they interact, they provide an untapped opportunity for better farm decision-making in real time. In this review, we will discuss how digitalization has improved to change the overall plant phosphate uptake studies and by what means the generated information can be efficiently utilized by the farmers and the various stakeholders.
... Mullin (2009) mentioned that the physiological and biochemical processes of macronutrients particularly P & K enhance photosynthesis, respiration, energy transformation, nucleic acid biosynthesis, cell division, and enlargement of the applied crop components. These nutrients were considered indispensable elements for growth, sugar and starch utilization, photosynthesis, nucleus formation, and cell division (Nkaa et al., 2014). Thereby, an adequate amount of macronutrients would result in speedy growth, development, and early maturity of the crop (Nkuna, 2019). ...
... For cassava cultivation, evidence from literature indicates that soils that are suitable for maize production, especially those with sandy loam and loamy sand textures, therefore, they will equally be suitable for cassava production. Cassava might do well in moderately fertile soils [39], whereas maize is a nutrient-demanding crop [40]. However, the fertility requirements of cassava are lower than that of maize. ...
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Background In derived savanna ecology, the evaluation of soil characteristics for the current and future capability and suitability for crop production is crucial. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate the capability and suitability of plinthic soil of a derived savannah ecology of Nigeria for sustainable crop production. Methods The methodology was essentially Grid using hand-held GPS to determine the coordinates of sampling points for the collection of soil samples. In all, 18 profile pit samples were collected. The profile pits were described morphologically on the field using the FAO guideline on soil profile description. From the various horizons of these profile pits, soil samples were collected. Results Land assessment indicates that the soils of the area are very fragile and inherently low in nutrients. Mapping unit A is moderately suitable for arable crop production while Units B and C are fairly suitable. For agricultural activities, mapping unit D is marginal for arable crop production. Stoniness, steep slope, and shallow soil depth are the major limitations. Mapping unit E is the most suitable for lowland rice production. Soil fertility management ought to be integrated (organic and inorganic). The land evaluation shows that the soils of the project site are very fragile and poor in native fertility. Also, the soils are generally defined by the plinthite content. Apart from the traditional crops grown in the area, some other crops like sweet potato and cowpea will do well on the soil of the area. Crop residue has to be well managed and adopted. Crop rotation and intercropping should be encouraged and included in the soil management plan. Also, due to the low level of organic carbon in the soils, the soils will benefit optimally from the application of manure. This will improve the soil aggregation, water, and nutrient-holding capacities as well as improve the pH status of the soil. Conclusion Soil fertility assessments should be undertaken every two years after continuous cropping. ’High-Intensity Detailed Soil Survey’ of this nature should be carried out every ten years.
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Agro industrial effluents' management such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) have been a major environmental concern in countries producing them. These effluents are land and aquatic pollutants when discharged untreated, due to presence of high organic load and their phytotoxic properties. Pretreatment measures comprised of phase separation involving sedimentation, aeration to enhance biodegradation and pH neutralization. A randomized complete block design experiment in factorial arrangement was set up to assess effects of aeration, settling and pH neutralization on POME and CME phytotoxicity on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) germination and seedling development. Results obtained showed that aeration was the most significantly effective pretreatment technique for POME and CME. Phytotoxicity decreased when effluents were left to aerobically decompose for 6 days. pH neutralization increased phytotoxcity in the two effluent streams. Settling did not significantly reduce phytotoxicity in CME but did in POME. The 3-way Interaction was not significant in all the parameters measured. Management plans for these effluent streams should consist of well designed pond system, metal tanks equipped with blowers for proper decomposition before disposal.
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Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is produced in large quantities in Nigeria and is amenable to microbial degradation. Thus, represents a low-cost source of plant nutrients. This paper presents the data from two years experiments concerned with the application of aerobically-fermented POME to soils for maize (Zea mays. L) Production at Owerri. Nigeria. Maize grain yield, height, dry matter, tissue nutrient and soil residual chemical properties were evaluated. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized block in factorial arrangement. The paper describes the results of crop yields, stover and grain N, P and K content and residual organic C, N, P and pH as influenced by soil-amendment. The research demons- trated the organic-fertilizer produced higher grain yield, dry matter, and tissue nutrient content and leaves consider- able residual organic C, N and P than plots that received no amendment (control). Fermented POME could enhance maize crop production and can promote sustainable agriculture.
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Malaysia is essentially an agricultural country and her major polluting effluents have been from agro-based industries of which palm oil and rubber industries together contribute about 80% of the industrial pollution. Palm oil sludge, commonly referred to, as palm oil mill effluent (POME) is brown slurry composed of 4-5% solids, mainly organic, 0.5-1% residual oil, and about 95% water. The effluent also contains high concentrations of organic nitrogen. The technique for the treatment of POME is basically biological, consisting of pond systems, where the organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia, which is subsequently transformed to nitrate, in a process called nitrification. A 15-month monitoring program of a pond system (combined anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic ponds in series) confirmed studies by other authors and POME operators that nitrification in a pond system demands relatively long hydraulic retention time (HRT), which is not easily achieved, due to high production capacity of most factories. Bioaugmentation of POME with mixed culture of nitrifiers (ammonia and nitrite oxidizers) has been identified as an effective tool not only for enhancing nitrification of POME but also for improving quality of POME as source of liquid nitrogen fertilizer for use in the agricultural sector, especially in oil palm plantations. Nitrate is readily absorbable by most plants, although some plants are able to absorb nitrogen in the form of ammoniun. In this study, up to 60% reduction in HRT (or up to 20% reduction in potential land requirement) was achieved when bioaugmentation of POME was carried out with the aim of achieving full nitrification.
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The effect of POME on the integrity of the soil was investigated. Soil samples from the palm oil mill effluent ( POME) dumpsite as well as a non-POME site were tested for physico-chemical properties such as pH, water holding capacity, available phosphorus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, mineral assay and cation exchange capacity. Furthermore, the total aerobic bacteria counts of the samples at 2, 30 and 40 degrees C were assayed. Results showed significant differences ( P <= 0.05) and ( P <= 0.01) in pH, water holding capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and available phosphorus. 30 degrees C had the highest average microbial bioload ( 1.64 x 10(9) +/- 0.2) and so, the most favourable for growth. Bacterial counts from the POME dumpsite were found to be significantly higher ( P <= 0.05),(9.6 x 10(8) +/- 0.1 at 20 degrees C, 1.64 x 10(9) +/- 0.2 at 30 degrees C and 1.07 x 10(9) +/- 0.2 at 40 degrees C) than the counts for the non-POME soil sites (4.5 x 10(8) +/- 0.3 at 20 degrees C, 7.6 x 10(8) +/- 0.3 at 30 degrees C and 5.9 x 10(8) +/- 0.3 at 40 degrees C) at all the temperatures. The implications of these results on soil environment are discussed.
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We conducted a field study (1991-1995) of trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in two crops, corn (Zea mays L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as affected by a one-time application of an anaerobically digested sewage sludge to Miamian silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) in Columbus, OH to determine the nature of the uptake response over a wide range of sludge application rates (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 188, 225, and 300 Mg/ha dry solids). Cadmium, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn sludge concentrations were 46, 433, 67, 185, and 2334 mg/kg, respectively. Soil pH did not vary significantly with sludge application (6.1-7.5), while electrical conductivity, total C and total organic N increased linearly with sludge application and declined over time. Soil metals extracted with 0.005 M EDTA in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 increased linearly with total soil concentration and generally declined over time. Cadmium, Cu and Zn concentrations in corn increased significantly with sludge application, while Ni and Pb levels were low compared to the control. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn concentrations in corn exhibited a plateau-type response that could be modeled with the Mitscherlich equation. Lettuce concentrations increased linearly with sludge application for Cd, Cu, and Zn in all years, and linear regression slopes generally declined and stabilized after the first 2 yr.
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In the sedimentary soils of South-western Nigeria, actual and expected relative yields of maize were plotted against soil physical factors, soil avalilable nutrients and ear-leaf content of maize. These were used to set critical ranges of these factors for optimum production. Regression equations were obtained for each of the soil and plant factors for predicting yield, thereby making possible yield prediction with levels of each of these factors in these soils if all other factors are constant. The critical range concept combined with the soil physical and chemical properties and plant nutrient content could be a useful diagnostic tool for soil ammendment in crop production. Critical ranges were set as follows: pH, 6–6.5; available P (Bray's Pl), 10–16 mg Kg−1; Exchangeable K, 0.6–0.8 me K100g−1; available Zn, 5–10mg kg−1; available Mn, about 25 mg Kg−1; Ear-leaf P, 2.5–3.0%; Ear-leaf Cu, 10–20 mg Kg−1; Earleaf Mn, about 50 mg Kg−1.
Standard methods for water and effluent analysis
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Ademoroti, C. A. (1996). Standard methods for water and effluent analysis. Published by Foludex Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. 182pp
Evaluation of fertility status of selected soil for crop production in five ecological zones of Western Nigeria. Proceeding of the 26 th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria
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Akinrinde, E. A. and Obigbesan, G. O. (2000). Evaluation of fertility status of selected soil for crop production in five ecological zones of Western Nigeria. Proceeding of the 26 th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria. University of Ibadan. October 30 -November 3 279-288
Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Particle fractionation and particle size analysis Agronomy
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AOAC (1970). Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Ed 11Washington D. C Day, P. R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle size analysis Agronomy 9: 545-567