Overweight and obesity are associated with various chronic conditions.¹ These conditions are considerable health care and societal burdens, yet could potentially be averted by preventing weight gain and obesity. In a prior analysis, now almost 20 years old, Must et al² used a nationally representative data set from 1988 through 1994 and reported the US chronic disease burden associated with body mass index (BMI), thus informing clinical practice and the priorities for cost-effective prevention strategies. Using the most recent data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007-2012), we updated the prevalence of overweight and obesity by sex, age, and race/ethnicity and compared the values with those of the earlier study.²
The purpose of this study was the evaluation of a weight loss program in primary care settings with respect to the European Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Obesity in Adults with regard to the long-term success of changes in body weight and composition.
Overweight and obese patients (n = 1167) who underwent a standardized meal replacement-based weight loss program (myLINE®, AENGUS, Austria) in primary care settings were included in this evaluation. Body composition was measured by conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (AKERN BIA101®, BIACORPUS RX4000®, SoftwareBodycomp Version 8.4 Professional). Data of patients who participated at least 12 months in the program were analyzed retrospectively and compared with their baseline data.
After 12 months, a weight loss of 8.6 ± 7.5 kg (mean ± standard deviation) or 8.2 ± 7.8 % from baseline was seen (p < 0.001). In all, 71.9 % of all patients achieved a minimal weight loss of 5 %, and 18.8 % lost 15 % of their initial weight. In comparison with the baseline (35.7 ± 11.5 kg), body fat decreased to 29.6 ± 10.7 kg, which is 83.7 ± 18.9 % from baseline (100 %; p < 0.001). Body cell mass showed an absolute reduction of − 1.4 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001), although a relative increase of 1.5 ± 2.5 % (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between male and female subjects regarding changes in weight, body fat, and body cell mass.
The evaluated program complies with the European Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Obesity in Adults (2008), which recommend a weight reduction of 5–15 % from initial weight within 6 months. Furthermore, the data showed a significant reduction of body fat and a relative increase of body cell mass.
There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research has shown that approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss when defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. National Weight Control Registry members have lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 y. To maintain their weight loss, members report engaging in high levels of physical activity ( approximately 1 h/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. Moreover, weight loss maintenance may get easier over time; after individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2-5 y, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases. Continued adherence to diet and exercise strategies, low levels of depression and disinhibition, and medical triggers for weight loss are also associated with long-term success. National Weight Control Registry members provide evidence that long-term weight loss maintenance is possible and help identify the specific approaches associated with long-term success.
Harmon S. Jordan, ScD, Karima A. Kendall, PhD, Linda J. Lux, Roycelynn Mentor-Marcel, PhD, MPH, Laura C. Morgan, MA, Michael G. Trisolini, PhD, MBA, Janusz Wnek, PhD
Jeffrey L. Anderson, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair , Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect , Nancy M. Albert, PhD, CCNS, CCRN,
Few studies have focused on weight loss programs implemented in community-based primary care settings. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a weight loss program and determine whether physicians in primary care practices could achieve reductions in body weight and body fat similar to those obtained in weight loss clinics.
Analyses were performed on chart review data from 413 obese participants who underwent weight loss at a primary care (n=234) or weight loss (n=179) clinic. Participants received physician-guided behavioral modification sessions and self-selected a diet plan partially or fully supplemented by meal replacements. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance was conducted with age and sex serving as covariates; significance was set at P≤.05.
In 178 subjects (43%) completing 12 weeks of the program, primary care clinics were as effective as weight loss clinics at achieving reductions in body weight (12.4 vs 12.1 kg) but better with regard to reduction in body fat percentage (3.8% vs 2.7%; P≤.05). Regardless of location, participants completing 12 weeks lost an average of 11.1% of their body weight. Participants selecting full meal replacement had greater reductions in weight and body fat percentage (12.7 kg, 3.5%) compared with participants selecting a partial meal replacement plan (8.3 kg, 2.3%).
Primary care physicians can successfully manage and treat obese patients using behavioral modification techniques coupled with meal replacement diets.
To compare the long-term effects of three different programs including initial 6 weeks (V)LCD diets 420 kcal/d, 530 kcal/d, 880 kcal/d) on sustained weight loss, attrition and obesity associated conventional cardiovascular risk factors.
Prospective, randomized clinical 52 weeks trial. Two weeks of a booster (V)LCD period after week 26.
University outpatient obesity clinic.
Ninety-three middle-aged obese patients (30 men), initial mean BMI 38.7 kg/m2, age 20-65 y, from the waiting list.
Weight loss pattern, attrition, reported side effects, blood pressure, blood glucose and serum lipid levels. Repeated frequent measurements up to week 26, intermittently up to final measurements at week 52.
One year attrition (30-45%), sustained weight loss (8-15% of initial body weight) and changes in obesity associated risk parameters were similar in all three group. Fewer adverse events were reported in the LCD group.
The results compare favorably with most previous reports of similar design. VLCD (420 kcal or 530 kcal/ d and LCD 880 kcal/d) were equally effective in long term treatment of obesity. The tendency to less side effects with LCD suggests that such preparations deserve further attention.
Obesity is associated with increased bile stasis and cholesterol saturation, and an increased risk of gallstone development. Conversely, bile composition is normalized following reduction in body weight. It would appear advantageous to promote weight loss in obesity, which would reduce the predisposition to gallstone formation. Despite the potential health benefits of weight reduction, very-low-calorie diets appear to increase the risk for cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. The incidence of gallstone formation seems to be dependent on the degree of caloric restriction, the rate of weight loss, and the duration of the dietary intervention. Thus, faster rates of weight loss for longer periods of time are associated with increased risk.
Available data obtained from prospective studies of subjects during active weight loss suggest that newly formed gallstones occur within 4 weeks and with incidence rates 15 to 25-fold higher than in the general obese population. The stones produce symptoms in approximately one-third of the subjects, of whom approximately one-half will undergo surgery. Proposed mechanisms underlying gallstone formation during weight reduction include bile stasis due to reduced caloric intake, increased biliary cholesterol saturation secondary to increased cholesterol mobilization, and increased nucleation due to changes in bile arachidonate and givcoprotein concentrations. Data are lacking on the effects of gradual rates of weight loss and risk of gallstone formation.