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Investigation of phenotypic and genetic diversity of kolomikta kiwi (actinidia kolomikta)



Actinidia kolomikta Maxim. possesses exceptionally decorative properties and produces valuable berries. The aim of this study was to distinguish the informative phenotypic characteristics and to evaluate genetic diversity of A. kolomikta germplasm collection at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University. Variegation intensity of leaves as well as berry size and shape were defined as the most informative for phenotypic characterization of cultivars and clones. Female cultivars differed in the total number of fruiting shoots per m length of two-year-old shoots. DNA investigations using RAPD markers defined significant genetic diversity of A. kolomikta accessions and the level of their relationship. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 55.6 to 80.0%. The highest genetic identity was obtained for the female clones F2 and F4 (GDxy=0.059). Two specific markers were identified with the primers OPC-02 and 2B for the cultivar 'Laiba' and the female clone F4M4. Accessions were grouped on a dendrogram using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages) method and revealed two main clusters. 'Laiba' proved to be the most divergent cultivar and was joined to the other accessions at the genetic distance of 0.824.
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The varietal distinctness procedure involves expensive, space and time consuming measurements of phenotypical traits. Moreover, for most species and traits, interactions between genotype and environment complicate the cultivar evaluation. Molecular markers could provide a distinctness procedure that actually help increasing reliability of decisions and saving field experiments and time. In the statistical framework of the linear model, the authors propose to define a new distinctness procedure using molecular data to predict phenotypical distance between cultivars. As an example, this method is applied to maize data and leads to 29% of savings for less than 5% of errors. Improvement of these methods are finally discussed.
The genus Actinidia Lindl. comprises 66 species and about 118 taxa. Except four species native to neighboring countries, sixty-two species, about 45 varieties and 7 forms naturally occur in China. Such unusual wide range variation of the species diversity and rich genetic resource provides tremendous potential for cultivar improvement to enhance the sustainability of the world kiwifruit industry. A government organized and nationwide-scaled selection program initiated in China in late 1970s was set up for two targeted missions: 1) a national germplasm survey and inventory of natural resource of Actinidia; 2) selection of superior genotypes for cultivar development, which was designated to develop new cultivars superior over the most widely grown 'Hayward'. More than 1400 superior genotypes were selected from wild populations of A. chinensis, A. deliciosa and A. arguta. Most of them went through the follow-up topworking in research stations and evaluation, experimental trials, regional tests and replicated trials in commercial scales, 57 cultivars and a large number of selections have been developed. The outcome of the program resulted in a unique situation of present China kiwifruit industry having a cultivar structure different from the rest of the world. The cultivar development in China resulted in significant contributions to the world kiwifruit industry in domestication of A. chinensis over the past 20 years. China has become one of the largest producers in the world with an annual production of 340,420 tons, and 57,396 ha. planted.
Broadening of the genetic base and systematic exploitation of heterosis in faba bean requires reliable information on the genetic diversity in the germ plasm. Three groups of faba bean inbred lines were examined by means of RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNAs) assays: 13 European small-seeded lines, 6 European large-seeded lines, and 9 Mediterranean lines. Out of 59 primers, 35 were informative and yielded 365 bands, 289 of which were polymorphic with a mean of 8.3 bands per primer. Monomorphic bands were omitted from the analyses and genetic distances (GD) were estimated via the coefficient of Jaccard. The mean GD among the European small-seeded lines was significantly greater than those among the lines of the other two groups. Repeatability of GD estimates was high. Cluster (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analyses identified European small-seeded lines and Mediterranean lines as distinct groups with European large-seeded lines located in between. The results are in harmony with published archaeobotanical findings. We conclude that RAPDs are useful for classification of germ plasm and identification of divergent heterotic groups in faba bean.