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Emotional intelligence and sales performance. A myth or reality?

  • Wellington Institute of Technology New Zealand

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The concept of emotional intelligence has become popular as a consulting tool as theory suggests that individuals who are high in emotional intelligence are likely to exhibit a higher level of performance outcomes. In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We hypothesized that the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour. Data were collected from sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results were in keeping with the model. Emotional intelligence was not found to impact sales performance directly. It impacted on sales performance through a mediating variable; adaptive selling behaviour. 2015
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International Journal of Business and Society, Vol. 16 No. 2, 2015, 185 - 200
Zazli Lily Wisker
American University of the Middle East
Athanasios Poulis
American University of the Middle East
The concept of emotional intelligence has become popular as a consulting tool as theory
suggests that individuals who are high in emotional intelligence are likely to exhibit a higher
level of performance outcomes. In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence
on sales performance. We hypothesized that the impact of emotional intelligence on sales
performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour. Data were collected from sales
people in the nancial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and
ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural
equation modelling (SEM). Results were in keeping with the model. Emotional intelligence
was not found to impact sales performance directly. It impacted on sales performance through
a mediating variable; adaptive selling behaviour.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Adaptive Selling Behaviour; Sales Performance.
The importance of the role of salespeople in today’s complex marketing environment is
undeniable. As the market is extremely competitive and customers are becoming less loyal and
more sophisticated while at the same time becoming more demanding, the role of salespeople
has become more imperative in developing good customer relationship. Salespeople play a
key role not only in customer relationship management but also in understanding, creating,
communicating and delivering values to customers, which in turn increases the sales
performance of the rm (Paparoidamis & Guenzi, 2009; Weitz & Bradford, 1999). Therefore,
it is not surprising that for decades sales management researchers have invested time in
studying the determinant of salesperson performance. Researchers have come to agree that role
perception, aptitude, skill level and motivation level are the main determinants of salesperson
performance (Churchill et al., 1985). Although in recent years there has been considerable and
growing interest in the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) in the Organizational Behaviour,
Human Resources, and Management literature (O’Boyle Jr. et al., 2011), it has yet to receive
Corresponding author: Zazli Lily Wisker, Marketing Department, Business School, American University of the Middle East,
Kuwait. Phone +96590005245, email: or
sufcient attention in the sales performance literature. The research areas in the Organizational
Behaviour, Human Resources and Management literature stress the importance of EI as a
predictor of leadership, negotiation, perception of trust in leader-member relationship,
organizational citizen behaviours, work-family conduct, and work performance (Ashkanasy &
& Daus, 2002; Carmeli & Josman, 2006; Côté & Miner, 2006; Dulewicz et al., 2005; Humprey
et al., 2008). The theory of emotional intelligence was set forth by the Harvard psychologist
Howard Gardner in 1983. He based his theory upon the social intelligence concept developed
by Thorndike in 1920. Gardner’s concept was then expanded by Mayer and Salovey in the
early 1990s; however, it did not come become popular until Goleman published his book
in 1995. The concept of emotional intelligence has been developed in the elds of neuro-
psychology and neuro-science, and focuses on a patterned structure of responses that regulates
emotions: in particular, it focuses on the role of brain connectivity between the amygdale
and the neural cortex (Roche, 2004). Regardless of its recent emergence in the literature, it
already includes a large number of concepts. Of these many concepts, four main approaches
to emotional intelligence have been widely used in recent years – the EQ-i Bar On; the ECi
Goleman approach; the Four Branch Model of Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (MSCEIT); and
the Four Dimension EI approach of Davies, Stankov and Roberts (1998) (Law et al., 2004;
Rahim, Psenicka, Polychroniou, Zhao, Yu, Chan, Kwok et al., 2002). Although a variety of
EI domains have been conceptualised over the years, the modern interest in EI began with
Mayer and Salovey (1997). Mayer and Salovey (1997) describe emotional intelligence as a
form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings
and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use them to guide one’s thinking and action.
Their concept of emotional intelligence has been built upon by Mayer et al. (1997; 2004), who
suggest the four-branch model as the construct of emotional intelligence: (1) the ability to
accurately perceive, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to use emotion to facilitate
thinking; (3) the ability to understand the temporal course and probable outcome of emotions;
and (4) the ability to regulate emotions effectively. They also claim that emotional intelligence
is a form of intelligence in that the development of emotional intelligence increases with age
(Mayer & Salovey, 1997). It is important to recognise, however, that the various theoretical
perspectives regarding emotional intelligence are not mutually exclusive. In a meta-analytic
study, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004, p. 72) described EI as “the set of abilities (verbal and
non-verbal) that enable a person to generate, recognize, express, understand, and evaluate their
own, and others’, emotion in order to guide thinking and action that successfully cope with
environmental demands and pressures.” In this study, we adopt upon the Law, Wong and Song
EI measures, WLEIS (2004), which are based on Mayer and Salovey (1997) and Mayer et al.
(2004) This EI theoretical model examines the four domains of EI separately.
When the concept of EI was initially introduced to the literature, it has received vigorous
criticism from the academics (Mathew et al., 2004). It is not surprising that EI has received
robust criticism and has received less attention among sales management researchers because
EI was initially made known through a series of articles (Gibbs, 1995) and trade books
(Goleman, 1995; 1998) with little or no analytic evidence established, For example, EI is often
considered as an elusive and vague concept and as more of a myth than a science (Matthews
et al., 2004). These initial negative opinions on EI, according to Mayer et al. (2004), resulted
from the lack of empirical research evidence. Although there is much argument surrounding
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
the nature and validity of EI, it is also clear that the concept and domain of EI has been
gradually accepted in numerous studies (Davies et al., 1998; Mayer et al., 1997; 2004; Law
et al., 2004; Chrusciel, 2006). For example, several empirical studies have found a positive
association between EI and performance (e.g., Dulewicz et al., 2005; Jennings & Palmer, 2007;
O’Boyle Jr. et al., 2011; Semadar, et al., 2006). O’Boyle Jr. et al. (2011), in their meta-analysis,
found a relationship between EI and job performance over and above cognitive intelligence
and the personality traits in all three streams studied. They concluded that “EI represents
one important predictor of job performance’ (O’Boyle Jr. et al., 2011, p. 806). Similarly,
Van Rooy and Viswevaran (2004) provide empirical support for the positive impact of EI on
performance. In contrast, others found an inconsistent or non-existent relation between EI and
performance on particular tasks (Austin, 2004), academic performance (Petrides et al., 2004),
and supervisory ratings (Wong & Law, 2002). Interestingly, Moon and Hur (2011) found that
three domains of EI appraisal of emotions, optimism, and social skills were negatively
related to job performance.
While the previous empirical studies have been helpful in contributing to the body of
knowledge, our present study builds upon the literature in a few ways. First, there are few
empirical studies in sales literature focusing on the impact of EI on sales performance. Attempt
to empirically examine the role of EI in individual success in workplace have been limited and
still in formative stage (Carmeli & Josman, 2006). Since EI is a form of social intelligence that
involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate
among them, and to use them to guide one’s thinking and action (Mayer & Salovey, 1997), it
would be fair to argue these are some of the skills required for building relationships between
salespeople and clients, which in turn could inuence sales performance. Second, few empirical
studies have examined the components of EI domains that impact performance separately. As
Carmeli and Josman’s empirical study points out, “it is not clear which emotional intelligence
components implicate which type of work performance . . . it is important to establish which
specic components of the emotional intelligence model relate to work outcomes” (Carmeli &
Josman, 2006, p. 415). We respond to Carmeli and Josman (2006) by examining the impact of
various EI domains on sales performance separately. Third, Côté and Miners (2006) conclude
that the relationship of EI to performance is not always linear. In response, we argue that the
effect of EI on sales performance can be extended through a mediator.
2.1. Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance
Notwithstanding the debate surrounding the concept and constructs of EI, several studies have
shown positive associations between EI and leadership, and to some extent individual work
performance and team performance (Dulewicz et al., 2005; Longhorn, 2004; Mayer & Caruso,
2002). The literature has suggested that EI provides the basic competencies that are important
in almost any job. In fact, EI is claimed to be a better predictor of success than the traditional
measure of general intelligence, IQ (Goleman, 1998; Pellitteri, 2002). For example, Goleman
(1998) found that 67% of the abilities that are regarded as essential for effective performance
were emotional competencies, and EI accounts almost twice as much as IQ and expertise. The
higher an individual rises in an organisation, the more important EI becomes, compared to IQ
Zazli Lily Wisker and Athanasios Poulis
and technical skills (Goleman et al., 2002). Dulewicz et al. (2005) provide some initial evidence
that EI (9.2%) makes the greatest contribution to overall performance when compared to
general intelligence (5.0%) and managerial competencies (6.1%). Emotional intelligence can
enhance the job performance of individuals even with low cognitive skills through the quality
of social relationships (Côté & Miners, 2006). If job performance is not attained through
cognitive intelligence, it can be attained through EI via multiple complementary mechanisms,
such as interactions with co-workers, supervisors and support staff (Côté & Miners, 2006).
In the management and leadership literature, studies have shown that leaders who are
emotionally competent were better performers and more successful (Brown & Moshavi, 2005;
Mayer & Caruso, 2002). An emotionally competent leader correlates with an emotionally
competent group norm, which in turn affects the team performance. Dulewicz et al. (2005), in
studying the leadership of navy ofcers across seven different ranks, found that EI accounts
for the greatest contribution to overall performance. Another study that took place in a retail
industry found that EI was negatively related with workplace distress and stress, and positively
related with emotional well-being, morale, quality of work life, and overall performance
ratings (Slaski & Cartwright, 2003). Interestingly, although Wong and Law (2002) found
that the EI of leaders was positively related to job satisfaction and extra-role behaviours of
followers, no relationship was found between the EI of leaders and the job performance of
their followers. Similarly, Feyerherm and Rice (2002) discovered that the higher the EI of the
team leader, the worse the team’s performance, concluding that highly emotional intelligent
people tend to focus on their own performance and hence neglect the team. Longhorn (2004)
found no support for the view that age-related EI was associated with performance. A person
with high EI may employ their abilities to develop good social relationships that can boost task
performance through advice and social support (Wong & Law, 2002). For instance, the ability
to be empathetic and understand both one’s own emotions and the emotions of others would
enable one to establish a rapport with and effectively manage subordinates (Semadar et al.,
2006). Further, the ability to manage and control emotional states such as anger and frustration
can be conducive to a more stable working environment (Newsome et al., 2000). In addition,
Côté and Miners (2006) found that EI is an important predictor of job performance due to its
interactive effect with cognitive intelligence. Previous research has also explicitly proposed
that EI relates to task performance in independent and complementary linear ways (Mayer et al.,
2004; Côté et al., 2006). Bardzil and Slaski (2003) suggest that if a manager has interpersonal
skills (one of the emotional intelligence constructs), then s/he can evaluate the emotional states
of customers in order to identify their needs (Chrusciel, 2006). This could lead to gaining
competitive advantage. This suggestion is supported by Longhorn’s (2004) empirical study
on the restaurant industry. The study that uses Bar-On EQ-i (1997) measures found that EI is
positively related to customer satisfaction, which in turn increases the performance of the rm
(Longhorn, 2004). Interestingly, the study also found that EI is able to predict team turnover.
In the sales literature, it is recognized that the sales account management job requires a sales
account manager to deal with emotional skills and maintain self-control when under pressure
in almost all sales tasks (Churchill et al., 1988). Researchers have found that a salesperson’s
performance is related to his/her ability to manage various social problems and deal with
motivational and emotional problems that arise due to negative feedback and failures (Brown
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
et al., 1997). A salesperson is also required to understand the feelings of others and the reasons
behind them in order to persuade them into entering the sales-purchase contract. A salesperson
of high emotional intelligence will be resilient and able to maintain self-control and deal
with difcult situation (Sjoberb & Littorin, 2003). Summarising the discussion above, we
hypothesise the following:
H1: EI is positively related to sales performance.
2.2. Adaptive Selling Behaviour (ASB)
On the other spectrum of sales literature, the concept of adaptive selling behaviour has been
examined and developed over the last few decades (Park & Holloway, 2003; Spiro & Weitz,
1990; Weitz et al., 1986). Adaptive selling behaviour is conceptualised as the alterations in the
selling strategies, tactics, social style, verbal communication and physical appearance of the
seller (Giacobbe et al., 2006). Nonetheless, over the years, the denition of adaptive selling
behaviour has evolved to reect the philosophy of selling and marketing in that era. In the
late 80s, adaptive selling behaviour was dened as “the altering of sales behaviour during a
customer interaction or across customer interactions based on perceived information about the
nature of the selling situation” (Weitz et al., 1986, p. 175). In contrast, in today’s relationship
marketing era, buyers are more experienced, educated and powerful; consequently, the
denition of adaptive selling behaviour has changed to reect this condition: “a complex
process that emphasizes customised solutions to t each buyer” (DelVecchio, Zemanek,
McIntyre & Claxton, 2004, p. 859).
2.3. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Selling Behaviour
If Emotional Intelligence is a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor
one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, a salesperson high in EI is expected to be able
to adapt his/her selling behaviour to customise solutions to each potential buyer’s needs. As
a salesperson engages in active listening and becomes sensitive to the feeling and emotions
of others, that salesperson develops a greater ability to understand the unique set of need and
problems of the customer, which could lead to adaptive selling behaviour (Pelham, 2009). As
Giacobbe et al. developed a model of the relationship between adaptive selling behaviour and
sales performance, they argue that empathic ability towards customers and the ability to pick
up contextual cues and modify one’s own behaviour are some of the domains that moderate the
relationship between ASB and sales performance. Arguably, these are the domains of emotional
intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Wong and Law, 2002). Based on this argument, it is fair
to predict that ASB mediates the relationship between EI and sales performance. Hence, we
posit the following:
H2: The positive effect of emotional intelligence on sales performance is mediated by adaptive
selling behaviour.
2.4. Adaptive Selling Behaviour and Sales Performance
The literature has well acknowledged the relationship between adaptive selling behaviours
ASB and sales performance outcomes (Anglin et al., 1990; Giacobbe et al., 2006; Sujan et
Zazli Lily Wisker and Athanasios Poulis
al., 1994). For example, several studies have found that adaptive selling behaviour exerts a
positive inuence on a salesperson’s regular performance, closing ratios, and the effectiveness
of a sales department and unit (Johlke, 2006). However, the practice of adaptive selling
arguably would be successful provided that the salespeople are predisposed to its facets, such
as the recognition of different selling approaches and the ability to use them, and the collection
of information about the sales situations to facilitate this adaptation (Spiro & Weitz, 1990).
Information about the market plays important roles in the success of adaptive selling practices,
which in turn inuences the sales performance (Spiro and Weitz, 1990). Based on this nding
and argument, it is fair to predict that ASB impacts sales performance. Therefore, we posit the
H3: Adaptive selling behaviour is positively related to sales performance.
3.1. Data Collection
We collected the data from account managers in the nancial industry in Malaysia. We
distributed the survey to 1441 account managers systematically drawn randomly from the
29 nance companies including stock broking houses in Malaysia that were registered
with Central Bank (Bank Negara). Subsequently we received 281 usable replies, yielding a
19.5% response rate. Twenty randomly selected non-responding managers were contacted by
telephone to directly ascertain reasons for non-response. This revealed that the main reasons
were (1) ineligibility, such as no longer having direct contact or making sales presentations to
customers, or (2) time constraints which prevented participation in the survey.
3.2. Measurements
Emotional Intelligence was measured using the self-rating emotional intelligence scale
WLEIS (Law, Wong & Song, 2004). Law et al. (2004) developed WLEIS based on the EI
theoretical concepts of Mayer and Salovey (1997). This measure has been validated and
replicated by many scholars. To conclude the validity of WLEIS, O’Boyle Jr. et al. stressed
that “specically, more research needs to be conducted to assess the validity-based measures
of EI (e.g., MSCEIT V2.o) as compared to self-report measures WLEIS…” (2011, p. 789). The
response format of this measure is a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree,
3 = Neither Agree Nor Disagree, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree). The 16 items of the WLEIS
measure four EI-related subscales: self-emotions appraisal, others-emotions appraisal, use of
emotion, and regulation of emotion – each of which has four items. Sample items include the
following: “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time” (Self-Emotion
Appraisal); “I always know my friends’ emotions from their behaviour” (Others-Emotions
Appraisal); “I am a self-motivating person” (Use of Emotion); and “I am quite capable of
controlling my own emotions” (Regulation of Emotion). Table 1 presents the scale reliabilities
for the EI constructs.
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
We also used Exploratory Factor Analysis testing to examine whether the four EI dimensions
would emerge as separate factors. Because we are more interested in understanding the
correlations among constructs and have expected these constructs to be somewhat correlated
to each other, the Principal Factor Analysis method with Varimax rotation was selected as the
rotation method (Leech et al., 2008). Sixteen (16) EI items were factored, and 4 rotations were
used. The sample accounts for 69.64% of the variance in total, indicating strong support for the
separation of EI items into four distinct variables: EI self-emotions, EI others-emotions, EI use
of emotion, and EI regulation of emotion. Table 2 details out the results.
Adaptive selling behaviour was measured via seven items from the adaptive selling scale
(ADAPTS), rst developed by Spiro and Weitz (1990). The items for ASB include “I treat
all customers pretty much the same.” This was measured on a 5-point Likert scale with the
endpoint anchors being ‘Strongly Disagree’ and ‘Strongly Agree’. The measure also proved
to be adequately reliable by its coefcient alpha of .80. Table 3 presents factor loadings for
ASB items for the sample. The results are all substantial and statistically signicant. The scale
reliability for ADAPTS has a coefcient alpha of .92.
We adopted both subjective and objective performance measures. The objective performance
measure is dened as the percentage of accounts held over the annual target for the current
and previous two years. The item for objective performance was “What were your actual sales
during each of the last three years, expressed as a percentage?” Subjective performance was
measured by a self-assessed general performance measure developed by Farh et al. (1991).
Four items were included, such as “I make sales with the highest prot margin”. The reliability
of the sample has a coefcient alpha of .91.
Table 1: Scale Reliability Coefcients (Alphas) Emotional Intelligence
Cronbach Alpha α
EI 1 – Self-Emotions .89 4
EI 2 – Others Emotion .91 4
EI 3 – Use of Emotion .89 4
EI 4 – Regulation of Emotion .87 4
Zazli Lily Wisker and Athanasios Poulis
Table 2: Exploratory Factor of Emotional Intelligence
Table 3: Standardised Factor Loadings for Latent Adaptive Selling Behaviour
I always tell myself I am a competent person. .78 .78
I am a self-motivated person. .73 .76
I always set goals for myself and try my best to
achieve them. .69 .78
I would always encourage myself to try my best. .69 .55
I can always calm down quickly when I am angry. .80 .71
I am able to control my temper so that I can handle
difculties rationally. .78 .83
I am quite capable at controlling my own emotions. .75 .63
I have a good control of my own emotions. .61 .73
I am a good observer of others’ emotions. . 88 .76
I always know my friends’ emotions from their
behaviour. .81 .73
I have a good understanding of the emotions of
people around me. .69 .68
I am sensitive to the feelings and emotions of
people around me. .69 .59
I really understand what I feel. .73 .65
I have a good understanding of my own emotions. .69 .77
I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings
most of the time. .67 .74
I always know whether I am happy or not. .45 .55
% of variance 23.75 16.62 15.09 14.20
Notes: Determinant =.003, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy = .793, Sigma = .000.
ASB7 - I change my approach from one customer to another. .77 .73
ASB5 - I treat all customers pretty much the same. -.74 .70
ASB6 - I like to experiment with different sales approaches. .70 .792
ASB1 - I am exible in the selling approach I use. .67 .65
ASB4 - I do not use a set sales approach. .62 .74
ASB2 - I can easily use a wide variety of selling approaches. .61 .65
ASB3 - I vary my sales style from situation to situation. .61 .68
Determinant .003
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .771
Sigma .000
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
In utilising SEM, the rst step is to build the baseline measurement model. Once the baseline
model is established, the invariant (equivalence) of the measurement across samples is
assessed. The baseline model consists of the following variables: the independent variables
(emotional intelligence, self-emotion, others-emotion, use of emotion and regulation of
emotion); the mediating variable (adaptive selling behaviour); and dependent variables of sales
performance. I examined the measurement model by conducting CFA on 7 latent variables and
28 indicators (comprised of 16 indicators for emotional intelligence, 7 indicators for ASB,
4 indicators for subjective sales performance, and 1 for objective sales performance). The
measure of Maximum Likelihood was chosen, and the parameters were freely estimated. A
summary of the baseline measurement model is depicted in Table 4.
Table 4: Summary of CFA and Revisions Result for the Baseline Model
1 Run 7 latent with 28 indicators χ2 = 3298.45; df = 1056; χ2/df = 3.124;
GFI = .826; CFI = .901; RMSEA = 0.078;
p-Value = .000
2 Combined subjective and objective χ2 = 2831.45; df = 942; χ2/df = 3.124;
performance, run 6 latent with GFI = .855; CFI = .911; RMSEA = 0.071;
28 indicators p-Value = .000
3 Re-estimated error 18*16, error χ2 = 2432.46; df = 816; χ2/df = 2.980 ;
9*7 and error 16*11, run 6 latent GFI = .869; CFI = .912; RMSEA = 0.068;
with 25 indicators p-Value = .000
4 Re-estimated error 16*14, run 6 χ2 = 2057.49; df = 746; χ2/df = 2.671;
latent with 24 indicator GFI = .915; CFI = .935; RMSEA = 0.055;
p-Value = .000
Goodness of Fit IndexChangesModel
We rst tested the four domains of EI (Hypotheses H1) on sales performance separately. No
signicant support was found for hypotheses = .096, p .05). Then we tested the effect
of mediation. In establishing this effect, rstly adaptive selling behaviour, ASB (M) had to
signicantly affect sales performance (Y). Consistent with our prediction, ASB was found
to affect sales performance signicantly, although the effect was somewhat not strong H3,
(β = .283, p ≤ .01). Then, the second set of hypotheses (H2,) was tested. Consistent with our
prediction, we found support for H2, (β = .283, p ≤ .01). We controlled for several variables:
work experience, age and educational background. Consequently, Z tests were conducted
on these effects to assess the full mediation, and results were found to be non-signicant.
This shows that only partial mediation holds in the absence of direct effect for the emotional
intelligence–sales performance relationship. The variance (R2) shown for ASB was fairly
strong at .36, indicating that 3.6% of the differences in ASB was explained by EI. Figure 1
presents the overall regression results.
Zazli Lily Wisker and Athanasios Poulis
Our hypothesis concerning domains of EI – Sales performance (H1) was not supported.
One possible explanation concerns how EI may predict job performance differently and not
always be in a linear relationship of cause and effect (Côté & Miners, 2006). Although when
considered directly, three domains of EI are not related to sales performance, the results of
the current study show that these three domains link to sales performance through ASB,
demonstrating partial mediation in the absence of direct effect. This indicates the importance
of a synergistic combination of emotional intelligence and adaptive skills, which in turn links
emotional intelligence to sales performance indirectly. The ndings of our study add value
to the emotional intelligence–sales performance literature by providing insights on how the
relationship actually occurs. Our ndings concur with Côté and Miners (2006), who implied
that the impact of EI on job performance is not always in a linear effect.
Mediation for the emotional intelligence sales performance relationship is relatively easy to
interpret. The results suggested that, at least in terms of predicting account managers’ sales
performance, the validity of emotional intelligence variables can be extended through the
inclusion of the mediating variable; adaptive selling behaviour. Although when considered
separately, emotional intelligence is not related to sales performance, the results of the current
study show that emotional intelligence links to sales performance through adaptive selling
behaviour, demonstrating partial mediation with the absence of direct effect. This nding
indicates the importance of a synergistic combination of emotional intelligence and adaptive
skills, which, in turn, link emotional intelligence to sales performance indirectly. This nding
contributes signicant theoretical implications.
Figure 1: The result
E1 .283
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
Emotionally intelligent individuals are adaptable and exible in handling change (Goleman,
1995; Wong & Law, 2002). In addition, emotionally intelligent individuals have the ability
to monitor others’ feelings and emotions, discriminate among them, and use this evaluation
to guide thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Emotionally intelligent individuals
are also high in self-motivation (Wong & Law, 2002). Given the concept of emotional
intelligence, in the case of emotionally intelligent salespeople, they have the ability to
monitor others’ feelings and needs and act accordingly to meet those needs. Moreover, they
are highly motivated in making sales. Arguably, these are also some of the skills required to
practise improvisation (Moorman & Miner, 1998) and adaptive selling behaviour (Spiro &
Weitz, 1990). This phenomenon claries the rationale behind the current study’s ndings. To
conclude, the relationship between emotional intelligence and sales performance is mediated
by adaptive selling behavioural skills. Therefore, researchers and practitioners should not
completely discount the concept of emotional intelligence when studying the potential factors
that contribute to sales performance among account managers. A few interesting implications
were made by the study in relation to ASB. The ndings of the current study support the
contingency theory of ASB proposed by Weitz et al. (1986), which claimed that ASB is an
important determinant of a sales performance among salespeople. These results serve not only
to add clarity to a number of previously unclear and contentious relationships but also to
extend the understanding of the overall ASB process.
It is also worth noting that the results of the current study support the claim that adaptation
during the sales presentation is an activity engaged in by most salespeople in a context where
the buying units and offerings are complex and each customer affords a signicant medium-
to long-term prot potential (Giacobbe et al., 2006; Kidwell et al., 2007). The mean rating
for ASB in the present study is signicantly high (3.53), indicating that the respondents are
highly adaptive with regard to the sales presentation. The industry studied here is comprised
of nancial rms that deal with complex investment products such as shares, debentures, unit
trusts and bonds that arguably provide signicant medium- to long-term prot potential.
5.1. Managerial Implications
In today’s highly competitive marketplace, personal selling plays a critical role in ensuring
the rm’s ability to understand customers’ needs, which in turn increases the volume of
protable sales (Giacobe et al., 2006). Several studies have found that salespeople play a key
role in customer relationship management in terms of understanding, communicating, and
delivering value to customers; thus, today’s relationship marketing focuses on interpersonal
communication building and maintenance of relationships with the customers as opposed
to short-term sales (Gummesson, 2008; Paparoidamis & Guenzi, 2009; Weitz & Bradford,
1999). In today’s complex market, salespeople not only need to have good interpersonal
communication skills to communicate with both internal and external customers, but also must
be able to adapt, empathize and recognize others’ emotions. This study’s ndings show that
emotionally intelligent individuals are adaptable and exible in handling change and have
the ability to monitor others’ feelings and emotions, discriminate among them, and use this
evaluation to guide their thinking and behaviour. Arguably, these are some of the elements
needed to effectively develop good interpersonal communication skills with both internal
Zazli Lily Wisker and Athanasios Poulis
and external customers. When salespeople and customers are mutually committed to the
relationship, they are motivated to maintain the relationship’s existence in the long run and
strive for mutual benet (Paparoidamis & Guenzi, 2009; Weitz & Bradford, 1999).
Additionally, we found a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and adaptive
selling behaviour; this has several managerial implications. First, when recruiting account
managers, rms need to focus on potential candidates who (a) can facilitate social interactions
with target customers, (b) have a high level of emotional intelligence, and (c) have the ability
and skills to practise adaptive selling. Firms should also provide training and motivation in
order to impose and instill this aptitude in salespeople. This has become especially important
as traditional communication activities, such as TV and radio advertising, have become very
costly and competitive.
Several studies have established that the relational behaviour of salespeople, such as adaptive
selling, are the antecedents of relationship marketing, which in turn affects the effectiveness
of sales performance (Paparoidamis & Guenzi, 2009). In this study, we found that the aptitude
of sales people, such as their ability to adapt their selling technique, inuences their sales
performance. Consequently, rms need to recruit potential salespeople who have the ability
to recognize others’ emotion and to adapt when meeting the needs of relationship marketing.
Nonetheless, this is an area that future study could develop further. It is hoped that this study
will act as a catalyst to help further research address this gap.
5.2. Limitation and Future Research
In this study we only used only self-reports measures for both emotional intelligence and
adaptive selling behaviour. Arguably self-reports measures can be subjected to various
distortions, including elements of bias and/or the faking of answers; however, previous studies
have found that, when both peer and supervisor ratings were gathered, results between the
self and peer/supervisor ratings were similar (Law et al., 2004; Goldenberg et al., 2006).
Moreover, supervisor ratings pose a validity risk as indicators of true emotional intelligence.
For example, some supervisors are indiscriminately hard or easy across all participants or
allow their personal opinions or grievances to enter into their ratings (Strauss et al., 2001).
Second we did not test the domain of EI separately. This could be the work of future research.
Further replication is needed to determine how the ndings reported herein align with the
results of studies conducted in other work environments. In particular, the impact of EI on
sales performance requires further study to understand the effect of EI constructs separately
on sales performance. The study did not also measure possible moderating variables that could
inuence the relationship between emotional intelligence and sales performance. Possible
moderating variables may include personal characteristics, rm structure and industry
characteristics. These can also the work for future research.
Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
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Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. A Myth or Reality?
... . When salespeople perform their selling activities effectively, it improves the firm's performance outcomes. Because salespeople interact with a variety of customers and are involved in a wide range of sales situations, they must be creative in adapting their sales efforts to these conditions and customers (Locander et al., 2020;Wisker & Poulis, 2015;Roman and Iacobucci, 2010), underscoring the role of adaptive selling. Compared to other modes of communication, a successful adaptive selling strategy is required to succeed because it allows salespeople to create personalized messages for different customer types. ...
... Compared to other modes of communication, a successful adaptive selling strategy is required to succeed because it allows salespeople to create personalized messages for different customer types. The existing (Wisker and Poulis, 2015; Giacobbe et al., 2013;Roman and Iacobucci, 2010;Giacobbe et al.,2006). ...
... For example, according to Weitz, Sujan and Sujan (1986), adaptive selling modifies selling behaviors during customer interactions based on the selling situation and information available. Adaptive selling is also defined as modifying selling strategies, the seller's physical appearance, and tactics, among other things (Giacobbe et al., 2006;Wisker and Poulis, 2015). ...
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This paper examines the antecedents of adaptive selling behavior empirically from the salespeople’s, customers’, and firms’ perspectives. Data from 205 salespeople and their visiting customers in selected door-to-door cosmetics companies in Korea are used to test the conceptual model using structural equation modeling. Findings show that intrinsic motivation, empathy, and product knowledge are germane to adaptive selling behavior among salesperson-level factors. Similarly, among the customer-level factors, the length of the relationship between salespeople and customers positively affects adaptive selling behavior. Also, while supervisory empowerment among the organizational-level factors significantly predicts adaptive selling behavior, supervisory control has a negative effect on adaptive selling behavior. The study finds that emotional intelligence and customer value demandingness do not significantly affect adaptive selling behavior
... Further, Effectory International (2018) in the Global Employee Engagement Index (2018) noted that from 56 countries surveyed, there was less than 30% engagement. Wisker and Poulis (2015) researched emotional intelligence and sales performance, and they found that consistent with prior research, the effects of emotional intelligence on job performance is not always linear in effect. Wisker and Poulis supported the concept of emotional intelligence and the sales associate's ability to manage their own emotions and those of others , and Wisker and Poulis suggested that researchers and practitioners not discount the concept of emotional intelligence as one of the potential factors that contribute to sales performance. ...
... Perceived emotional intelligence, can allow an individual to utilize emotional information to aid in problem solving. (Gardner & Lambert, 2019) Studies conducted by Wisker and Poulis (2015), and Zehetner and Zehetner (2019), specifically with salespeople found that emotional intelligence was positively related to sales revenues. In the research conducted, the enhanced sales results were not merely market influences. ...
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This paper summarizes the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific discussion on emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an essential trait for managers to possess to be effective and successful in organizations. Soft skills are becoming as crucial as making quotas. Scholarly literature lacks research on emotional intelligence and employee engagement in retail in St. Lucia. Engaged employees could stay motivated during adversity and help maintain an organization's culture. This exploratory observational study's primary purpose was to examine how retail store managers in St. Lucia perceived their emotional intelligence influences employee engagement. The conceptual framework that grounded the study was emotional intelligence and employee engagement from an organizational performance perspective. The data collection process included reviewing archival data. The paper presents empirical analysis results; several patterns and themes emerged from the data analysis, including emotional intelligence, controlling emotions, coaching, legacy, training, hiring well, communication, and personalized relationships. Increased emotional intelligence training emerged as useful in the St. Lucian business landscape and the Caribbean by extension. The research empirically confirms and theoretically proves that researching other sectors at varying levels may give a broader understanding of how emotional intelligence is perceived. This study's findings may be useful to stakeholders and organizational leaders to allow developing strategies to build more emotionally intelligent and engaged organizations and positively affect social change.
... The study also discovers that adaptive selling behaviour has a significant positive effect on sales performance. This finding backs up previous findings (Amenuvor et al., 2021b;Raza et al., 2015;Singh and Das, 2013;Wisker and Poulis, 2015) that adopting an adaptive selling orientation improves sales performance by allowing salespeople to better serve customers by adapting the selling approach to the specific type of customer or selling situation. As a result, while there appears to be some confusion about the actual effect of adaptive selling behaviour on sales performance, with some scholars arguing for non-significant relationships, our study lends credence to previous studies that found a positive relationship and cements the fact that adaptive selling (though context-specific) improves sales performance. ...
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This study sets out to empirically investigate the effect of salesforce output control on perceived job autonomy, customer-oriented selling behaviours, and sales performance. Data is gathered from 704 salespeople and their visiting customers in Ghana. The hypotheses are tested using the structural equations modeling technique (SEM). According to the findings of the study, output control has a significant and positive impact on perceived job autonomy. It also discovers that perceived job autonomy improves both customer-directed problem solving and adaptive selling behaviours. Furthermore, the study finds that customer-directed problem solving and adaptive selling behaviours both improve sales performance. Moreover, the study uncovers that perceived job autonomy mediates the relationship between output control and customer-oriented selling behaviours, whereas both customer-oriented selling behaviours mediate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and sales performance. The current study provides both practical and theoretical insights into salesforce control dynamics, job autonomy, adaptive selling behaviour, customer-directed problem-solving behaviour, and sales performance. The findings have important implications for sales organizations because they can assist sales managers in determining the best type of salesforce control systems to deploy and highlight the strategic role job autonomy plays in enhancing sales performance. The current study shows how output control can influence salespeople's perceived job autonomy, adaptive selling, and customer-directed problem-solving behaviours, and how these can improve sales performance.
... A lack of managers' and employees' understanding of why and how emotional intelligence could influence the overall success and productivity of organizations could be detrimental. Wisker and Poulis (2015) researched emotional intelligence and sales performance, and they found that consistent with prior research, the effects of emotional intelligence on job performance is not always linear in effect. Wisker and Poulis supported the concept of emotional intelligence and the sales associate's ability to manage their own emotions and those of others, and they suggested that researchers and practitioners not discount the concept of emotional intelligence as one of the potential factors that contribute to sales performance. ...
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The perception of entrepreneurship managers plays crucial roles in the leadership style all managers. However, the managers may confront challenges when attempting to provide sufficient support for all their employees. The current study implemented a case study approach involving the modern natural language processing analysis to investigate the perception of entrepreneurship managers and impact on the leadership style in the United States. The result that texts mining improves model performance in predicting the best perceptions leadership strategies targeted at increasing understanding of the emotional intelligence to influence employee's engagement. In the current study, essential keywords were identified from the unstructured text data, which were revealed as strong predictors in the data mining process, and also supported meaningful analysis. The study contributes to the literature through its successful use of a modern natural language processing model to derive important perspectives and opinions related to the improvement of managers performance, thus constituting a new and innovative approach to business leadership research.
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The purpose of this analysis is to examine the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) and market orientation (MO) as an antecedent of sales performance (SP). Furthermore, this paperinvestigates the moderating role of self-efficacy ontherelationship between EI, MO,and SP. To achieve this, 285 questionnaires were sent to ten pharmaceutical companies' top, middle, and low-level managers in two Pakistani cities. The choice of these companies was dependent on simple random sampling methods and minimal sample size estimation techniques. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is then applied to analyze the model and hypothesis,and partial least squares regression is used for data processing in Smart-PLS. The findings presented here suggest that the two dimensions-emotional intelligence and market orientation-positively impacttheperformance of sales staff. The results also support the moderation effect of self-efficacy on the relationships between EI, MO, and SP. Both EI and MO are identified as vital influencers of sales resultsconcerning return on revenue and future industry insight, evident market patterns, and business predictions. Sales staffbehaviorneeds toadjust based on these changes, especially considering large differences in the competitive trade and market climate and due to the severe rivalry between businesses and clientusage habits. This research adds to the literature by identifying the unexplored moderation impact of self-efficacy on EI, MO, and SP. Furthermore, it expands the literature on self-efficacy effects, currently limited to attitudes and performance.
This study examines the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on boundary‐spanning behavior, relationship quality, and performance among door‐to‐door salespeople. Data is collected from salespeople and customers of South Korean door‐to‐door cosmetics businesses and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The findings show that EI positively affects boundary‐spanning behavior. Similarly, boundary‐spanning behavior improves relationship quality, which improves both sales performance and customer satisfaction. This suggests that EI plays an important role in salespeople's boundary‐spanning behavior, thereby enhancing relationship quality, sales performance, and customer satisfaction. Unlike previous studies, this study makes use of actual sales volumes, salespeople's self‐reporting responses, and salespeople's customer‐reporting, which adds to the findings' uniqueness. The present study highlights that EI improves boundary‐spanning behavior, which is vital in developing relationship quality, improving sales performance, and increasing customer satisfaction. The study uses triadic data from door‐to‐door salespeople, customers, and sales organizations extensively, which is unusual in this field. La présente étude porte sur l'impact de l'intelligence émotionnelle sur les comportements d'ouverture, la qualité des relations et la performance des vendeurs en porte‐à‐porte. Les données sont collectées auprès de vendeurs et de clients de commerces de cosmétiques en porte‐à‐porte en Corée du Sud et sont analysées à l'aide d'un modèle d’équation structurelle. Il ressort de l’étude que l'intelligence émotionnelle a un effet positif sur le comportement d'ouverture. Ce comportement améliore la qualité des relations, ce qui augmente à la fois les performances de vente et la satisfaction des clients. Ces conclusions laissent penser que l'intelligence émotionnelle joue un rôle important dans le comportement d'ouverture des vendeurs, améliorant ainsi la qualité des relations, les performances de vente et la satisfaction des clients. Contrairement aux études précédentes, la présente étude s'appuie sur des volumes de vente réels, des réponses autodéclarées par les vendeurs et des réponses fournies par les clients, ce qui en renforce l'originalité. La présente étude souligne que l'intelligence émotionnelle améliore le comportement d'ouverture, ce qui est essentiel pour développer la qualité des relations, améliorer les performances de vente et accroître la satisfaction des clients. L’étude utilise largement les données triadiques des vendeurs en porte‐à‐porte, des clients et des organisations de vente, ce qui est inhabituel dans ce domaine.
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En las áreas de marketing se requiere evaluar la posible incidencia de factores no cognitivos en la compleja interacción con los clientes. Por ello, se planteó el objetivo de analizar la influencia de la inteligencia emocional (IE) en el desempeño de la fuerza de ventas (DFV) a través de un modelo PLS-SEM, que relaciona los componentes de la IE con el DFV. La IE fue medida con el EQ-i, y el DFV, con el valor (USD) de las ventas/año/vendedor. Para este análisis, se empleó una muestra de 58 vendedores de una empresa dedicada al suministro de equipos médicos en el mercado peruano. El diseño fue transeccional, con alcance explicativo. Los resultados evidencian que solo los componentes «intrapersonal» e «interpersonal» de la IE inciden en el DFV, mientras que los componentes «adaptabilidad», «manejo de la tensión» y «ánimo general» no correlacionan, configurando un apoyo parcial a la relación entre IE y DFV.
Social selling is a prominent marketing strategy in this digitalization era. Thus, this research aims to inspect the moderating role of social media use in the relationship between selling skills (salesmanship, technical, active empathetic listening (AEL), and emotional intelligence (EI) skills) and selling behaviors (cross/up and adaptive selling behaviors). A sample of 185 respondents was collected from salespeople in Lebanon using a questionnaire, and data were analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS graphics 24. The outcomes revealed that salesmanship, technical, AEL, and EI skills drive adaptive and cross/up-selling behaviors. In addition, social media use enhances the relationship between salespeople selling skills and behaviors. Finally, this research suggests key insights into the social selling context and offers guidelines to marketing managers on how to execute an effective social selling strategy.
The authors propose that the emotional intelligence (EI)-sales performance link can be better understood by considering a salesperson’s confidence in how they use emotions, known as emotional self-efficacy (ESE). Four multi-source studies across diverse sales industries offer evidence of the interactive effect of a salesperson’s EI and ESE – which we term emotional calibration – on salesperson performance. We find that sales performance suffers when salespeople are either overconfident or underconfident in their emotional skills and perform best when they are calibrated. Further, we demonstrate that the performance gains associated with emotional calibration (1) are attenuated when salespeople are under stress, and (2) occur because it encourages positive avoidance emotions (calmness and relaxation) among salespeople that result in improved customer rapport, but only among salespeople with relatively longer job tenures. Overall, the research highlights the critical role of ESE as an essential but neglected aspect of a salesperson’s emotional competence.
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The study investigated the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills of supervisors to subordinates' strategies of handling conflict: problem solving and bargaining. Data (N = 1,395) for this study were collected with questionnaires from MBA students in seven countries (U.S., Greece, China, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Macau, South Africa, and Portugal). Psychometric properties of the measures were tested and improved with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of indicator and internal consistency reliabilities, and the hypotheses were tested with a structural equations model for each country. Results in the U.S. and in the combined sample provided support for the model which suggests that self-awareness is positively associated with self-regulation, empathy, and social skills; self regulation is positively associated with empathy and social skills; empathy and social skills are positively associated with motivation; which in turn, is positively associated with problem solving strategy and negatively associated with bargaining strategy. Differences among countries in these relationships are noted and implications for organizations discussed.
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Leadership and Emotional Intelligence have become hot topics in organisations and management in recent years. This study explores the relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership and Job Performance of Officers and Ratings within the Royal Navy. In particular, the focus is on the three elements of the new Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ) – Intellectual (‘IQ’), Emotional (‘EQ’) and Managerial (‘MQ’) Competencies. These are related to performance measures derived from formal performance appraisals. Seven hypotheses were tested and all were fully or partially supported. Results showed that IQ, EQ and MQ were all related to overall performance and to Officer leadership appraisal, but not Ratings leadership appraisal. EQ made a greater contribution to overall performance, to Officer leadership appraisal and to all three leadership styles.
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The authors investigate the motivational effects of emotions in a sales force context. The personal stakes that salespeople have in a goal situation triggered anticipation of emotions that result from attaining or failing to attain their performance goal. Positive anticipatory emotions were positively related to volitions and mediated the relationship between personal stakes and volitions. Goal attainment was positively related to positive outcome emotions and negatively related to negative outcome emotions. Goal-directed behavior was positively associated with positive outcome emotions, independently of goal attainment. The findings suggest that emotions are an important driving force behind sales force motivation. The authors discuss the implications for sales management, theory development, and further research.
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The field of marketing strategy often makes the important assumption that marketing strategy should occur by first composing a plan on the basis of a careful review of environmental and firm information and then executing that plan. However, there are cases when the composition and execution of an action converge in time so that, in the limit, they occur simultaneously. The authors define such a convergence as improvisation and develop hypotheses to investigate the conditions in which improvisation is likely to occur and be effective. The authors test these hypotheses in a longitudinal study of new product development activities. Results show that organizational improvisation occurs moderately in organizations and that organizational memory level decreases and environmental turbulence level increases the incidence of improvisation. Results support traditional concerns that improvisation can reduce new product effectiveness but also indicate that environmental and organizational factors can reduce negative effects and sometimes create a positive effect for improvisation. These results suggest that, in some contexts, improvisation may be not only what organizations actually practice but also what they should practice to flourish.
The authors use meta-analysis techniques to investigate the evidence that has been gathered on the determinants of salespeople's performance. A search of the published and unpublished literature uncovered 116 articles (the list of which is available upon request) that yielded 1653 reported associations between performance and determinants of that performance. The results indicate the determinants can be ordered in the following way in terms of the average size of their association with performance: (1) role variables, (2) skill, (3) motivation, (4) personal factors, (5) aptitude, and (6) organizational/environmental factors. When ordered according to the amount of the observed variation in correlations across studies that is real variation (i.e., not attributable to sampling error), the determinants rank as follows: (1) personal factors, (2) skill, (3) role variables, (4) aptitude, (5) motivation, and (6) organizational/environmental factors. To investigate whether the associations between each of the categories of predictors and performance could be partially accounted for by the presence of moderator variables, the results were broken out by customer type, product type, and type of dependent measure used. The results indicate that the strength of the relationship between the major determinants and salespeople's performance is affected by the type of products salespeople sell. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for sales managers and researchers.
A 16-item scale is developed to measure the degree to which salespeople practice adaptive selling-the degree to which they alter their sales presentation across and during customer interactions in response to the perceived nature of the sales situation. This paper-and-pencil scale assesses self-reports of five facets of adaptive selling: (1) recognition that different sales approaches are needed for different customers, (2) confidence in ability to use a variety of approaches, (3) confidence in ability to alter approach during an interaction, (4) collection of information to facilitate adaptation, and (5) actual use of different approaches. The reliability of the scale is .85. Support for the nomological validity of the scale is found by failure to disconfirm relationships with an antecedent (intrinsic motivation), several general personality measures of interpersonal flexibility (self-monitoring, empathy, locus of control, and androgyny), and a consequence (self-reported performance).
In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.