Article

Effect of Whey Protein in Conjunction With a Caloric-Restricted Diet and Resistance Training

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Abstract

Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance trained males (24+/- 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d/wk body building style split resistance training program for eight weeks in conjunction with a pre, peri-, and post-exercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON) based nutritional supplement. There were no differences in body mass change between the WHEY and CON groups even though both groups lost body mass (p<.05), however WHEY group maintained LBM while the CON group lost (p<.05), and the WHEY group lost FM (p>.05) and the CON group did not, though the change in FM between groups was not different. Both the WHEY and CON (p<.05) groups significantly increased lower body strength.. The WHEY group increased upper body strength (p<.05) while the CON did not change. Both groups (P<.05) increased lower body repetitions to fatigue with the increase greater in the CON group (p<.05). The CON group also increased upper body repetitions (P<.05) while WHEY did not. WHEY group lost body mass, composed of FM while CON also experienced a loss in body mass, but this loss was due to decrease in LBM. Neither group experienced a loss in muscle performance, with the WHEY group tending to show improvement in strength and CON group in endurance. These data indicate WHEY supplementation; compared to CHO supplementation, during a caloric-restricted 'cut' diet can assist in maintaining LBM while allowing for the loss of FM. Copyright (C) 2015 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

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... It is currently unknown if and how RT variables need to be adjusted to spare lean mass in resistance-trained athletes. Although different RT variables elicit different intracellular signaling responses and, thus, morphological adaptations (Toigo and Boutellier 2006), RT volume, in total tonnage [number of repetitions × number of sets × intensity load; kg] or simply counted as sets per muscle group per week (Baz-Valle et al. 2018;Israetel et al. 2019), might play an important role in muscular adaptations (Figueiredo et al. 2018): While several authors suggest an inverted U-shaped relationship between weekly volume and hypertrophy during eu-and hypercaloric conditions (Schoenfeld et al. 2019(Schoenfeld et al. , 2017b with higher RT volumes (up to a certain threshold) being necessary for advanced athletes to maximize hypertrophy (ACSM 2009;Krzysztofik et al. 2019), preliminary data suggest a potential positive effect of higher volume RT on lean mass sparing during periods of CR (Dudgeon et al. 2017;Mitchell et al. 2018). Contrarily, some investigators report reduced RT volume during phases of high-energy demands to accommodate recovery ability (Chaouachi et al. 2009;Meckel et al. 2008;Vargas-Molina et al. 2020;Campbell et al. 2020). ...
... Figure 1 shows a flowchart of the literature search strategy; Table 2 summarizes the studies included for analysis. Case study Rohrig et al. (2017) Case study Tinsley et al. (2018) Case study Vargas-Molina et al. (2020) ✓ et al. (2017) Case study Kistler et al. (2014) Case study Robinson et al. (2015) Case study Dudgeon et al. (2017) ✓ Case study Stratton et al. (2020) ✓ ...
... Seven studies recruited male participants. Out of these 7 studies, 3 studies employed a longitudinal design (Dudgeon et al. 2017;Stratton et al. 2020), with one study providing no control group (Mitchell et al. 2018): the other 4 studies were case studies (Pardue et al. 2017;Kistler et al. 2014;Robinson et al. 2015;. One study ) used mixed-sex groups. ...
Article
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... However, consumed carbohydrate supplementation during or immediately after resistance training greatly increased chest circumference in comparison to resistance training alone. Consumed carbohydrate supplements increased upper-body repetitions [12]. Other studies also indicate that consumed carbohydrate supplements prior to and during resistance training increased the number of sets (+2.7) and repetitions (+20) [13]. ...
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Conference Paper
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... Given this stated purpose of the investigation and subsequent analysis, any interpretation of the study's results is only in consideration for those who adhere to the prescribed diet and exercise program as described in the study protocol. Additionally, while ITT analyses are common in the realm of clinical nutrition, it is not the standard approach in the sports nutrition/exercise science literature and has not yet become common practice [1][2][3][4][5][6]. ...
... Given this finding, it seems the body is capable of maintaining adequate glycogen in the face of carbohydrate restriction via metabolic conversions of other substrates (Volek et al., 2016), which is sufficient to sustain resistance training performance if ample calories are still consumed. However, in the context of a calorically restricted diet, there is evidence that lower carbohydrate intake can impair bodybuilding performance (Walberg et al., 1988) and that consumption of carbohydrates prior to training may improve it (Dudgeon et al., 2017). For example, one study found consumption of carbohydrate after an overnight fast resulted in the performance of greater training volumes compared to water (Bin Naharudin et al., 2019), although subjects were habitual breakfast eaters, which may have impacted the results. ...
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... Pre and post testing sessions were conducted in the same order and were administered in the Human Performance Laboratory in the Silcox Center at the College of Charleston. Data from another study with similar study methodology have been published, [17] thus what follows is a truncated explanation of study procedures. ...
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