ArticlePDF Available

Improving Listening and Speaking Skills in Mixed Level Groups (on the Material of New English File)

Authors:
  • L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of our study is to investigate works of scholars about the problems of listening and speaking in learning foreign languages. We try to analyze the difficulties in doing listening and speaking exercises in mixed level groups focusing on “New English File” (Intermediate) textbook. “New English File” presents different kinds of listening and speaking tasks in order to improve all four skills (listening, reading, speaking, and writing). In our study we refer to Wenden's statement (1986), who noted that we need to find out listening problems in order to improve listening skill. According to it, we discovered difficulties not only in listening, but also in speaking of students in mixed level groups. These difficulties helped us to find the ways of improving students’ abilities to listen to authentic materials and apply them in communication. Problems in listening and speaking in mixed level groups were taken from the results of questionnaire. Students’ questionnaire determined the effective ways of using role plays and various activities in practice. The result of our study showed that the textbook was worse using in mixed level groups. Different creative activities in English classes motivate students to learn foreign languages, and improve knowledge.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of Hacettepe Üniversitesi.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.517
ScienceDirect
GlobELT: An International Conference on Teaching and Learning English as an Additional
Language, Antalya - Turkey
Improving listening and speaking skills in mixed level groups (on
the material of New English File)
Mapruza Idrissovaa*, Batagoz Smagulovaa, Madina Tussupbekovaa
aL.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, 010008, Kazakhstan
Abstract
The purpose of our study is to investigate works of scholars about the problems of listening and speaking in learning foreign
languages. We try to analyze the difficulties in doing listening and speaking exercises in mixed level groups focusing on “New
English File” (Intermediate) textbook. “New English File” presents different kinds of listening and speaking tasks in order to
improve all four skills (listening, reading, speaking, and writing). In our study we refer to Wenden’s statement (1986), who noted
that we need to find out listening problems in order to improve listening skill. According to it, we discovered difficulties not only
in listening, but also in speaking of students in mixed level groups. These difficulties helped us to find the ways of improving
students’ abilities to listen to authentic materials and apply them in communication. Problems in listening and speaking in mixed
level groups were taken from the results of questionnaire. Students’ questionnaire determined the effective ways of using role
plays and various activities in practice. The result of our study showed that the textbook was worse using in mixed level
groups. Different creative activities in English classes motivate students to learn foreign languages, and improve
knowledge.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of Hacettepe Universitesi.
Keywords:speaking, listening, activities, role play, mixed level groups, New English File
1. Introduction
The choice of Astana as the site for the International exhibition “Expo-2017”: “Energy Future” opens up
opportunities to improve speaking and listening skills in English. As highlighted by Nursultan Nazarbayev, the
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: mapruza_2011@mail.ru
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of Hacettepe Üniversitesi.
277
Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, “English is desirable in modern life and it is necessary tomorrow.”
(Nazarbayev, 2006) Hence, speaking and listening skills in English play a vital role for nowadays Kazakhstani
students. For this, we have searched some ways of improving speaking and listening skills in mixed level groups in
this study. All of our students have different language proficiency levels, because most of them are trained under the
weak influence of English grammar at secondary schools. Some students cannot learn English individually, and
others just are in the habit of doing textbook exercises and read given materials. Ultimately, in higher schools, they
have difficulties in speaking and listening. They have difficulties in pronouncing words, understanding the meaning
of the words, phrases, using the linking words, grammatical structure, expressing their ideas, thoughts, sharing their
opinions in English, and analyzing the problems. In fact, speaking and listening are closely integrated skills in
learning any foreign languages.
According to the requirements of our life, English listening and speaking have important utility values in all
spheres. Speaking and listening tend to be more important in human communication and daily life. As a fact, any
language develops from listening and speaking.
According to the state program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020, adopted
by the Ministry of Education and Science, one of the key tasks is to increase population speaking English to 10 % by
2014, to 15 % by 2017, to 20 % by 2020 and increase population speaking three languages (Kazakh, Russian and
English) to 10 % by 2014, to 12 % by 2017, to 15 % by 2020 (State program of education development in the
Republic of Kazakhstan, 2011).
Considering self-practices in teaching English in mixed level groups, we determined some difficulties in listening
and speaking skills. According to scholars, as Yagang (1994), Higgins (1995), Flowerdew and Miller (1996), the
main problems in listening are pronunciation, the speed of delivery, new vocabulary or terminology, and concept.
We agree that students face these problems not only in listening, but also in speaking skills. During listening and
speaking, there is a difference between a native speaker and non-native speaker, where the speed of speech varies.
Students can meet with difficulties in determining the meanings of words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial
languages, and pronunciation. In our study, we try to find the solutions to solve these problems.
The aim of our study is to improve English listening and speaking skills of students in mixed level groups. In
order to reach this aim, we put several objectives:
1. To conduct listening and speaking questionnaire (LSQ) about students’ attitude toward speaking and listening
skills;
2. To identify learning efficient activities in developing listening and speaking skills on “New English File”
edition;
3. To find solutions to reduce difficulties and improve listening and speaking skills of students in mixed level
groups.
2. Literature review
Different scholars have different concepts of listening and speaking but they all agree with one very important
feature of listening and speaking, that is a two way process between the speaker and listener.
Listening plays an important role in second language instruction for several reasons (Rost, 1994). If you cannot
hear it well, you will find it hard to communicate or perhaps you cannot do listening task for instance. In fact,
students often take the wrong way when listening and this leads them to the poor result. It should be noted that the
learner’s perception of their listening problem and strategies can affect their comprehension both positively and
negatively (Wenden, 1986). Thus, in order to help students get improved with their listening skill, it is needed
finding out their listening problems which cause difficulties to them. We strongly agree with this statement that to
improve listening skills it is important to find out the listening problems regardless of the level of students English
knowledge. Each student has his/her own problems and the task of the teacher is to help him/her cope with these
problems.
According to Yagang (1994), the problems in listening were accompanied with the four following factors: the
message, the speaker, the listener and the physical setting. Furthermore, numbers of research have been carried out
278 Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
to pick out the problem in listening. The problems were believed to cause by the speech rate, vocabulary and
pronunciation (Higgins, 1995).
As Flowerdew& Miller (1996) assumed that the problems of the students were for the speed of delivery, new
terminology and concept, difficulty in focusing and the physical environment.
According to Howatt and Dakin (1974) listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying.
This process involves understanding of a speaker's accent or pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary,
and comprehension of meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously. We think that
strong students in our groups can also do these things simultaneously and show their good progress.
Tam (1997) says that it is necessary to give students a variety of situations and frequent speaking tasks which
play a significant role in the improvement of students’ fluency while speaking. When we give the students speaking
tasks to do them in the form of the role-plays, creating real situations, we see that each student tries to speak freely
and feel confident in communicating English. We think that using speaking tasks in all our classes help students to
improve their speaking skills.
According to Rost (1991) “Listening is an active process requiring participation on the part of the listener”. For
example when someone listens to a speaker, he/she processes the information mentally in order to construct an
answer. During the listening process the listener is actively engaged. In learning a foreign language, it is important
to listen to what is transmitted with a great deal of attention because this helps the listener to reproduce exactly, or
almost exactly, what he/she hears. Therefore listening is not an isolated skill; we listen in order to understand what
has been heard. Moreover the speaker and the listener must be interacting in a social context. If a student
understands the speech of a speaker, it gives him/her an opportunity to be involved in the process of communication.
According to Larsen- Freeman (1986) “It is through interaction between speaker and listener the meaning
becomes clear”. This clarity suggests an understanding of what has been heard.
According to Dong Xiaohong (1994) speaking is “one of the most necessary language proficiency”. Speaking,
thus, seems to be the most important skill that should be paid attention to in the process of teaching and learning.
Likewise, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills,
because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and culture rules.
Scott (1978) reveals that “speaking can be typified as an activity involving two or more people in whom the
participants are both hearers and speakers having to react to what they hear and make their contribution.” Each has
an intention or a set of intentions that he wants to achieve in the interaction and an ability to interpret what is said to
him whom he cannot predict exactly either in terms of form or in terms of meaning.
Brown (1983) also states that “speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves
producing, receiving and processing information.” Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it
occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the
purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open ended and evolving. However, speech is not always
unpredictable. Language functions that tent to recur in certain discourse situations (declining and invitation,
requesting time off from work) can be identified and charted. Speaking requires not only that learners know how to
produce specific points of language, such as grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also
that they understand when, why and in what way to produce language (sociolinguistic competence).
This analysis of researching has found that improvement in listening skill has a positive effect on speaking.
Speaking and listening are intimately interrelated activities in the learning process. Particularly, there is a significant
relationship between listening and speaking. Much debate continued to prove the increasing influence of listening
skill on speaking. We corroborate Rost (1994) proposed three reasons to improve listening and speaking skills. First,
speaking provides a means of interaction for the learner, because learners must interact to achieve understanding,
access to speakers of the language is essential. Second, authentic spoken language presents a challenge for the
learner to attempt to understand the language as native speakers actually use it. Third, listening exercises provide
teachers with the means for drawing learners’ attention to new forms (vocabulary, grammar, new interaction
patterns) in the language.
279
Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
3. Methods
In order to achieve our aim to improve listening and speaking skills in mixed level groups, our study was based
on the collection and search of the theoretical and practical materials. Theoretical materials include literature sources
and review. Practical materials involve: to conduct a questionnaire (LSQ) about students’ attitude toward speaking
and listening skills in mixed level groups; to identify learning efficient activities in developing listening and
speaking skills; and to find solutions in improving listening and speaking skills of students in mixed level groups.
The subjects of the study are 20 first-year students from different groups, they were randomly chosen. They range
from 16-18 years of age. Of the 20 students, 8 students finished schools in villages. The duration of English classes
at school was different. Some have learnt English for 4 years; some of them have learnt English for 3 years. The
reason of choosing the first-year students for our study is our academic curriculum, and a textbook “New English
File”. This book fully provides with listening and speaking activities. Curriculum on “New English File” is the same
for all groups. We made some changes in curriculum for our research, and try to adapt listening and speaking
materials to mixed level groups.
We use LSQ in our study, because it helped us to create a group for our researching, and it is one of the easiest
ways to compile data in short period of time. The aim of LSQ was to elicit students’ background of English,
students’ attitude to listening and speaking skills, students’ difficulties in listening and speaking. Data from the
questionnaire were sorted and analyzed statistically and displayed in diagrams.
This questionnaire helped us to find fruitful learning activities in developing listening and speaking skills in
mixed level groups, and to find solutions to reduce difficulties in listening and speaking skills.
4. Results
In our research we prepared a questionnaire for students of mixed level groups. Each question has four options.
The analysis and interpretation of questionnaire is shown in figures 1-5:
Fig.1. The analysis for the first question (What area did you arrive?)
8 (40%) of students arrived from villages, 4 (20%) – from towns, 3 (15%) – from cities, and 5 (25%) – from
suburbs.
This question is aimed to identify what places students lived and finished schools before entering the university. It is
one of the reasons of having different level of language proficiency in our groups. There are many students from
villages and suburbs, than students from towns and cities.
0
10
20
30
40
avillage atown acity asuburb
280 Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
Fig. 2. The analysis for the second question (How long have you been learning English?)
6 (30%) of students have learned English for 3 years, while 9 (45%) students have had break from study. The
students learning English 4 years constitutes 2 (10%), and only 3 (15%) of students learned English more than 5
years.
From this point, we can make a conclusion of having mixed level groups; the reason is in the duration of learning
English.
Fig.3. The analysis for the third question (What skills do you like more?)
3 (15%) of students like to write, while 2 (10%) prefer reading. Otherwise, almost 7 (35%) of students prefer
listening, and 8 (40%) like speaking skills.
These answers of students for the given question shows positive attitude of students to listening and speaking skills.
They would like to improve their skills in listening and speaking.
Fig.4. The analysis for the fourth question (What difficulties do you face in listening and speaking?)
0
10
20
30
40
50
three
years
break
from
study
four
years
more
thanfive
years
0
20
40
0
10
20
30
40
281
Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
8 (40%) of students have difficulties in speed of delivery during listening and speaking, 6 (30%) face
problems with misunderstanding of new vocabulary and terminology.
3 (35%) of students think that they have problems in pronunciation of English words, while 3 (15%) of
students have difficulties in composing sentences using correct grammatical structure.
Fig.5. The analysis for the fifth question (What type of activity do you prefer in improving listening and speaking skills?)
5. Discussion
As for mixed level group students, role plays help students cope with real life situations, commonly used
expressions, forcing them to think “on their feet”. Furthermore, role-plays help students work together as a team or a
group, and communicate in order to understand each other. Role play can improve students speaking skills in any
situation, and helps to interact. As for the mixed level group students, role play activities help to overcome
difficulties in speaking. In addition, it is fun and most students think that enjoyment leads to better learning.
Students with low English proficiency in mixed level groups push teachers to determine the useful and fruitful
activities in improving listening and speaking skills. The first-year students study English on “New English File”
textbook. During our experiment in mixed level groups, we used relevant role-play activities for our students, as
Beautiful Mind, Bingo, Fishbowl, Interview, Leader of the XXI
st
century, Mind Mapping, Star Wars, Who Wins a
Million? etc.
As an example, we present one of the role plays “Beautiful Mind”. The goal is to consolidate the learning
material and practice listening and speaking skills. 20 questions of the previous topics are prepared beforehand by
teachers. The tasks of the students are to listen to the questions from audio/video resources and to choose the correct
answer. During this role play, students discuss the questions in the groups. In the case of any difficulties with
answering the questions, they use prompts. At the end of this role play, we assess the students’ listening abilities and
abilities to express their minds.
As it was mentioned before, students in mixed level groups have difficulties in speed of delivery during listening
and speaking, face problems with misunderstanding of new words and phrases, have problems in pronunciation of
English words, and have difficulties in composing sentences using correct grammatical structure. In order to find
solutions to reduce these difficulties, we start to listen to short dialogues from “New English File” textbook. There
are a lot of dialogues in “New English File” for doing listening tasks. Having in mind the difficulties of our students
in listening, we start to listen to these dialogues by making pauses. After listening to short dialogues, students do
exercises for comprehension. These exercises include: to find the main heroes; to copy out numbers or figures; to
highlight proper names; to mark signal words of grammar (usually, always, sometimes, every day). The content of
the listened part of the dialogue students tell his/her partner. For each part of the dialogue, we offer the following
tasks:
0
20
40
60
282 Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
1. Write down familiar words which you hear during the listening;
2. Write down expressions which you remember;
3. Write down numbers from the dialogue;
4. Write down unfamiliar words from the dialogue;
5. Identify the heroes of the dialogue (a man or a woman, etc.);
6. Write down interrogative sentences.
7. Repeat the first or the last sentence;
8. Repeat words or phrases after the speaker;
9. Identify the kind of sentences (positive, negative or exclamation etc.);
10. Improvise the dialogue.
These tasks helped students to be familiar with English speech and to habit to the speed of speech, to pronounce
English words correctly, to learn new words and terminology, to know English grammar structure.
Each unit of the “New English File” textbook contains a lot of listening and speaking tasks. As an example of
improving listening and speaking skills in mixed level groups, we took one of our practical lessons. We enclosed the
students’ work (answers).
For instance: on the topic ‘Food: fuel or pleasure?” Students listen to the dialogue between an interviewer and
Kevin Poulter (he is an English chef, who has opened a restaurant in Santiago, the capital Chile). Students did the
listening tasks according to our suggested points:
1) Write down familiar words which you hear during the listening: a restaurant, a tourist, a place, to open,
new, ideas, name, food, steak, traditional, typical, fruit, cream, English tea, afternoon, cakes, tooth, people, money,
today, women, kitchen, a job, atmosphere, cheese, thank you.
Students wrote down the words which they knew. They were words, which we hear in our real life (conversation,
media, TV, cartoons etc.)
2) Write down expressions which you remember: I’d always wanted, it would be a good place, proper English
tea, in fact, the most important reason, don’t like shouting at.
Students wrote down very useful expressions which they can use in all situations of life.
3) Write down numbers from the dialogue: second
There is a chance to explain to students types of numerals (cardinal or ordinal).
4) Write down unfamiliar words from the dialogue: pro-European, risotto, trifle, referee, gastropubs,
incredibly, Stilton, Roquefort.
This task helped students to expand vocabulary and increase knowledge in learning culture of the language.
5) Identify the heroes of the dialogue (a man or a woman, etc.): interviewer (a woman), Kevin (a man).
This task helped students to play the roles of two heroes and practice a speaking skill.
6) Write down interrogative sentences:
a) Why did you decide to open a restaurant in Chile?
b) Why did you call the restaurant Frederick’s?
c) What kind of food do you serve?
d) Is your chef English?
e) What kind of dishes do you have on the menu?
f) Why do men mainly work in the restaurant kitchen than women?
g) Do you really miss English food?
Students were taught to construct interrogative sentences and ask questions during the conversation.
7) Repeat the first or the last sentence: the first sentence: Why did you decide to open a restaurant in Chile?
The last sentence: Kelvin, thank you very much.
This task helped students to have information about the beginning of the conversation and the end of the
dialogue.
283
Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
8) Repeat the words or phrases after the speaker: restaurant, tourist, pasta, chef, menu, dessert, atmosphere,
reason, and sweet tooth.
This kind of task helped students to pronounce the words and expressions correctly on the given topic.
9) Identify the kind of the sentences (positive, negative or exclamation, etc.):
Positive: I always wanted to have my own restaurant in England.
I wanted to visit Chile as a tourist.
Frederick is my father’s name.
International dishes are steak, pasta, risotto.
People think that the English are not good cooks.
In the morning we serve traditional English breakfast.
For lunch we have a lot of English desserts, for example trifle.
We drink tea with cakes and sandwiches.
The best place for a tourist in England is a pub.
Food is not expensive in the pub.
Many men work in the restaurant than women.
The thing which I miss in Chile is English cheese.
I really miss Silton.
Roquefort is the French cheese.
Negative: No, He is a Chilean.
Many women don’t want to have a job in the restaurant, because they don’t want to be there until late at night.
They don’t like the atmosphere where there is a lot of shouting.
Exclamation: You should try it!
This task helped students to revise English grammar tenses and remember the formation of tenses and the actions
in sentences.
10) Improvise a dialogue in the form of the role play.
Having done all of these tasks in practice, we came to the conclusion that they all have positive effect on
improving listening and speaking abilities of the students. These tasks help students to remember the theme, to
enrich vocabulary, to construct English sentences, to learn expressions, to pronounce words correctly.
6. Conclusion
This study aims at investigating listening and speaking skills in mixed level groups. What kind of activities can
teachers use in English classes to improve listening and speaking skills? What difficulties do students have in
listening and speaking in mixed level groups?
Based on questionnaire (LSQ), this study has identified learning efficient activities in developing listening and
speaking skills on “New English File” edition; and found solutions to improve listening and speaking skills of
students in mixed level groups.. The solutions were concentrated on determining listening and speaking tasks and
activities for students in mixed level groups.
In summary, this study is believed to be useful for working in heterogeneous groups. It is hoped that the teachers
of English can benefit from this study new ideas and fruitful suggestions to improve listening and speaking skills.
Further studies will be carried out in order to get more convincing results.
References
Brown, G. and Yele, G..(1983). Teaching to spoken language. Cambridge Language Teaching Library.
De Filippo, C. L., & Scott, B. L. (1978).A method for training and evaluating the reception of ongoing speech. The Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, 63(4), 1186-1192.
Flowerdew, J. and Miller, L. (1996). Student perceptions, problems and strategies in second language lecture comprehension RELC Journal, 23
(2), 60–80.
284 Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
Higgins, J.M.D. (1995) Facilitating listening in second language classrooms through the manipulation of temporal variables.Unpublished doctoral
thesis, University of Kent at Canterbury.
Howatt, A. and J. Dakin. 1974. Language laboratory materials, ed. J. P. B. Allen, S. P. B. Allen, and S. P. Corder.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (2014). An introduction to second language acquisition research.Rutledge.
Nazarbayev, N. A. Speech of President of N.A.Nazarbaev at the XII session of the Assembly of nations (October 24, 2006). State program of
education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.kz
Rost, M. (1991).Listening in action: Activities for developing listening in language teaching.New York: Prentice Hall.
Rost, M. (1994) Listening. London: Longman.
Tam, M. (1997).Building fluency: a course for non-native speakers of English. English Teaching Forum, 35(1), 26.Retrieved from
http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol35/no1/p26.htm.Wenden, A. (1986). What do second language learners know about their language
learning? A second look at retrospective account. Applied Linguistics 7 (2), 186–205.
Xiao-hong, P. E. N. G. (2004). Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of pronouns: A case study of a girl of 2 years and 2 months. Journal of
Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, 4, 056.Hasan, A. S. (2000).Learners' perceptions of listening comprehension problems. Language Culture
and Curriculum, 13(2), 137-153.
Yagang, F. (1994) Listening: Problems and solutions. In T. Kral (ed.) Teacher Development: Making the Right Moves. Washington, DC: English
Language Programs Divisions, USIA
... Many believe listening is simple since it needs passive action, even though (Idrissova et al., 2015). The term "passive skill" when used for listening is misleading. ...
... Listening is an active and interpretative process. The message is formed in the interactional space between participants rather than fixed (Hue, 2019;Idrissova et al., 2015). (Idrissova et al., 2015) described complicated listening activities and how the hearing comprehension process comprises three sequential steps: receiving, attending, and comprehending. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate a logical-based learning order and its effects on the growth of pupils lecturing the listening skill. The first approach employed in this study is R&D. Furthermore, data was gathered through inspection, observation, and interviews. The study was conducted for students in the first semester of the 2021/2022 academic year at Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya's Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. The information was quantitatively processed. The findings revealed that logic-based learning syntax positively influenced student lecturing and listening skills. It is advised that the research be followed up and confirmed by people in the same profession to stretcher the research results.
... Also, communication in a foreign language largely depends on listening and speaking skills (Cabell et al., 2015). For this reason, mastery of listening and speaking skills in English as a second language is a priority these days (Idrissova et al., 2015). At the same time, listening and speaking skills become increasingly important when the child enrolls in Preschool as it allows them to communicate appropriately. ...
... Also, communication in a foreign language largely depends on speaking skills (Cabell et al., 2015). For this reason, mastery of speaking skills in English as a second language is a priority these days (Idrissova et al., 2015). At the same time, speaking skills become increasingly important when the child enrolls in preschool as it allows them to communicate appropriately. ...
... In addition, methods of teaching listening and lack of materials are responsible for the poor level of listening comprehension. Some previous studies indicate that CALL, Multimedia, Internet and smart or interactive boards are effective in enhancing listening comprehension skills (Idrissovaa, Smagulovaa, & Tussupbekova, 2015;Vahdat & Eidipour, 2016;Yusof, 2012). ...
... Thus, learners with good listening skills can participate effectively in the classroom. In addition, learners can read, write and speak to others (Idrissovaa et al., 2015). Abdulkadir (2018); Hayati (2010); Vahdat and Eidipour (2016) assure that although language learning depends on listening, it was the least emphasis skill in EFL classes. ...
... According to Idrissova, Smagulova & Tussupbekova (2015), there is "a lack of clear idea of how content topics are taught in classrooms through English and a lack of educational research". Therefore, inadequate experience and lack of educational study among key stakeholders, along with a lot of controversies and debates (Baitukenov, 2016), may impede the realization of trilingual education. ...
Article
Full-text available
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects are taught in English through the use of the CLIL approach following trilingual education that has been implemented in several pilot schools since 2007. In the Kazakhstani background, however, the CLIL approach is still in its infancy, and little is known about the views of stakeholders that can be useful for understanding its current condition and for effective adoption. The present study aimed to explore the attitudes and perceptions of the students of the CLIL approach in one of the trilingual schools. The study used a mixed approach to the design of case studies and semi-structured interviews and questionnaires as tools for data collection. Nine teachers participated in one-on-one interviews and a total of 53 school teachers (39 women and 14 men aged 20-60) participated in the survey. The study showed that students are primarily positive about the CLIL approach. Keywords: CLIL technology; English; integrated learning; natural sciences; teachers.
... To assist mobile chat application in language learning, however, teachers need to prepare and manage the practice tasks suit for language learning objectives and goals. Also, teachers need to consider that most students think the enjoyment leads to better learning ( Idrissovaa, Smagulovaa & Tussupbekovaa, 2015) in order that teacher can manage the appropriate activities conform to students' needs and make the language class through mobile chat application to be more effective. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine students' listening and speaking skills performance after learning by LINE activities to improve listening and speaking skills in Thai language out-of-class. The subjects of this study were 108 participants took a Thai language and culture course at the international university in Thailand and participated in this research voluntarily. Two types of instruments were used in this study: experimental and data collection tools. The first was a LINE application and the second was pre-test and post-test of listening and speaking skills in Thai language. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test. The result revealed that after learning by LINE activities, mean scores of students' listening skill (M = 8.52, SD = 1.15, t (48) = 2.15, p = 0.03) and speaking skill (M = 8.20, SD = 0.82, t (48) = 2.09, p = 0.04) in Thai language were significantly.
... Speaking English fluently and accurately, on the other hand, is difficult because it requires extensive training and the use of suitable procedures, media, or equipment to improve one's speaking skills. In order to address the difficulties that students can face when learning to talk, more work from teachers is needed (Idrissova, Smagulova, and Tussupbekova 2015). In line with that, Yumru 2015 also discovered that there are eight variables in speech that can make it impossible for EFL learners to generate successful English in oral communication. ...
Article
Full-text available
Speaking is the art of conveying ideas and feelings by generating and sharing meaning through oral contact. Pow-Tega is a speaking skill teaching technique that combines a power teaching technique with a game to allow students to practice their speaking skills. Students' focus and excitement in speaking are developed using the power teaching technique. Students were inspired to study while playing the game because the classroom environment was more colorful. Researchers used a quantitative method by assigning pre-experimental studies with one group pre-test and post-test to determine the impact of the Pow-Tega technique on students' speaking performance. This study included 33 students as participants. The researchers used a spoken test and video recording to gather data. Before beginning treatment, researchers gave all of the samples a pre-test, then began treatment by using the Pow-Tega Technique for six meetings, and eventually, researchers gave all of the samples a post-test. The results revealed that the mean post-test score (3,93) was higher than the pre-test score (3,39). Furthermore, at the significant stage of 0,05 and degree of freedom-19, the ttest (6,75) was higher than the ttable (2.093). H0 has been refused, while H1 has been accepted. That means there was a significant effect of students' speaking ability after they were taught by using Pow-Tega.
... Ahmed & Pawar (2018) explican la importancia de tener un conocimiento del lenguaje y la habilidad de emplearlo para responder a una intención comunicativa. Aunque el lenguaje está compuesto por las macrohabilidades de habla, escucha, lectura y escritura, Idrissova, Smagulova, & Tussupbekova (2015), argumentan que las dos primeras son fundamentales en las interacciones de la cotidianidad por ser las habilidades más empleadas en la comunicación humana. Ahmadi (2016) señala que si los estudiantes desean aprender a hablar inglés, lo primero que deberían hacer es comprender el mensaje que escuchan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile-assisted Language Learning (MALL) is regarded as a new stage in the development of computer and distance learning. Recently, this new wave of technology has gained its popularity among students due to the widespread of various mobile technologies to enhance learning. Within the framework of multimodal approach, this research study seeks to gauge the effectiveness of a multimodal mobile-based course integrated into a Listening and Speaking Skills module at the University of Algiers 2. The research methodology used in this study is the descriptive. Thus, data was collected by means of a summative evaluation course checklist. The evaluation form was to thirty eight (38) EFL students from Algiers 2 University. The findings revealed that the engagement in different multimodal mobile-based practices received students' approval. The findings also supported the claim that mobile devices are regarded as multimodal and multimedia resources that support technology-mediated instruction through multimodal representation. Accordingly, the results of this study will serve as a foundation for coming researchers to investigate mobile learning in depth.
Article
The emergence of podcasts in an English foreign language (EFL) setting is seen as a helpful aid to foreign language learning. Using podcasts might help improve language learning efficiency. This research addresses how podcasts can be an alternative means of improving English listening comprehension for university students. The study was carried out at Nizhyn Gogol State University, Ukraine, using quantitative and qualitative methods of analyzing data. To collect the data, research tools such as a questionnaire, initial and final testing, and observation were used. The procedure was introduced for a group of first-year students and implemented for six weeks. Special BBC Learning English podcast activities were designed and offered to the students. The main stages have been specified in the process of developing students’ listening skills. In the pre-listening stage, students do preparation activities to prepare for the podcast using their background knowledge. The while-listening stage is aimed at listening for gist, listening for details, making inferences, and summarizing. In the post-listening stage, the listeners are taken beyond the podcast content and set tasks which contribute to integrating other language skills. Samples of activities which correspond to these three stages are provided. A balanced approach to choosing top-down or bottom-up processing within the stages improves the process of forming competencies in listening of first-year students. Hence, based on the positive results of this study, BBC Learning English podcasts with meaningful, appropriate, and interesting activities attract the students’ attention, increase their motivation, and improve their listening comprehension.
Article
Full-text available
The "tracking procedure" is a method to train and evaluate the reception of ongoing speech. A talker and a receiver engage in a dialogue for a designated period of time in which the receiver reports his perception of successive segments of read text and is corrected by the talker until the text is repeated verbatim. Performance is measured in number of words of text repeated correctly per unit of time. The procedure is illustrated by its application to a project for training and evaluating use of a vibrotacile-electrotactile aid to lipreading. Differences between experimental conditions are described over time in terms of absolute words per minute, increment of aided over unaided words-per-minute scores, and percent of normal listening rate. Data from identification tests with syllables, words, and sentences are also presented. Tracking is suggested as an additional procedure for communication training in aural rehabilitation or classroom setting, and for evaluation of other communication systems.
Article
In teaching listening comprehension we must be careful not to go to extremes, either by being concerned too exclusively with theories without thinking about their application to teaching, or by obstinately following frozen routines-opening the textbook and explaining new words, playing the tape recorder, and asking/answering questions. It is essential for a teacher to have an overall understanding of what listening is, why it is difficult for foreign-language learners, and what some solutions may be. The vital question is how to bridge the gap between an analysis of listening and actual classroom teaching. What is Listening? Listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. This involves understanding a speaker's accent or pronunciation, his grammar and his vocabulary, and grasping his meaning (Howatt and Dakin 1974). An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously. Willis (1981:134) lists a series of micro-skills of listening, which she calls enabling skills. They are: • predicting what people are going to talk about • guessing at unknown words or phrases without panicking • using one's own knowledge of the subject to help one understand • identifying relevant points; rejecting irrelevant information • retaining relevant points (note-taking, summarizing) • recognizing discourse markers, e.g., Well; Oh, another thing is; Now, finally; etc. • recognizing cohesive devices, e.g., such as and which, including link words, pronouns, references, etc. • understanding different intonation patterns and uses of stress, etc., which give clues to meaning and social setting • understanding inferred information, e.g., speakers' attitude or intentions What are some listening problems? The evidence that shows why listening is difficult comes mainly from four sources: the message to be listened to, the speaker, the listener, and the physical setting. The Message Content. Many learners find it more difficult to listen to a taped message than to read the same message on a piece of paper, since the listening passage comes into the ear in the twinkling of an eye, whereas reading material can be read as long as the reader likes.
Article
This paper adopts an ethnographic approach to the study of second language lecture comprehension. It studies a group of 30 1st year Hong Kong Chinese students listening to lectures in a B.A. TESL methods course. Data was collected regarding the lecture comprehension experience of these students by means of questionnaires, diary studies, classroom observation, and in-depth interviews. The analysis of this data focuses on students' perceptions of the lecture experience (attitude, self-rating of comprehension level, what students look for in a lecture, etc.), their problems (speed of delivery, terminology and concepts, concentration, etc.) and the strategies they use to try to overcome these problems (pre- and post-lecture reading, peer or lecturer help, attempts to concentrate harder, note-taking, etc.). As well as providing important information for the program in ques tion, the results of this study, it is claimed, have wider implications for both lecturers to non-natives and ESL specialists preparing students to study through the medium of English.
  • M Rost
Rost, M. (1994) Listening. London: Longman.
  • Mapruza Idrissova
Mapruza Idrissova et al. / Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 276 – 284
Listening: Problems and solutions Teacher Development: Making the Right Moves
  • F Yagang
Yagang, F. (1994) Listening: Problems and solutions. In T. Kral (ed.) Teacher Development: Making the Right Moves. Washington, DC: English Language Programs Divisions, USIA
Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of pronouns: A case study of a girl of 2 years and 2 months
  • P E N G Xiao-Hong
Xiao-hong, P. E. N. G. (2004). Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of pronouns: A case study of a girl of 2 years and 2 months. Journal of Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, 4, 056.Hasan, A. S. (2000).Learners' perceptions of listening comprehension problems. Language Culture and Curriculum, 13(2), 137-153.