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Social representations and inclusive practices for disabled students in Italian higher education: A mixed-method analysis of multiple perspectives

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Social representations and inclusive practices for disabled students in Italian higher education: A mixed-method analysis of multiple perspectives

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... To, co najistotniejsze w kształceniu akademickim, to przygotowanie wykładowców do pracy ze studentami z niepełnosprawnością (Shelvin, Kenny, McNeela, 2004;Konur, 2006;Matthews, 2009). Kolejnym ważnym elementem edukacji jest partycypacja w życiu studenckim, umożliwienie aktywnego udziału w życiu społeczności akademickiej, kontakty ze studentami bez niepełnosprawności zarówno w trakcie zajęć, jak i poza nimi (Ferrucci, Cortini, 2015). ...
... Wsparcie osób z niepełnosprawnościami może być bardziej efektywne i trafne, gdy jest udzielane przez osoby z tego samego środowiska, mające podobny status społeczny, przebywające na co dzień razem, znające mocne strony osoby z niepełnosprawnością, doświadczające podobnych problemów, czyli koleżanki czy kolegów ze studiów, tzw. peer tutoring (Ferrucci, Cortini, 2015). ...
... Studenci z niepełnosprawnością doświadczają obojętności, braku uważności ze strony kadry akademickiej i administracyjnej czy obsługi uczelni, ale również ze strony studentów sprawnych (Ferrucci, Cortini, 2015). Dlatego istotne są działania podnoszące świadomość środowiska akademickiego, tj. ...
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„Edukacja integracyjna to złożony i wieloaspektowy proces czerpiący swe źródła z idei normalizacji i autonomii życia osób z niepełnosprawnością. Idee te wyznaczyły koncepcję wspólnego kształcenia uczniów wymagających specjalnej realizacji potrzeb edukacyjnych z ich sprawnymi rówieśnikami. Wspólna edukacja stwarza korzystne warunki realizacji «dobrej szkoły dla wszystkich». Urzeczywistnienie idei edukacji integracyjnej wymaga zaangażowania wszystkich podmiotów, w tym uczniów, nauczycieli, rodziców, społeczności lokalnych oraz organizacji i instytucji państwowych. Złożoność i wielowymiarowość procesu edukacji integracyjnej, jak też jej znaczenie dla kształtowania nowego modelu życia społecznego, wskazuje na potrzebę i rangę ponowionej debaty w gronie teoretyków i praktyków” (https://konferencje.aps.edu.pl/osoba/?lang=pl). Społeczność Instytutu Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej w Warszawie nie tylko dostrzegła potrzebę takiej debaty, lecz także ją zainicjowała i zorganizowała w dniach 26–27 września 2019 r. w ramach naukowych spotkań z cyklu OSOBA. Dyskurs teoretyków i praktyków toczył się wokół tematu Jedność w różnorodności – idea i rzeczywistość. 30 lat edukacji integracyjnej, a prezentowana publikacja jest jego pokłosiem – namysłem nad stanem polskiej edukacji integracyjnej. Przedstawia także działania wdrażające ideę inkluzji i dążenia do zbudowania modelu edukacji wysokiej jakości dla wszystkich uczących się podmiotów. 8 Wstęp Opracowanie składa się z dwóch tomów. W pierwszym tomie zamieszczone zostały teksty analizujące podstawy prawne, teoretyczne konteksty i modele koncepcyjne edukacji inkluzyjnej (dziewięć tekstów – część pierwsza), a także uwarunkowania wspólnej i rozłącznej edukacji (11 tekstów – część druga). Tom drugi (17 tekstów zestawionych w trzech częściach) został zaprojektowany z myślą o prekursorach wychowania i nauczania uczniów pełnosprawnych i z niepełnosprawnością w jednej przestrzeni edukacyjnej. Snują oni interesujące – często osobiste i emocjonalne – refleksje, przedstawiają trudności, jakie musieli pokonać, dzielą się swoimi doświadczeniami i przede wszystkim pasją oraz optymizmem pedagogicznym. Do zapoznania się z publikacją, zarówno z tomem pierwszym, jak i drugim, zachęcamy naukowców, doktorantów, studentów, nauczycieli, rodziców, decydentów, słowem: te osoby, którym na sercu leżą dobrostan każdego ucznia i „dobra szkoła dla wszystkich”.
... Widoczny jest duży rozdźwięk pomiędzy ideami podmiotowego traktowania a praktyką edukacyjną czy terapeutyczną (Juszczyk--Rygałło 2016, Zubrzycka-Maciąg, Wosik-Kawala 2015, Formella 2018, Lejzerowicz, Galbarczyk 2018 Wykładowcy uczelni wyższych często nie zauważają zróżnicowanych potrzeb studentów. Powszechna jest opinia, że to studenci powinni dostosować się do standardów zajęć a nie odwrotnie (Byra 2010, RPO 2015, Shelvin, Kenny, McNeel 2004 Uczestnictwo w grupie społecznej, partycypacja w życiu studenckim, możliwość aktywnego udziału w społeczności akademickiej, kontakty ze studentami bez niepełnosprawności, zarówno w trakcie zajęć, jak i poza nimi, to ważny element edukacji (Ferrucci, Cortini 2015, Thomas 2016, Giermanowska, Kumaniecka-Wiśniewska, Racław, Zakrzewska-Manterys 2015, RPO 2015, Sztobryn-Giercuszkiewicz 2016. ...
... Widoczny jest duży rozdźwięk pomiędzy ideami podmiotowego traktowania a praktyką edukacyjną czy terapeutyczną (Juszczyk--Rygałło 2016, Zubrzycka-Maciąg, Wosik-Kawala 2015, Formella 2018, Lejzerowicz, Galbarczyk 2018 Wykładowcy uczelni wyższych często nie zauważają zróżnicowanych potrzeb studentów. Powszechna jest opinia, że to studenci powinni dostosować się do standardów zajęć a nie odwrotnie (Byra 2010, RPO 2015, Shelvin, Kenny, McNeel 2004 Uczestnictwo w grupie społecznej, partycypacja w życiu studenckim, możliwość aktywnego udziału w społeczności akademickiej, kontakty ze studentami bez niepełnosprawności, zarówno w trakcie zajęć, jak i poza nimi, to ważny element edukacji (Ferrucci, Cortini 2015, Thomas 2016, Giermanowska, Kumaniecka-Wiśniewska, Racław, Zakrzewska-Manterys 2015, RPO 2015, Sztobryn-Giercuszkiewicz 2016. ...
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W książce ukazano niepełnosprawność jako zagadnienie o charakterze interdyscyplinarnym, pozostające w polu zainteresowań przedstawicieli wielu dyscyplin naukowych. Znalazły się w niej rozdziały poświęcone: rozwiązaniom systemowym i politykom w obszarze niepełnosprawności, roli i znaczeniu instytucji w systemie wsparcia osób niepełnosprawnych, społeczeństwu i społecznościom wobec niepełnosprawności i osób niepełnosprawnych, interakcyjnemu wymiarowi niepełnosprawności, a także niepełnosprawności jako doświadczeniu osobistemu. Publikacja, poza jej wymiarem naukowym, ma również istotny walor społeczny poprzez jej praktyczny i aplikacyjny charakter. Proponowana książka jest zatem skierowana zarówno do przedstawicieli środowiska akademickiego, przede wszystkim socjologów i pedagogów zainteresowanych problematyką niepełnosprawności, jak i praktyków zaangażowanych w udzielanie pomocy i wsparcia tej grupie klientów pomocy społecznej, a także tych wszystkich, którzy w życiu codziennym stykają się z ludźmi z niepełnosprawnościami, ich bliskimi oraz członkami rodzin.
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Introduction. Being an author/subject by person with disability is a complex process. In analyzes interdisciplinary research of pedagogical, sociological, psychological and philosophical perspectives were used. Aim. The aim of the research in action is to stimulate the critical reflection of participants on the co-creation of scientific reality, their own practice, and raising research and professional competences. The next aim is to demonstrate the importance of educational and social activity in the process of becoming the subject/author of the own’s life of student with disability. Materials and methods. The research used the methodology of participatory research in action (Denzin, Linkoln 2009, Glaser, Strauss 2009, Charmaz 2009, Reason, Torbert 2010, Cervinkova, Gołębniak 2010, Czerepaniak-Walczak 2014) and the autoetnographic method was used (Geertz 2005, Wolcott 2008, Chang 2007, Freeman 2004, Anderson 2014). Results. The analysis of the experiences of a student with disability in the academic environment indicates significant deficiencies in supporting the areas of authorship: subjective experiences, well-being, independence, implementation of development tasks, social contacts. Conclusions. Autoethnographic-enhanced action research is a useful tool in the process of improving research and professional competences of both students and academic teachers. The participation of students with diversed needs in academic education may enable an increase in the level of inclusion in the academic community and affect the quality of education for all.
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This paper aims to present an analytical tool called Model of Becoming Aware, to explore the production of the subjectivities of disabled students and new forms of exclusions during the enactment of disability policies in the Italian higher education context. It deploys Foucault’s governmentality studies to frame the changing historical conditions from a welfarist to neoliberal governance, of the university and it draws upon qualitative data collected in an Italian university. The Model is the product of situational analysis of the enactment of inclusive policies and explores the mobilisation of authority, resources, practices, subjects, opportunities and knowledge by two technologies of power – autonomy and sensitivity. Findings illustrate how medical and economic truths in times of austerity are producing new forms of performative neoliberal subjectivities in higher education while subordinating forms of subjection based on expensive welfarist provisions. Through the Model of Becoming Aware, the article aims to supply a contingent tool to analyse current ableist and exclusionary practices in the enactment of disability higher education policies, providing an evidence-based space to rethink policies to support disabled students educational access and attainment in higher education.
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Introduction. Being an author/subject by person with disability is a complex process. In analyzes interdisciplinary research of pedagogical, sociological, psychological and philosophical perspectives were used. Aim. The aim of the research in action is to stimulate the critical reflection of participants on the co-creation of scientific reality, their own practice, and raising research and professional competences aimed at developing their own professionalism. The next aim is to demonstrate the importance of educational and social activity on agency, autonomy, independence, identity, self-determination, being the subject/author of the own's life of student with disability. Additionally, the functioning of a person with disability at the university was examined and (not)adjustment of the educational process and conditions for supporting people with disabilities in the process of social inclusion. Materials and methods. The research used the methodology of participatory research in action (Denzin, Linkoln 2009; Glaser, Strauss 2009; Charmaz 2009; Freire 2005; Lewin 2010; Reason, Torbert 2010; Cervinkova, Gołębniak 2010; Czerepaniak-Walczak 2014) and the autoetnographic method was used (Geerts 2005; Wolcott 2008; Chang 2007; Freeman 2004; Anderson 2014). Results. The analysis of the experiences of a student with disability in the academic environment indicates significant deficiencies in supporting the areas of authorship: subjective experiences, well-being, independence, implementation of development tasks, social support. The condition of supporting a person in the educational process is noticing their needs, possibilities, limitations and adjusting the level of support. Inclusion of people with disabilities in the academic environment is often limited to some educational activities, there is no inclusion in a social group. Conclusions. Autoethnographic-enhanced action research is a useful tool in the process of improving research and professional competences of both students and academic teachers. The empowerment of persons with disabilities in the education and social support process reduces social isolation and discrimination, and increases self-reliance. Academic teachers should be mindful of students needs, conduct classes using universal design for learning, enable autonomous learning. The participation of students with diversed needs in academic education may enable an increase in the level of inclusion in the academic community and affect the quality of education for all.
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Drawing on the insights of critical disability studies, this article addresses anxieties frequently articulated by academic staff around the implementation of the United Kingdom's Disability Discrimination Act: how to accommodate the needs of students with ‘hidden’ impairments. Following the social model of disability, it argues that universities should avoid the use of medical labels in identifying the learning needs of disabled students, and should make efforts to institute as part of everyday practice a diversity of inclusive teaching strategies. Finally it discusses an induction activity which sought to encourage students to disclose additional learning needs to university staff while opening up a discussion around difference, diversity with the student cohort as a whole.
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Recent UK legislation, operational from December 2006, places a duty on all public authorities, including higher education institutions, to actively promote equality of opportunity for people with disabilities. The university studied here has a number of initiatives in place to develop good practice in this area, but how do students themselves experience that provision? Research about people with disabilities has sometimes alienated them by failing to reflect their own perspectives. This study, explicitly aimed at incorporating students' voices and using interview and video data, offers some insight into students' experiences of the aids and obstacles to an inclusive learning environment at one university.
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