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Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia

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The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n.
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Accepted by A. Cavalleri: 27 Aug. 2015; published: 25 Sept. 2015
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ZOOTAXA
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Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4021.2.9
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Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae)
with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia
Y. F . N G
1
& L.A.
MOUND
2
1
Centre for Insect Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: ng_yf@ukm.edu.my
2
Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. E-mail: laurence.mound@csiro.au
Abstract
The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented.
These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel,
Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirto-
thrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips,
with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips
is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n.
Key word: Scirtothrips genus-group, key to genera, Siamothrips new species
Introduction
The Scirtothrips genus-group is here recognised as comprising 11 genera, of which 10 genera comprise a total of
18 species whereas 110 species are now listed in Scirtothrips. Of these genera, only Scirtothrips and
Anascirtothrips are widespread globally, whereas the remaining nine genera are restricted in their distributions,
five of them being monotypic. The members of this group of Thripinae breed on a wide range of plants, on which
they appear to prefer tissues of the youngest leaves and fruitlets. Some species are of considerable economic
importance as major pests, for example, of Citrus in South Africa (Gilbert 1990), of avocado in California
(Rugman-Jones et al. 2007), and of various crops in Asia (Talekar 1991). Moreover, a few species have become
widely distributed, probably through the horticultural trade, including Scirtothrips dorsalis and Anascirtothrips
arorai (Hoddle et al. 2012), also Biltothrips minutus (Ng et al. 2014). A further example of such inadvertent
dispersal is the description of Kenyattathrips katherinae based on specimens taken in quarantine at Melbourne,
Australia, from leaves imported from Kenya (Mound 2009). Some pest species of Scirtothrips are highly
polyphagous (Garms et al. 2013), but others have a more restricted host range, such as species associated with
avocado in Central America (Hoddle et al. 2008a). Other taxa with a restricted host range include species of
Anascirtothrips that seem to breed largely on the leaves of various Ficus trees, and the two species of
Ephedrothrips that are known only from the leaves of Ephedra species (Ephedraceae).
Masumoto & Okajima (2007) provided a valuable introduction to the Scirtothrips genus-group, but excluded
Ajothrips Bhatti on the basis of four character states. Of these, it is now accepted that the number of veinal setae
among the species involved is greater than was known in 2007, and the absence of a dorsal split on tergite X of
Ajothrips garuda is not true for all available specimens. The condition of the prospinasternum, the third character
employed, is not visible in many slide preparations as this is a very weak sclerite, and is here not considered
suitable for decisions on relationships. Thus, of the four character states, only the presence of campaniform sensilla
on tergite IX in Ajothrips distinguishes this taxon clearly. The genus is therefore here included as a member of
Scirtothrips-group, in which all species share the following character states, except where indicated: Body usually
pale and small, less than 1 mm long. Antennae usually 8-segmented, but 7-segmented in six species and 6-
segmented in one species; antennal segment I without dorso-apical setae, segment II with inner dorsal seta usually
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longer than outer seta, segments III–IV with sense cone forked. Head and pronotum usually with closely spaced
striae; interantennal projection relatively wide; ocellar setae pair I present (absent in Biltothrips). Pronotum usually
without long posteroangular setae, with 4 pairs of posteromarginal setae. Tarsi 2-segmented. Fore wing first vein
with setal row incomplete, second vein setal row varying from few (or zero) to many setae. Meso and metasternal
endofurca usually with spinula. Abdominal tergites laterally with closely spaced rows of microtrichia (absent in
Scirtidothrips); median pair of setae, S1, usually close together; tergite IX without campaniform sensilla (present
only in Ajothrips); tergite X without dorsal longitudinal split (weakly present in Ajothrips); male without sternal
pore plates, tergite IX sometimes with paired drepanae.
Nomenclatural details are available in ThripsWiki (2015). The following abbreviations and depositories are
used: CPS—campaniform sensilla; ANIC—Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra. CISUKM—Centre
for Insect Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. USNM-—United States National Museum of
Natural History. UCME—Entomology collection from Complutense University of Madrid.
Key to genera of Scirtothrips genus-group
1. Antennae 6-segmented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drepanothrips
-. Antennae 7 or 8-segmented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Antennae 7-segmented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
-. Antennae 8-segmented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Antennae widely separated, interantennal projection wider than length of antennal segment I; first ocellar setae long, about 3
times as long as distance between posterior ocelli; pronotum with a pair of long anteromarginal setae . . . . . . . . Kenyattathrips
-. Antennae not widely separated, interantennal projection not wider than length of antennal segment I; first ocellar setae not
elongate; pronotum with no long anteromarginal setae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Mesonotal median and submedian setae arising almost in a transverse line; abdominal tergites with many rows of closely
spaced microtrichia on lateral thirds; tergal median setae S1 longer than distance between their bases . . . . . . . Anascirtothrips
-. Mesonotal submedian setae arising near posterior margin, posterolateral to median setae; abdominal tergites lateral thirds with
few microtrichia on sculpture lines; tergal median setae S1 shorter than the distance between their bases. . . . .Parascirtothrips
5. Abdominal tergites IV–VII without rows of microtrichia on lines of sculpture laterally (Fig. 4); fore wing second vein with
complete row of about 16 setae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scirtidothrips
-. Tergal lateral thirds with closely spaced rows of microtrichia on sculpture lines; fore wing second vein with less than 12 setae
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Tergal setae S1 and S2 arise laterally closer together than their length; head with ocellar setae pair I absent, no setal pair in
front of first ocellus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biltothrips
-. Tergal setae S1 usually close together medially, distant from setae S2; ocellar setae pair I present, sometimes wide apart
(absent in some specim ens of Scirtothrips malayensis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. Abdominal sternites IV–VI with median two pairs of posteromarginal setae arising in front of posterior margin (Fig. 2). . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cercyothrips
-. Abdominal sternites IV–VI with posteromarginal setae arising at margin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8. Tergite IX with pair of campaniform sensilla present medially . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ajothrips
-. Tergite IX without any campaniform sensilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. Fore wing second vein without setae; pronotum trapezoidal, as long as wide (Fig. 10); sternites with complete posteromarginal
comb of microtrichia; [where known, male apterous] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Siamothrips
-. Fore wing second vein with some setae; pronotum transverse, wider than long; sternites rarely with complete posteromarginal
comb of microtrichia; [where known, male macropterous] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
10. Major setae on pronotum and fore wing tapering and sharply pointed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scirtothrips
-. Major setae on pronotum and fore wing thickened, parallel-sided and bluntly pointed (Fig. 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ephedrothrips
Ajothrips Bhatti, 1967
Three species are described in this genus, all from India. Masumoto & Okajima (2007) excluded the genus from the
Scirtothrips genus-group, but the chaetotaxy of the fore wing is similar to that of Scirtidothrips, and the dorsal split
on tergite X is very short and not always clearly defined. The most obvious difference from the species in the other
genera discussed here is the presence of a pair of campaniform sensilla medially on the ninth tergite.
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Anascirtothrips Bhatti, 1961
This genus currently includes four species. Associated with the leaves of various Ficus species, these have a natural
distribution in the tropics of eastern Asia to northern Australia. However, A. arorai has been distributed by the
horticultural trade in Ficus plants, and is reported from Florida (Mound & Wang 2000) and Israel (zur Strassen &
Kuslizky 2007). The species differ from those of Scirtothrips in having seven-segmented antennae with the second
segment having both dorsal setae equally developed, and the mesonotum with both the median and submedian
discal setal arising far anterior to the posterior margin of this sclerite.
Biltothrips Bhatti, 1973
The only species in the genus was described from India, West Bengal, but has subsequently been reported from
Thailand and Malaysia (Ng et al. 2014) as well as the Society Islands in the Pacific Ocean (Hoddle et al. 2008b).
However, no information is available concerning the biology and host plant of this species. Within the Scirtothrips
genus-group it is unique in lacking ocellar setae pair I, the usual pair of pre-ocellar setae (Ng et al. 2014).
Cercyothrips Morgan, 1925
(Figs 1–2)
The two species described in this genus were both based on single females, the type-species from Puerto Rico and
the other from Trinidad. However, Mound and Marullo (1996) reported a series of both sexes from southern Brazil
that apparently represent the type species, and the figures given here are of one of these females from Brazil. This
genus shares with Kenyattathrips and Scirtidothrips the unusual character state of having the sternal
posteromarginal setae arising in front of the margins (Fig. 2). However, the chaetotaxy in the former genus is very
different as indicated below. Antennal segments VII and VIII are far more slender than those in the second genus,
and the metanotum has transverse sculpture lines (Fig. 1) that are similar to those found in Ajothrips.
Drepanothrips Uzel, 1895
The only species in this genus is presumably European in origin, but has been recorded from Russia, Japan and
North America. Known as a pest of grapevines in Europe and America, although not in Japan (Masumoto &
Okajima 2007), it lives on the leaves of Corylus and Quercus trees in Britain (Mound et al. 1976). The species is
unique among the Scirtothrips genus-group in having the three terminal antennal segments fused to produce a six-
segmented condition, and the male bears a pair of conspicuous drepanae laterally on the ninth tergite.
Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, 1968
(Figs 5–6)
Two species are placed in this genus, from Morocco and Spain. These were described as having 2-segmented
maxillary palps, a character state shared only with Cercyothrips among the genera discussed here. However, the
presence or absence of a distal suture on these palps is sometimes difficult to determine, and one paratype of E.
ontigolae (in UCME) has been studied that appears to have two segments on the right palp but three on the left
palp. The form of the setae on the pterothorax (Fig. 5) and fore wings is different from that found in any other
genus in the Scirtothrips group.
Kenyattathrips Mound, 2009
The only known species in this genus was described from Catha edulis (Celastraceae) from Kenya but taken in
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Quarantine at Melbourne, Australia. The species is unusual in having the inner pair of setae on the second antennal
segment exceptionally long, ocellar setae pair I long and arising far forward on the interantennal projection, the
pronotum with a pair of long anteromarginal setae, tergite VII as well as VIII with a complete marginal comb of
microtrichia, and sternites V–VII with the posteromarginal setae arising in front of the margin.
FIGURES 17. Cercyothrips: (1) pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum; (2) sternites IV–VI. Scirtidothrips: (3) pronotum,
mesonotum and metanotum; (4) tergites III–V. Ephedrothrips ontigolae (paratype): (5) pronotum; (6) tergites III–V.
Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n: (7) pronotum.
Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, 2007
The single described species in this genus remains known only from Honshu, Japan, where it was recorded from at
least five different genera of plants, most of which are members of the Fagales or even Fagaceae. The species is
unusual within the Scirtothrips genus-group in having the pronotal sculpture weak with widely spaced lines, the
mesonotal submedian setae arising close to the posterior margin, the tergites with few rows of microtrichia, and the
antennae are 7-segmented.
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Scirtidothrips Hood, 1954
(Figs 3–4)
This genus comprises a single species, S. torquatus, described from Brazil but subsequently recorded from Costa
Rica (Mound & Marullo 1996). Although very similar to species placed in Scirtothrips in body form and the
sculpture of the head and thorax, it differs in lacking microtrichia on the lateral sculpture lines of the tergites, the
two dorsal setae on antennal segment II are sub-equal in length, the fore wing second vein bears a complete row of
16–17 setae, and the median two pairs of sternal posteromarginal setae arise submarginally at least on sternites V–
VII. The figures given here (Figs 3, 4) are from a female in the USNM collection, taken in January 1951 at
Turrialba, Costa Rica, on Mimosa flowers and foliage, that has been studied together with the holotype female.
Scirtothrips Shull, 1909
Scirtothrips Shull, 1909: 222. Type species Scirtothrips ruthveni Shull.
Sericopsothrips Hood, 1936: 83. Type species Sericopsothrips palloris Hood. syn.n.
Hood described Sericopsothrips for a single species that remains known only from a single female, collected from
blueberry flower in 1934 at Canandaigua, New York. He compared the genus to Sericothrips, but curiously made
no reference to Scirtothrips. In contrast, based on the description, Stannard (1968) stated that the genus would “key
to Scirtothrips”, although Masumoto and Okajima (2007), also Mound (2009), stated that Sericopsothrips could be
distinguished from Scirtothrips by having a pair of long posteroangular setae on the pronotum. Again, however, the
comments by these authors were based only on the original description. The holotype female of palloris has now
been examined, and the pronotal setae S2 are 50 microns long (Fig. 7). This is not significantly longer than the 45
microns long setae of S. ewarti Bailey from western USA, nor the 30 microns long setae of the common pest
species S. citri (Moulton). In other character states, the species palloris is a typical member of Scirtothrips, with the
inner dorsal seta on antennal II conspicuously longer than the outer seta, and the genus is here placed into
synonymy. The species level taxonomy of North American Scirtothrips species remains unsatisfactory (Hoddle et
al. 2012), and comparisons of Scirtothrips palloris comb.n. with other species are currently not possible. However,
it is a pale individual, with no obvious darker markings, the ocellar area bears widely spaced irregular transverse
striae and setae pair III are closer together than the diameter of the first ocellus, the metanotum has elongate
reticulation with the median setae arising far behind the anterior margin, the lateral microtrichial fields on the
tergites bear three pairs of setae, and no discal microtrichia are visible on the ninth tergite; the sternites are not
visible. As a result of this synonymy, Scirtothrips now comprises 110 species, most of which are found in the
warmer parts of the world. Several species have been reported as pests on a range of important crops, including
avocado, capsicum, citrus, grapes, mango, strawberry and tea (Hoddle & Mound 2003). As noted in the key above,
one recently described species, S. malayensis, is unusual in that the holotype and several (but not all) paratypes
lack ocellar setae pair I, a remarkable condition that was not noted in the original description (Ng et al. 2014).
Siamothrips Okajima, 1990
This genus has previously included the single species S. argus Okajima. This was described from 78 females and
nine males taken on Solanum melongena leaves in Thailand. A second species is described below, based on six
females collected in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.
Key to species
1. Body and wings pale; sculpture on mesoscutum and metascutum without inner markings; median and submedian setae on
mesoscutum not arranged in a transverse line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . argus
-. Body, head, thoracic segments (Figs 811) and fore wing with brown markings (Fig. 15); sculpture on mesoscutum and metas-
cutum with inner markings; median and submedian setae on mesoscutum arranged in a transverse line (Fig. 11). . .initium sp.n.
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Siamothrips initium sp.n.
(Figs 8–17)
Female macropterous. Body pale to brown, anterior margin of head brown; pronotum uniformly pale; femora,
tibiae and tarsi pale, tarsi slightly shaded at extreme apex; antennal segments I–III pale, IV–V shaded in apical half,
VI–VIII uniformly shaded (Fig. 12); fore wing brown at base including clavus, and middle areas (Fig. 15);
abdominal tergites pale; all abdominal sternites pale including antecostal ridges.
Head wider than long; ocellar setae I present; II situated outside ocellar triangle, III arising on tangent between
anterior margins of hind ocelli; two pairs of postocular setae; mouth-cone not extending beyond posterior margin of
pronotum, maxillary palps 3-segmented; compound eyes without pigmented ommatidia. Antennae 8-segmented,
segment I without dorsal apical setae, II without CPS and mid dorsal setae, with four rows of microtrichia dorsally;
III and IV with sense cones forked; III–VI with three to four rows of microtrichia on both dorsal and ventral
surfaces. Pronotum trapezoidal with about 30 fine setae, transverse striae at margins but striae irregular medially;
no long posteroangular setae, 2 or 3 pairs of posteromarginal setae (Fig. 10). Mesonotum with irregular transverse
striae with inner markings; no anterior CPS, median and submedian setae arranging in a transverse line.
Metanotum sculpture irregular reticulate medially with inner markings, lateral area with longitudinal lines, median
and submedian setae situated at anterior margin, without CPS. Mesosternum with about 23 long and fine setae,
endofurca with spinula. Metasternum with about 12 long and fine setae (Fig. 14), endofurca with spinula. Fore
wing first vein with 3 + 2 setae on basal half, 5 setae with distinct gap on apical half; second vein without setae;
clavus with three veinal and one discal setae; posteromarginal fringe cilia weakly wavy. Tarsi 2-segmented;
abdominal tergites II–VII with closely spaced rows of small microtrichia on lateral thirds, S1 setae arising close
together; tergite VIII with rows of microtrichia extending across segment on anterior half, with complete
posteromarginal comb (Fig. 16); tergite IX with no CPS or microtrichia. Sternites II–VII with rows of discal
microtrichia across median area, at least on posterior halves, posterior margin with fringe of microtrichia; segment
II with 2 pairs of long posteromarginal setae, III–VII with 4 pairs of long posteromarginal setae (Fig. 17), on VII
median pair arising in front of margin.
Measurements of holotype (in microns). Distended body length 870. Head, length 57; width across cheeks
88; vertex length 8–12. Pronotum median length 100; width 126. Metascutal median setae 11; submedian setae 16.
Fore wing length 430. Antennal segments I–VIII length (width): 11 (20), 28 (21), 31 (16), 35 (15), 26 (13), 39 (13),
9 (6), 11 (5).
Male unknown.
Material studied. Holotype female: MALAYSIA, Perak, Pulau Pangkor, on Commersonia sp., 2–7.v.2009
(Ng, Y.F.) (in CISUKM). Paratypes: 5 females collected with holotype (in CISUKM and ANIC).
Etymology. This species was first recognised in 2009 during a visit by the first author to the laboratory of
Laurence Mound at CSIRO, Canberra. The species name initium, meaning “beginning’, is in reference to that
commencement of our collaborative studies.
Comments. The colour of this new species is clearly different from that of Siamothrips argus. In contrast to
the uniformly pale colour of that species, initium has several brown markings including the anterior margin of the
head, the posterior area of the mesoscutum, the entire metascutum, and the base and middle area of the fore wing.
Moreover, the arrangement of the metascutal median and submedian setae in a transverse straight line, and the
inner markings to the reticulation on the meso- and metascutum are different from argus.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to Jacinto Berzosa of the Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain, to Cheryle O’Donnell
at USDA–APHIS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, and to Paul Brown at The Natural History Museum, London for
arranging loans of type specimens from their respective institutions. A special thanks also to the editor and three
anonymous referees for their invaluable comments.
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FIGURES 817. Siamothrips initium sp.n: (8) Head, (9) frons; (10) Pronotum; (11) Mesonotum and metanotum; (12)
Antenna; (13) Abdominal tergites VI–X; (14) Mesosternum and metasternum; (15) Fore wing; (16) Abdominal tergites VII–IX
(close up); (17) Abdominal sternites VI–VII.
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... Although Bhatti (1967) suggested Ajothrips shared many similar characters with Scirtothrips, it was not included in Scirtothrips genus-group by Masumoto & Okajima (2007). In contrast, Ng & Mound (2015) placed eleven genera in this group, including Ajothrips and Kenyattathrips; they synonymised Sericopsothrips with Scirtothrips, and suggested some similarities between Ajothrips and Scirtidothrips. Most genera in Scirtothrips genus-group are from the Old World, with just two from the Neotropics (Mound 2009), Cercyothrips and Scirtidothrips. ...
... Members of Scirtothrips mainly occur in the warmer parts of world, but some have been distributed widely by the horticultural trade. From the New World, 40 species are recognised (Bailey 1964;Hoddle et al. 2008a;Mound & Hoddle 2016a, and from the Old World a further 60 species are known (Mound & Palmer 1981a;Palmer & Mound 1983;Masumoto & Okajima 2007;Mound & Stiller 2011;Mirab-balou et al. 2011;2012;Ng et al. 2014;Ng & Mound 2016;. Despite these species descriptions and revisions, there is little information on phylogenetic relationships among the species within this genus. ...
... Close approximation of the occipital ridge to the posterior margin of the compound eyes (8:1) (Fig. 2B,F) is an unusual apomorphic state among some Sericothripinae (Lima & Mound 2016), but it also occurs in some Scirtothrips species (such as Scirtothrips tenor and S. hafezi). The maxillary palps are typically 3-segmented (11:0) (Fig. 2K,L), yet in Cercyothrips and some Ephedrothrips species these palps are reduced to a 2-segmented condition (11:1) (Ng & Mound 2015). The mouth cone apex is commonly rounded, but several Scirtothrips species (S. tenor, Scirtothrips drepanofortis and Scirtothrips pilbara) have the mouth cone elongate and extending beyond the prosternum posterior margin (12:1) (Fig. 2K,L). ...
... recognized Scirtothrips genus-group with 10 genera, but to these Ng and Mound (2015) added Ajothrips Bhatti and Kenyattathrips Mound and simultaneously placed Sericopsothrips Hood as a synonym of Scirtothrips Shull. Thus 11 genera worldwide are currently recognised in this group and an identification key to these is available (Ng & Mound 2015). ...
... recognized Scirtothrips genus-group with 10 genera, but to these Ng and Mound (2015) added Ajothrips Bhatti and Kenyattathrips Mound and simultaneously placed Sericopsothrips Hood as a synonym of Scirtothrips Shull. Thus 11 genera worldwide are currently recognised in this group and an identification key to these is available (Ng & Mound 2015). Members of this group breed on a wide range of plants, and they appear to feed and oviposit on tissues of the young leaves and fruitlets. ...
Article
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A new species of Scirtothrips Shull from leaves of Tamarix sp. is described and illustrated from southern Iran. Among Scirtothrips species, it is unusual in having two pairs of long pronotal posteroangular setae, and ocellar setae III unusually long. A key is provided to distinguish members of the Scirtothrips genus-group in Iran: Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, S. hafezi sp. n. and S. mangiferae Priesner.
... The objective here is to examine the morphological character states on which the subfamily Sericothripinae is distinguished, in particular to explore the relationships between the three recognised genera (ThripsWiki, 2016), together with the possible relationship to the Scirtothrips group of 11 genera (Ng and Mound, 2015). Molecular data (Mound and Morris, 2007;Buckman et al., 2013) has already indicated that the Sericothrips and Scirtothrips groups might be more closely related than suggested by Bhatti (1973), but no satisfactory morphological assessment has previously been conducted. ...
... Echinothrips species and all sericothripines also share an unusual fore wing chaetotaxy , with a complete setal row on the first vein but no setae on the second (or only one or two near the wing apex). Among species of the Scirtothrips group only the members of Ajothrips have a pair of campaniform sensilla on tergite IX (Ng and Mound, 2015). ...
... On the basis of this character, Priesner (1957) recognised Sericothripini as a tribe to include the genera he placed in Sericothripina and Scirtothripina, although closely spaced rows of microtrichia also occur in other unrelated genera of Thripinae. Bhatti (1973) reviewed the tribe Sericothripini, and transferred the genera previously placed in the subtribe Scirtothripina into the current Thripidae, and they are now recognised as the Scirtothrips genus-group (Masumoto and Okajima 2007;Ng and Mound 2015). However, Bhatti (2006) recognised the Sericothripinae as a family, Sericothripidae. ...
Article
Thripidae, one of the largest families of Thysanoptera, is widely distributed throughout the world. To explore the phylogenetic relationships and current classification of Thripidae, a cladistic analysis is presented based on 117 morphological characters scored from 114 species representing 94 genera. This analysis was used to reconstruct the ancestral feeding habits of Thripidae, with the result that leaf-feeding is recognised as ancestral within this family, and flower-feeding derived. Thripidae is recovered as a monophyletic group, but the three subfamilies Dendrothripinae, Sericothripinae and Panchaetothripinae are all recovered as nested within the fourth and major subfamily Thripinae. Sericothripinae is related to the Scirtothrips genus-group in Thripinae, but a close relationship to Echinothrips is not supported. Intergeneric relationships within Dendrothripinae are relatively well resolved. Three tribes in Panchaetothripinae are not monophyletic but Tryphactothripini genera form a clade with Panchaetothrips. Subfamily Thripinae is paraphyletic, but includes several monophyletic genus-groups (Rhamphothrips genus-group, Trichromothrips genus-group, Thrips genus-group, Frankliniella genus-group, Chirothrips genus-group). Relationships within the Thrips genus-group are poorly resolved, presumably due to a high degree of homoplasy. Five genera (Amomothrips, Moundinothrips, Smilothrips, Ctenothrips and Sciothrips) are placed into the Taeniothrips genus-group, and three genera (Salpingothrips, Tusothrips and Chaetanaphothrips) are proposed as the Chaetanaphothrips genus-group. The previously accepted Anaphothrips genus-group and Mycterothrips genus-group are not recovered, presumably because the supporting characters are merely superficial resemblance with no phylogenetic significance. This work resolves the systematic relationships among most thripid genera, as well as providing a morphological background for the evolution of Thripidae.
... After tissue lysis, each specimen were retrieved and mounted onto glass slides for morphological investigation and supernatant was processed for DNA extraction. The identification was carried out by published morphological keys (Ng and Mound 2015;Ng et al. 2014). The slide mounted specimens were photographed through the Leica software application suite (LAS EZ 2.1.0) ...
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The members of the genus Scirtothrips are highly polyphagous, including major pest and vector species. We applied both morphology and molecular approaches to delimit the selected Scirtothrips species from India. Out of 43 generated barcode sequences, six sequences of three species (S. hitam, S. mangiferae, and S. malayensis) are the novel contribution in global database. The Bayesian (BA) phylogeny clearly distinguishes all the studied species with reciprocal monophyletic criteria and represents multiple clades in S. dorsalis and S. oligochaetus. The high Kimura-2-Parameter (K2P) genetic divergences were observed between the multiple clades of S. dorsalis (4.5–8.8%) and S. oligochaetus (6.4%), which indicating possible existence of cryptic diversity. The current study also provided the morphological keys for six Scirtothrips species including S. hitam as a new record to India.
... Similarly, segment V bears two sense cones, both simple and with one much smaller than the other. However, representatives were available for this study of nine of the eleven genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Ng & Mound 2015), and nearly each of these was found to have only one sense cone on both IV and V: Anascirtothrips, Biltothrips, Cercyothrips, Drepanothrips, Kenyattathrips (two on segment V), Parascirtothrips, Scirtidothrips (two on segment V), Scirtothrips (some species have two on segment V), Siamothrips. Similarly, species of Amalothrips, Exothrips, Parexothrips, and Rhamphothrips that comprise the Rhamphothrips genus-group also have only one sense cone on IV and V. Some genera of Anaphothrips genusgroup, Ameranathrips, Aptinothrips, Aurantothrips, Belothrips, Desertathrips, Eremiothrips, Pandorathrips, Paroxythrips, Pseudothrips and Tameothrips, also share the reduced number of sense cones on segment IV, but the number on V is variable. ...
Article
Full-text available
Variation is discussed concerning the number of antennal segments in adults, and the number of their sense cones, among 182 of the 289 genera of Thripidae. Brief comments are also made concerning antennal structure and sensoria among the other seven terebrantian families. The plesiotypic condition for Thysanoptera is 9-segmented antennae, but fusion between various segments leads to a reduction in number to as few as five segments, and such fusion occurs in unrelated species. In Thripidae, antennal segment III never bears more than one sense cone, but the distribution of sense cones on segments IV–VIII varies and is tabulated. On antennal segment IV, species in nearly all Panchaetothripinae genera and more than half of Thripinae genera have two sense cones, but genera of Dendrothripinae and Sericothripinae bear only one on this segment. The differing patterns of segmental fusion that occur in Thripidae are discussed in association with the number of sense cones on VI–VIII; species with 7, 8 or 9 segmented antennae almost always lack a sense cone on the terminal segment. It is concluded that the number of antennal segments is subject to irregular homoplasy, and is thus sometimes an unreliable indicator of relationships.
... Siamothrips is a small genus that was erected by Okajima (1990) based on a single species, S. argus Okajima, from Thailand. Subsequently, Ng and Mound (2015) described a second species in the genus, S. initium Ng & Mound from Malaysia, and a third species is described here from southern China. Although the generic relationships of the genus are not clear, Okajima (1990) suggested placing it in the tribe Sericothripini, but more recently Masumoto and Okajima (2007) suggested Siamothrips might be a member of the Scirtothrips genus-group. ...
Article
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The third species of the genus Siamothrips Okajima, S. balteus sp. n., is described from China. The new species is characterised by the abdominal tergite II uniformly brown, III–VII with a brown area medially but pale on lateral thirds, tergite VIII smooth medially, tergite X with 3–4 rows of microtrichia medially, and abdominal sternite VII with one pair of discal setae laterally. A key to the three species has been constructed and is presented here.
... Type species Sericothrips minutus Bhatti 1967. Previously known from a single species, this genus was considered remarkable within the Scirtothrips genus-group for the lack of the first pair of ocellar setae (Ng & Mound 2015). However, this pair of setae is present in the new species described below. ...
Article
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The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008).
Article
There are 1270 genus-group names available in the Insect Order Thysanoptera by the end of 2020. Of these, 850 refer to currently accepted genera, including 65 genera of fossils. A further 420 genus-group names are placed in synonymy. Of the currently accepted genera 474 have been described since 1950. Despite this descriptive activity, the supra-generic classification of Thysanoptera genera remains poorly structured with relationships largely obscure and 50% of the genera monobasic.
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Fifteen adventive species of Thysanoptera, comprising eight Thripidae and seven Phlaeothripidae, are recorded for the first time from the Hawaiian Islands. Four of these are native Australian species, seven are native to southeastern Asia, with one species known only from Costa Rica and one known from several sites around the Caribbean. New host and locality records are given for a further 15 species, and the situation is noted that some species established on the Hawaiian Islands are pests in other parts of the world but have failed to become problematic here.
Article
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The thrips species described here has been taken repetitively in recent years by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service on fresh leaves imported from Kenya. The leaves involved are of Catha edulis (Celastraceae), a plant that is used as a mild stimulant, particularly in countries near the Horn of Africa between Kenya and the Yemen. The leaves are either chewed fresh or made into a beverage, and the plant is commonly known as “khat” or “qat”. Leaves of this plant imported into Australia have been found commonly to bear larvae and pupae, and more rarely adults, of an interesting species of Thripinae. Although clearly a member of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Masumoto & Okajima, 2007), the species represents a previously undescribed genus. The host range of this species is at present unknown, however Dr Subramanian Sevgan of ICIPE, Kenya, kindly e-mailed photomicrographs of this thrips (19 May 2009) and confirmed that the species had been collected from Catha edulis in that country. Although possibly host specific, this new species must continue to be considered a potential hazard by Australian quarantine, because so many species of Scirtothrips are highly polyphagous and pestiferous. Moreover, on the same imported leaves larvae and adults of a Scirtothrips species also have been taken several times, but this species remains unidentifiable due to the absence of any modern information on the African fauna of Scirtothrips. This article describes the new genus and species, with comparisons to related taxa. Nomenclatural details of all taxa mentioned here are given in the web-available world catalogue of Thysanoptera (Mound, 2009). The new names reflect the Kenyan origin of the specimens studied, and the contribution of Katarina Graljuk who first intercepted the species in Australia, and who with her colleagues at the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service help prevent invasive organisms from entering and harming Australian agriculture and ecosystems.
Article
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Mound and Marullo's aim in producing this book initially was to be an introduction to the Thysanoptera of Costa Rica. The extensive distribution of these small insects caused the authors to extend the geographical area covered and review the Neotropical thrips fauna at family and genus level as there are no available comprehensive publications. The family classification for the suborder Terebrantia is that adapted by Mound, Heming and Palmer (1980). The suborder Tubulifera is exceptionally difficult, and all authors are not in agreement in their respective classifications. Gauld and Mound (1982), Crespi (1993), and Mound and Cresi (1994) are followed here. All areas reported on are not equally known, and faunal comparisons are not given. Some of the more serious pests are listed, and flight, dispersal, and seasonal wind systems are discussed. Sex ratios and polymorphism, life cycles, body structures, phylogeny, family classification, habitat association, and collecting, as well as microscope slide preparation, are included in the introduction.
Article
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Species of the genus Scirtothrips are studied from Malaysia for the first time. Six species of this genus are here recorded from Malaysia: S. dobroskyi is newly recorded, and four new species: S. lantanae sp.n., S. lixinae sp.n., S. hitam sp.n. and S. malayensis sp.n. are described together with an illustrated identification key. Relationships were examined between S. dorsalis and the closely related S. hitam sp.n., based on the mitochondrial gene COI, and a redescription of the widespread pest species, dorsalis, is provided. Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti) is reported from Malaysia for the first time, and illustrations provided to distinguish this genus from Scirtothrips.
Article
The genus Scirtothrips and related genera in Japan were studied, and the following four genera and eight species recorded: Anascirtothrips okinawanus n. sp., Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel, Scirtothrips albidus n. sp., S. dorsalis Hood, S. flavus n. sp., S. katsura n. sp. and S. machili n. sp., Parascirtothrips fagaceae n. gen. et sp. The male of D. reuteri is recorded from Japan for the first time. Ten genera are recognized in the Scirtothrips genus group, and relationships between these are discussed.
Article
The genus Scirtothrips and related genera in Japan were studied, and the following four genera and eight species recorded: Anascirtothrips okinawanus n. sp., Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel, Scirtothrips albidus n. sp., S. dorsalis Hood, S. flavus n. sp., S. katsura n. sp. and S. machili n. sp., Parascirtothrips fagaceae n. gen. et sp. The male of D. reuteri is recorded from Japan for the first time. Ten genera are recognized in the Scirtothrips genus group, and relationships between these are discussed.
Article
This article is presented to make our tiny thrips better known—to show what thrips really are, to explain which ones are harmful and which ones are beneficial, and to introduce the many thrips that are of no direct economic consequence to man but are a part of the native fauna of Illinois. As will be shown, thrips are exquisite creatures, complicated in form, delicate in habit, and most dis- tinct from the usual run of insects. About 200 species of thrips have been collected in Illinois. Herein is an account of those species and of some others that may occur, but so far have not been found, in our state.
Article
N Transvaal lowveld bush containing known host plants of S. aurantii was not the source of early infestation of a navel orange orchard by adult citrus thrips during September and October. Early-season damage therefore resulted from the activities of citrus thrips which had overwintered in the orchard, but populations on wild hosts could boost orchard populations later in the season and contribute to late damage on the fruit. Adult thrips numbers were higher in the bush than in the orchard during November and December in one of the 2 study years. -from Author
Article
The South African citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii Faure, 1929, is highly polyphagous in its country of origin. Introduced to Australia in about 2002, populations of this thrips have been found only on the pasture weed Mother of Millions, Bryophyllum delagoense (Eckl. & Zeyh.) 1900. To evaluate the potential risk by these populations to plants of economic significance, under laboratory conditions, whether S. aurantii collected from Mother of Millions in Queensland can survive, reproduce and maintain populations over multiple generations on non‐target hosts was tested. That this thrips can form self‐sustaining populations on mango, grape, chilli, pea, green bean and blueberry was showed. Extended adult lifespan and some juvenile production were found on lemon and orange, but populations did not persist on these hosts. Furthermore, female thrips accept mango and grape for oviposition as readily as Mother of Millions. This degree of polyphagy under laboratory conditions suggests that caution is needed before promoting this thrips as a biocontrol agent against the pasture weed.