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Angry rumination as a mediator of the relationship between ability emotional intelligence and various types of aggression

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Abstract

Ability emotional intelligence (AEI) has been negatively associated with aggressive behavior. There is, however, no evidence about the associations between AEI and indirect aggression or angry rumination, although several studies have reported that people with low AEI tend to use depressive rumination as an emotional regulation strategy. The purposes of this study were to provide preliminary evidence on the relationships between AEI and angry rumination and between AEI and indirect aggression, and to examine the role of angry rumination as a mediator of the relationship between AEI and different types of aggression (physical, verbal and indirect aggression). We used a cross-sectional design; 243 undergraduate students completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. The results provided evidence for negative associations between AEI and both angry rumination and indirect aggression. Analysis also indicated that angry rumination was a significant mediator of the relationship between AEI and all three types of aggression. These findings are discussed in the light of aggression models and their practical implications for work on prevention or treatment of aggressive behavior are considered.

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... On the other hand, individuals with high EI are able to reduce problems related to depression (Marguerite et al. 2017). Additionally, quality life is often associated with high level of EI, and low level of EI is normally associated with undesirable behavioural outcome such as bullying, both in real life and online, substance abuse and suicidal intention (García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal 2015). These are among the reasons why research and development in EI should be given a serious consideration (García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal 2015). ...
... Additionally, quality life is often associated with high level of EI, and low level of EI is normally associated with undesirable behavioural outcome such as bullying, both in real life and online, substance abuse and suicidal intention (García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal 2015). These are among the reasons why research and development in EI should be given a serious consideration (García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal 2015). ...
... EI can be trained and improved (Herpertz, Schütz, and Nezlek 2016;Foster et al. 2017). There are various methods to measure EI such as Mayor-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQ-i) (Mattingly and Kraiger 2018) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal 2015). Mattingly and Kraiger (2018) have studied 58 researches that focus on EI training and their impact. ...
Article
Research has proven that having high level of emotional intelligence (EI) can reduce the chance of getting mental illness. EI, and its component, can be improved with training, but currently the process is less flexible and very time-consuming. Machine learning (ML), on the other hand, can analyse huge amount of data to discover useful trends and patterns in shortest time possible. Despite the benefits, ML usage in EI training is scarce. In this paper, we studied 92 journal articles to discover the trend of the ML utilisation in the study of EI and its components. This survey aims to pave way for future studies that could lead to implementation of ML in EI training, and to rope in researchers in psychology and computer science to find possibilities of having a generic ML algorithm for every EI’s components. Our findings show an increasing trend to apply ML on EI components, and Support Vector Machine and Neural Network are the two most popular ML algorithms used in those researches. We also found that social skill and empathy are the least exposed EI components to ML. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research direction of ML in EI domain, and EI in ML.
... As described previously, anger negatively affects physiological responses, such as blood pressure (e.g., Francis et al. 1991;Elfenbein 2006), and can also be linked to behaviorally into weaker overall social and organizational skills: people with low emotional intelligence have a lesser ability to empathize, are not as good in aligning with organizational goals, and display diminished abilities in developing social relationships (Sy and Côté 2004). Interestingly, people with low emotional intelligence will display aggressive behavior more frequently, due to their tendency to regulate their anger using angry rumination (García-Sancho et al. 2016). This might be related to problematic activation of the amygdala: evidence shows that low emotional intelligence is associated with neural lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, areas associated with emotional processing ( Bar-On et al. 2003). ...
... This might be related to problematic activation of the amygdala: evidence shows that low emotional intelligence is associated with neural lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, areas associated with emotional processing ( Bar-On et al. 2003). In the context of a team setting where low emotional intelligence is present, it is easy to see how the high presence of angry rumination can lead to destructive behavior and attitudes (Ayoko et al. 2008;García-Sancho et al. 2016), especially knowing that emotional expression in a group setting can evolve to emotional contagion ). ...
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In this chapter, we offer a content analysis of top-tier management journals to examine the extent to which advocates of neuroscience in management pay heed to the ethical ramifications of their work. Based upon our analysis, we are able to robustly refute the claim by Butler and colleagues (Hum Relat 70:1171–1190, 2017) that Lindebaum’s (Hum Relat 69(3):537–50, 2016) concerns about the lack of ethical concerns in the proliferation and application of neuroscientific ideas and measurements are basically much ado about nothing. By way of this content analysis, we advance the debate on the ethical ramifications of applying neuroscience in management by demonstrating (1) which ethical issues are recognised and (2) which ones are not. Doing so has the potential to open up new directions in studying the ethical and practical ramifications of neuroscience in and around workplaces.
... Instruments such as the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ; Buss and Perry, 1992) divide this construct into four different dimensions: physical, verbal, hostility, and anger. In this regard, the studies of García-Sancho et al., (2016 have observed a stronger negative relationship between EI level and physical aggression compared with other dimensions. ...
... Women score higher than men in the main factors that make up EI and NA (Extremera et al., 2006;López-Gómez et al., 2015;Palmer et al., 2005). On the other hand, men usually show higher levels of aggression (Peláez-Fernández et al., 2014;García-Sancho et al., 2016). ...
Article
This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationship between aggressive behaviour and individual levels of ability emotional intelligence (EI). Three hundred and ninety-five participants took part in this study. Participants were assessed on ability EI, negative affect (NA), and aggression by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Buss-Perry Aggression questionnaires, respectively. The results revealed a negative relationship between aggression and ability EI, but this relationship depended on multiple factors: the type of EI branches and aggression dimensions, the influence of NA, and gender. Emotional management ability showed a direct relationship with aggression, while emotional perception ability presented an indirect relationship with aggression through the effect of NA. These EI abilities were related to different aggression dimensions, highlighting the direct relationship with physical aggression. Moreover, gender differences showed that women possess greater EI abilities, higher levels of NA, less aggressive behaviour, and a lower relationship between NA and aggression compared with men. This research offers a better understanding of the psychological processes explaining aggression. The inclusion of our findings in the design of prevention and treatment programs could be of great help in the control of aggressive behaviour.
... More simply, anger rumination involves "thinking about this emotion" (Sukhodolsky et al., 2001, p. 689). The link between anger rumination and aggression is well known (e.g., Anestis et al., 2009;Denson et al., 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2016;Quan et al., 2019), with clear relationships between anger rumination and different types of aggression, such as physical, verbal, and indirect (e.g., García-Sancho et al., 2016). ...
... More simply, anger rumination involves "thinking about this emotion" (Sukhodolsky et al., 2001, p. 689). The link between anger rumination and aggression is well known (e.g., Anestis et al., 2009;Denson et al., 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2016;Quan et al., 2019), with clear relationships between anger rumination and different types of aggression, such as physical, verbal, and indirect (e.g., García-Sancho et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Driving anger expression is a detrimental factor for traffic safety, suggesting that there is a need to investigate protective factors against anger expression and their underlying mechanisms, especially for young drivers. The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of anger rumination on the relationship between self-compassion and driving anger expression. The final sample included 191 drivers ranging from 18 to 30 years in age who drove the least 1000 km in the previous year. These participants completed an online questionnaire package measuring self-compassion, driving anger expression and anger rumination in addition to some demographic items. As predicted, self-compassion was negatively related to total aggressive expression but positively related to constructive/adaptive anger expression. Self-compassion was also indirectly related to both aggressive and constructive/adaptive driving anger expression via total anger rumination and some anger rumination dimensions. The findings were discussed in relation to the previous literature.
... For mental health fitness, high EI for undergraduates associates with low levels of stress (Thomas et al. 2019), anxiety, and depression (Extremera and Fernandez-Berrocal 2006). Fewer burnout symptoms (i.e., low exhaustion and low cynicism) (Cazan and Nastasa 2015) and angry ruminations (Garcia-Sancho et al. 2016) are also related to high EI scores. ...
... Socially speaking, college students with high emotional intelligence tend to be more interpersonally sensitive, prosocial (Lopes et al. 2005), and culturally intelligent (Putranto et al. 2018). They have less indirect aggression (Garcia-Sancho et al. 2016). High levels of perception of emotion related to lower aggression and high levels of regulation of emotion associated with low physical, verbal, and hostile aggression (Megias et al. 2018). ...
Article
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In 1990, Salovey and Mayer introduced emotional intelligence (EI). Thirty-one years later, a proliferation of interventions to improve people’s EI has taken place. A literature review of studies focused on enhancing the EI of college students revealed a notable gap. When educational material for training sessions included all of the skills in an EI model, researchers usually utilized lengthy durations (i.e., 11–56 h). Few successful investigations employed an ultra-brief (i.e., ≤1 h) approach. The present study examined the feasibility of training using a minimalistic timeframe and a sample of freshmen; their transitional challenges from high school to college mark them as an appropriate target population. Employing a quasi-experimental one-group pretest–posttest design, the recruited participants (n = 75) experienced an ultra-brief intervention highlighting the complete skill-set in the Ability Emotional Intelligence model. Findings from a one-way repeated measures MANOVA indicated improvement transpired in two of four MSCEIT scores (i.e., perception and facilitation). The merit of the present study is delineated using Orsmond and Cohn’s five objectives for feasibility investigations. In addition, implications of the results and possible applications are proposed.
... In fact, cyberbullying in high school can also lead to further cyberbullying in college (Kraft & Wang, 2010), and the prevalence of cyberbullying ranges from 8% to 28% for young adults (Francisco, Simão, Ferreira, & Martins, 2015;MacDonald & Roberts-Pittman, 2010;Schenk & Fremouw, 2012;Schenk, Fremouw, & Keelan, 2013;Selkie, Kota, Chan, & Moreno, 2015). Most importantly, cyberbullying can have a significant psychological effect on the victims including adolescents and young adults (Fisher, Gardella, & Teurbe-Tolon, 2016;Kowalski, Giumetti, Schroeder, & Lattanner, 2014), by leading to problem behaviors (e.g., violence, delinquency, antisocial behavior, substance use) (Guo, 2016;Mitchell, Ybarra, & Finkelhor, 2007), mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, depression) (Bannink, Broeren, van de Looij-Jansen, de Waart, & Raat, 2014;Kowalski, Morgan, Drake-Lavelle, & Allison, 2016;Perren, Dooley, Shaw, & Cross, 2010;Selkie et al., 2015), or even suicide ideation and attempts (Bonanno & Hymel, 2013;van Geel, Vedder, & Tanilon, 2014). Given the negative consequences, it is of theoretical and practical importance to explore those factors that may contribute to an increase in cyberbullying. ...
... The GAM provides a parsimonious account of why people act aggressively in terms of three levels: personal and situational factors, internal states, and outcomes of appraisal and decisionmaking processes. Personal factors interact with situational factors to create internal states which influence aggression and cyberbullying (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fern andez-Berrocal, 2016;Kowalski et al., 2014). Specifically, the GAM states that trait anger may influence individuals' propensity to aggress and bully via several mechanisms, such as priming aggressive thoughts and scripts, providing a justification for aggressive retaliation, and interfering with higher-level cognitive processes (Anderson & Bushman, 2002;Gresham, Melvin, & Gullone, 2016). ...
... Concerning our second objective, the results demonstrated significant negative correlations between AEI with physical, verbal, and indirect aggression, which corroborates previous findings showing similar magnitude of correlations, with higher associations between AEI and physical and indirect than verbal aggression (Garc ıa- Sancho et al., 2016Sancho et al., , 2017. Moving beyond previous research, our results revealed that high AEI can also buffer against the effects of anger on aggression. ...
... This buffering role of AEI could not be confirmed for the effects of trait anger on verbal and indirect aggression. Findings of other studies (Garc ıa- Sancho et al., 2016;2017;Gardner & Qualter, 2010) seem to suggest that the relationship between AEI and physical aggression is stronger than the relationship between AEI and verbal aggression. Given the immediate, potential negative consequences of physical aggression, it can be argued that it is more necessary to regulate emotional responses in order to avoid a physical attack than to inhibit verbal or indirect aggression. ...
Article
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High neuroticism and low agreeableness have been found to predict higher levels of aggression through an increase of negative emotions such as anger. However, previous research has only investigated these indirect associations for physical aggression, whereas evidence for such indirect effects on other types of aggression (i.e., verbal or indirect aggression) is currently lacking. Moreover, no previous work has investigated the moderating role of Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI), which may buffer against the effects of anger on aggression. The present study (N = 665) directly addresses these gaps in the literature. The results demonstrate that high neuroticism and low agreeableness were indirectly related to higher levels of physical, verbal, and indirect aggression via increased chronic accessibility to anger. Importantly however, the associations with physical aggression were significantly weaker for those higher (vs. lower) on AEI, confirming the buffering role of AEI. We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical frameworks aiming to understand and reduce aggression and violent behavior.
... Since hostile attribution bias is one kind of negative interpretation bias, presumably, hostile attribution bias may foster anger rumination. Second, there is substantial evidence to suggest that anger rumination can influence aggression (Denson, Pedersen, Friese, Hahm, & Roberts, 2011;Fresnics & Borders, 2017;García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016;Peters et al., 2015;Smith, Stephens, Repper, & Kistner, 2016). For instance, experimentally induced anger rumination about a prior provocation intensifies aggressive behavior towards the provocateur (Bushman, 2002;Bushman, Bonacci, Pedersen, Vasquez, & Miller, 2005;Denson et al., 2011). ...
... The result regarding the significant path from anger rumination to aggression (as presented in Fig. 2) is consistent with prior research conducted with children (Harmon, Stephens, Repper, Driscoll, & Kistner, 2017) and adults (Fresnics & Borders, 2017;García-Sancho et al., 2016), suggesting that the relationship between anger rumination and aggression is stable. For instance, following provocation, participants in the anger rumination condition engage more aggressively with the provocateur (Bushman, 2002), and even towards other targets (Bushman et al., 2005). ...
Article
Aggression is one of the most serious social problems worldwide. The cognitive mechanisms of aggression have been frequently studied, and hostile attribution bias has been regarded as an important cognitive factor influencing the formation and development of aggression. However, the longitudinal relationship between hostile attribution and aggression among undergraduate students has not yet been tested, and the psychological mechanism underlying the effect of hostile attribution on aggression has not yet been explored. This study aimed to address these two issues through two studies. The Hostility subscale of the Word Sentence Association Paradigm for Hostility and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire were administered to 505 undergraduate students twice with an interval of 6 months in Study 1. The cross-lagged analyses demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between hostile attribution bias and aggression. Another 437 participants were recruited for Study 2. The analyses via structural equation modeling support the view that anger rumination plays a mediating role in the relationship between hostile attribution bias and aggression. This study expands our understanding regarding the relationship between hostile attribution bias and aggression and suggests an interaction between aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. In addition, certain aggressive cognitive factors may predict other aggression-related cognitive factors.
... Research shows that lower AEI is related to self-reported use of aggressive behaviour (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016), whereas higher AEI is associated with prosocial behaviour (Charbonneau & Nicol, 2002;Ciarrochi, Chan, & Baigar, 2001;Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000;Lopes et al., 2004Lopes et al., , 2005. Among older adolescents and adults, AEI also is positively correlated with self-reported social network size and quality of group and friendship interaction (Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004;Lopes et al., 2004), including those with the opposite sex (Lopes et al., 2004). ...
... social behaviour using self-and informant-reports(Davis & Humphrey, 2012;Esturgó- Deu & Sala-Roca, 2010;García-Sancho et al., 2016;Rivers et al., 2012) ...
Article
We explored whether emotion understanding promotes positive social functioning in childhood using the Ability Emotional intelligence (AEI) framework, which defines emotion understanding more broadly than is common in developmental science. The prospective study included children ages 9 to 11 years who completed a measure of AEI at the start of the school year, and whose playground interactions were observed for one full year. Findings showed that, among girls, low AEI was associated with higher levels of direct aggressive behaviour on the playground; boys and girls high or low in AEI were more likely than their peers to watch others during playground social interactions. Further, higher AEI was associated with indirect aggression in school, suggesting higher AEI during childhood may be associated with the developmental transition from direct to indirect forms of aggression. The implications of the findings for school practice in relation to the teaching of emotion understanding are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In particular, aggressive individuals display deficits in facial affect processing and recognition (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2015); consistent with research finding aggression to be associated with low Emotional Intelligence (EI; García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-EMOTIONAL DISPOSITIONS OF GANG MEMBERS 6 Berrocal, 2016a). However, demonstrative of the inextricable relationship between cognition and emotion (Ward, 2017), anger rumination (repetitive thoughts surrounding anger-inducing events), has been identified as mediating the relationship between aggression and EI (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016b;Vasquez, Osman, & Wood, 2012). ...
... With past research finding anger rumination mediates the relationship between ability EI and aggression (García-Sancho et al., 2016b), the current study assessed whether TEI would remain a predictor of street gang membership when accounting for inclination to aggress and anger rumination. This was supported, with low levels of TEI, and high levels of anger rumination and inclination to aggress all predicting street gang membership; demonstrating each of these dispositions remains important in its own right. ...
Article
Effectively recognizing, identifying, and utilizing emotional stimuli is essential for successful social interactions, with deficits in these robustly identified as risk factors for offending. Psychological understanding of street gang membership is limited, particularly surrounding emotional dispositions distinguishing street gang from non-gang offenders. This study examined how street gang members compare with non-gang offenders on trait emotional intelligence (TEI), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), callous–unemotional traits, anger rumination, and aggression. Recruited through volunteer sampling, participants included 73 (44 street gang and 29 non-gang) male offenders incarcerated at a U.K. Category C prison. Participants completed seven questionnaires assessing emotional dispositions, social desirability, and, consistent with the Eurogang definition, street gang membership. To compare participants’ demographics and identify the predictors of street gang membership, chi-square and discriminant function analyses were conducted. With a significant discriminant function, Λ = .80, χ²(6) = 14.96, p = .021, high levels of ASPD, anger rumination, and aggression and low levels of TEI predict street gang membership. Compared with non-gang prisoners, street gang prisoners did not differ on callous–unemotional traits, age, or ethnicity. Results suggest that, compared with non-gang prisoners, street gang members were more likely to possess dysfunctional emotional dispositions. Findings from this research have important implications in terms of developing interventions for street gang membership. Specifically, this research supports the need for gang-specific early intervention and prevention programs, with emotion-focused components. Ideas for future research are discussed, including the identification of further sociocognitive, personality, and emotional traits distinguishing street gang from non-gang offenders.
... Previous behavioral studies have shown that angry rumination is associated with negative outcomes, such as aggressive behavior [4], negative emotion, and depressive symptoms [5]. Furthermore, previous studies further revealed that angry rumination is one of the several important aggression-related cognitive factors [6]. In sum, angry rumination is a negative mental factor that should be subjected to intervention and changed. ...
Article
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Angry rumination and hostile attribution bias are important cognitive factors of aggression. Although prior theoretical models of aggression suggest that aggressive cognitive factors may influence each other, there are no studies examining the longitudinal relationship between angry rumination and hostile attribution bias. The present study used cross-lagged structural equation modeling to explore the longitudinal mutual relationship between hostile attribution bias and angry rumination; 941 undergraduate students (38.5% male) completed questionnaires assessing the variables at two time points. The results indicate that hostile attribution bias showed a small but statistically significant effect on angry rumination 6 months later, and angry rumination showed a quite small but marginally significant effect on hostile attribution bias across time. The present study supports the idea that hostile attribution bias influences angry rumination, and argue that the relationship between angry rumination and hostile attribution bias may be mutual. Additionally, the results suggest that there may be a causal relation of different aggression-related cognitive factors.
... Although research examining TEI in gang members is rare, Mallion and Wood (2018) found, when controlling for ASPD, angry rumination, aggression, CU-traits and social desirability, low levels of TEI was a good predictors of adult male prisoners' involvement in street gangs prior to incarceration. Critically, levels of TEI remained an important predictor of street gang membership even when angry rumination was controlled for, this is despite past research suggesting anger rumination mediates the relationship between levels of EI and aggression (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016). This supports the proposal that low levels of TEI is a risk factor for gang membership. ...
Article
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With implementation of governmental strategies aimed at reducing gang involvement, academic interest in gang membership has rapidly increased. However, there is a dearth of knowledge relating to emotional processes of gang members (Wood & Alleyne, 2010). This review synthesizes existing literature surrounding possible risk factors for gang membership including, empathy, Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), Psychopathy, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Emotional Intelligence (EI). Due to the limited evidence-base, additional literature surrounding violent offending and group relations are used to provide a comprehensive account of emotional processes of gang members. It is concluded that high levels of ASPD traits and low levels of empathy and EI are potential risk factors for gang membership. However, contradictory research findings, prevent conclusions regarding the influence of psychopathy, ODD and CU-traits on gang membership. Overall, this review provides support for utilizing emotion-focused strategies in gang intervention programs and recommends that future research focuses on assessing the developmental trajectory of emotional processes throughout the cycle of gang membership (joining, maintaining and exiting).
... irrational beliefs (Ayğar & Çapri, 2018;Szasz, 2010), emotional intelligence (Lale-Gülaçtı, 2020;García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016) and conscious awareness (Blanke, Schmidt, Riediger, & Brose, 2019;Önder-Cenkseven & Utkan, 2018). One of the areas where the concept of rumination needs to be examined is interpersonal relationships (Calmes & Roberts, 2008).Rumination usually focuses on social and interpersonal themes and may have the function of influencing other people's responses and limiting the impact of other people's behavior. ...
Article
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationships between rumination about an interpersonal offense, interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. The dependent variable of this research is rumination about an interpersonal offense, and its independent variables are interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. The study was conducted on a total of 434 (340 females, 78.3%, and 94 males, 21.7%) individuals, whose ages range between 21 and 59 (= 30.61). Participants completed the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, the Rumination About an Interpersonal Offense Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale in accordance with the volunteering principles. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis techniques. According to the results of the t-test, women's average points of rumination about an interpersonal offense is significantly higher than that of men. As a result of the correlation analysis, significant negative relationships were found between the scores of the rumination about an interpersonal offense, interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Regarding the regression analysis result, independent variables significantly predict the rumination about interpersonal offense scale.
... Until now, research on rumination and emotional intelligence is still limited. Several studies indirectly discuss rumination and emotional intelligence, including angry rumination as a mediator of the relationship between emotional intelligence abilities and various types of aggression (Sancho, Salguero & Berrocal, 2016); post-traumatic growth after cancer; the influence of emotional intelligence, management of intrusive rumination, and goal disengagement as mediated by deliberate rumination (Mundey, 2018); and the effect of mindfulness interventions on application-based self-reported rumination, stress, emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in undergraduate students (Ralston, 2016). ...
... Psychopathological studies have reported that anger rumination constitutes a risk factor for trait and mood anger according to longitudinal follow-ups (Takebe, Takahashi, & Sato, 2016), also, it is associated with proactive and reactive aggressive behavior mediated by moral dissociation (Wang et al, 2018), an intentional control as low self-regulation (White & Turner, 2014), and allows predicting the tendency to aggression from emotional dysregulation (Martino et al., 2015), since it is considered a mediator between emotional intelligence and physical, verbal and indirect aggression (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016). Secondary psychopathy and the relationship with reactive and proactive aggression have also been reported to be high in young adults (Guerra & White, 2017). ...
Article
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Anger rumination is perseverative thinking about a personally significant event that occurred to the person or others that leads to anger and constitutes a risk factor for aggression. The aim was to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and invariance by sex and age of the Anger Rumination Scale [ARS]. A non-probabilistic sample of 640 people between 18 and 63 years old (M = 31.07, SD = 11.27), grouped by sex (252 men, 378 women) and ages (278 under 25 years old, 352 over 25 years old) was formed. The instruments were the ARS and the RPQ reactive and proactive aggression questionnaire. It was found that the ARS presents a favorable fit in a four-factor model correlated with residual covariances. In turn, it was invariant between sexes and ages after imposing progressive restrictions on the confirmed model and presented significant correlations with reactive and proactive aggression as evidence of the validity of predictive criteria. It was concluded that the ARS presents adequate indicators of reliability and validity to be used in the Colombian context.
... Scarce evidence mainly among early adolescents (Kokkinos, Karagianni, & Voulgaridou, 2017;Kokkinos & Voulgaridou, 2017;Kokkinos, Voulgaridou, & Markos, 2016) has shown that the GAM seems quite appropriate in the interpretation of relational aggression. According to this theory, personal (personality traits, beliefs) and situational factors (provocation, social interactions) could affect aggressive behavior via their impact on individual's internal state, (a composite of affect, cognition, psychological arousal) which in turn influences appraisals and decision-making processes resulting in an aggressive response (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016). ...
Article
Background: Limited research has confirmed the effects of adolescents' interactions with parents on adolescents' engagement in relational aggression. Youth reporting insecure attachment with parents are more likely to be involved in Relational aggression, while the positive association of Relational aggression with emotions such as friendship jealousy and anxiety are well-documented. However, little is known about the longitudinal association between parental attachment and Relational aggression. Objective: The current study expands upon previous research by investigating the short-term longitudinal associations between father and mother attachment (i.e., dependency, availability) and relational aggression, with friendship jealousy and anxiety as potential mediators of this association based on the theoretical framework of General Aggression Model. Participants: The sample consisted of 2207 Greek adolescents (52.8 % girls) attending the three junior high school grades. Methods: Participants completed a self-report questionnaire at two different time points with a six-month interval during the school year. Results: Results showed that that higher T1 father dependency (β = 0.14) and availability (β = 0.11), and lower mother dependency (β = -0.12) and availability (β = -0.11) were associated with higher relational aggression at T2. Further, the effects of T1 father availability (β = - 0.02), mother availability (β = -0.04), mother dependency (β = -0.03) to T2 relational aggression through friendship jealousy were significant. Finally, the effects of T1 father availability (β = -0.03), father dependency (β = -0.02), mother availability (β = -0.03), mother dependency (β = -0.02) to T2 relational aggression via anxiety were also significant. Conclusions: These findings provide an understanding of the relational aggression during adolescence by emphasizing the role of both social parameters and affective characteristics of the perpetrators.
... Trait Emotional Intelligence and AEI are also associated with behavior that increase positive affiliation with other people. For example, TEI and AEI are associated positively with prosocial behavior (Ciarrochi et al., 2000(Ciarrochi et al., , 2001Charbonneau and Nicol, 2002;Lopes et al., 2004Lopes et al., , 2005Mavroveli et al., 2009;Frederickson et al., 2012) and negatively with aggressive behavior (García-Sancho et al., 2016;Qualter et al., 2019). Such findings support the thesis that lower AEI and TEI are implicated in the maintenance of loneliness because the behavioral foundations for good quality relationships are not in place. ...
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Identifying factors that predict the maintenance of depression and loneliness in children is important for intervention design. Whilst emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a predictor of mental health, research examining how both trait and ability EI contribute to long-term patterns of symptomatology in children is markedly absent. We examined the impact of both TEI and AEI on the maintenance of loneliness and depressive symptoms over 1 year in children aged 9-11 years. Two hundred and thirteen children (54% male) completed the TEIQue-CF and the MSCEIT-YV at the first time point of the study, and the Child Depression Inventory and the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents at Time 1 and, again, 1 year later. Findings indicate that emotional skills (AEI) are important for predicting the maintenance of depressive symptoms and loneliness in children over 1 year; emotional self-competency (TEI) is less influential, only contributing to long-term loneliness in girls. Moreover, whilst deficiencies in the ability to perceive and understand emotions were predictive of prolonged symptomatology, so, too, were proficiencies in using emotion to facilitate thinking and emotion management. Those findings carry important implications for EI theory and future research. They also indicate that EI interventions tailored to groups of "at risk" school children may be useful for reducing specific profiles of internalizing symptoms. Programs targeting AEI skills may be universally helpful for reducing the likelihood that depressive symptoms and loneliness will be maintained over time in middle childhood; girls at risk for prolonged loneliness would additionally benefit from opportunities to bolster TEI.
... Psychopathological studies have reported that anger rumination constitutes a risk factor for trait and mood anger according to longitudinal follow-ups (Takebe, Takahashi, & Sato, 2016), also, it is associated with proactive and reactive aggressive behavior mediated by moral dissociation (Wang et al, 2018), an intentional control as low self-regulation (White & Turner, 2014), and allows predicting the tendency to aggression from emotional dysregulation (Martino et al., 2015), since it is considered a mediator between emotional intelligence and physical, verbal and indirect aggression (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016). Secondary psychopathy and the relationship with reactive and proactive aggression have also been reported to be high in young adults (Guerra & White, 2017). ...
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... Low-AEI individuals are expected to feel overwhelmed and threatened by their negative emotions that they experience in stressful situations. For this reason, they might use rumination as an avoidant coping strategy (e.g., García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016 ...
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... Unpleasant affectivity, with its associated cognitive/emotional reactions and the inability to realize, express, and manage such reactions effectively, can be at the base of aggressive manifestations. People can feel overwhelmed when they have to face a challenging situation, and their incapacity to cope with unpleasant emotions, such as rumination or venting, may lead to a display of a broad range of aggressive acts (Anderson & Bushman, 2002;Garc ıa-Sancho, Salguero, & Fern andez-Berrocal, 2015, 2017Lemerise & Arsenio, 2000;Pedersen et al., 2011). In summary, the recognition, understanding, and management of negative affectivity and hostile bias are key points on which interventions should focus to reduce aggressive conducts (Burt, Mikolajewski, & Larson, 2009;Pond et al., 2012). ...
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... La IE ha sido estudiada en el ámbito infanto-juvenil en relación a numerosos fenómenos sociales y psicológicos, como los siguientes: el consumo de sustancias (Coccaro, Solis, Fanning, & Lee, 2015;Garaigordobil & Peña-Sarrionandia, 2015;García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016;Gugliandolo, Costa, Cuzzocrea, & Larcan, 2015), en conductas antisociales (Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004;Sánchez, Ortega, & Menesini, 2012;Schokman et al., 2014), en el estado de ánimo (Ahmadpanah et al., 2016;Díaz-Castela et al., 2013;Lombas, Martín-Albo, Valdivia-Salas, & Jiménez, 2014;Ruiz-Aranda et al., 2012;Villanueva, Prado-Gascó, González, & Montoya, 2014), en relaciones interpersonales (Salguero, Fernández-Berrocal, Ruiz-Aranda, Castillo, & Palomera, 2011), en suicido (Abdollahi & Talib, 2015), en satisfacción vital (Rey, Extremera, & Pena, 2011), en maltrato infantil (Ramos-Díaz et al., en prensa), en contextos académicos (Aritzeta et al., 2016;Gugliandolo et al., 2015), laborales (de Haro & Castejón, 2014) y familiares (Argyriou, Bakoyannis, & Tantaros, 2016;Contreras & Cano, 2016;Lim, You, & Ha, 2015;Ordóñez-López, González-Barrón, & Montoya-Castilla, 2016), entre otros. ...
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... insults) to create an internal state which is a composite of cognitions (hostile thoughts, aggressive scripts), affect, and arousal (physiological and psychological arousal). The internal state in turn influences appraisals and decision-making processes which may or may not result in an aggressive response (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016). That is, trait anger (as a personal factor) might influence individuals' propensity to aggress via priming aggressive thoughts and scripts and increasing attention to provoking events (Anderson & Bushman, 2002;Gresham et al., 2016). ...
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Introduction The risk and protective factors of cyberbullying perpetration have been widely investigated. Less attention is paid to explore the effects of personal and situational factors, internal states, and external states in an integrated framework. This study aims to fill this void by developing an integrated framework to investigate the effects of power imbalance, the online disinhibition effect, internal states, and parental mediation on cyberbullying among Chinese adolescents. Methods Multistage cluster random sampling was employed with 1103 adolescents (Mage = 15.3, 52.5% girls) who responded to the questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted. Results Proficiency in technology use was directly related to cyberbullying. Social status among peers was found to be not only directly related to cyberbullying but also to operate through low self-control to predict cyberbullying. The online disinhibition effect did not directly correlate to cyberbullying but operated through moral disengagement and low self-control to predict cyberbullying. Notably, the results showed that physical power was neither directly correlated to cyberbullying nor aligned with moral disengagement or low self-control to predict cyberbullying. The multiple-group comparison analysis revealed that parental mediation moderated the effects of the online disinhibition effect on cyberbullying. However, this study found that parental mediation had no buffering effects when examining the relationships between physical power, social status, technology use, and cyberbullying. Conclusions Findings suggest that cyberbullying prevention should consider the effects of both internal states and external factors. The study has provided theoretical and practical implications for understanding and tackling the widespread problem of cyberbullying among adolescents.
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This research aims to analyse the role of emotional ingelligence and various psychological factors in school environment. This paper com- pare psychosocial factors from a school in social risk area with a school in normative area, where in 211 spanish adolescents with a average age of 13 years participated. The Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version (EQi:YV) and the Behavior Assessment Sysem for Children (BASC) were used. Differences in behavior problems were found according to school environment and emotional intelligence level. Furthermore, positive corre- lations between psychological adjustment and all scales from EQi:YV were found. Multiple regression models obtainted emphasized the influence of general mood and parents relationship as factors to psychological adjust- ment and emotional intelligence.
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The main aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the aggression questionnaire (AQ) (Buss and Perry, 1992) using a large sample of students from different educational settings in the community of Madrid (N= 1.382, 49% males & 51% females. This questionnaire, which has been used extensively in many studies of aggressive behavior in youths and adolescents, is one of the most valid self-report techniques to assess two types of aggression: physical and verbal; and two types of emotions associated with aggression: anger and hostility. The results of this study provide psychometric support for the use of the Spanish version of this questionnaire as a reliable and valid instrument to assess different levels of aggression, anger and hostility in youths and adolescents.
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Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration.
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In 2 studies, we assessed the construct validity of the Italian version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) version 2.0. In Study 1, we administered the MSCEIT together with measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect. In Study 2, we administered the MSCEIT together with indexes of dispositional coping, emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia, state-trait anxiety, depression, and depressive rumination. We evaluated the factorial structure of the MSCEIT with a confirmatory factor analysis model using data combined from Study 1 and 2. The results confirm that the MSCEIT Italian version satisfactorily discriminates emotional intelligence ability from crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect, and exhibits significant correlations with various psychological well-being criteria. Furthermore, data from both studies confirm that the factorial structure of MSCEIT is consistent with the theory on which it is based, although it was difficult to rule out alternative structures.
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Interpersonal aggression is prevalent and disturbing. This chapter presents a metatheoretical perspective, I³ theory, that seeks (a) to impose theoretical coherence on the massive number of established risk factors for aggression and (b) to use the tools of statistical (and conceptual) moderation to gain new insights into the processes by which a previously nonaggressive interaction escalates into an aggressive one. I³ theory (pronounced “I-cubed theory”) does not advance one key variable (or even a specific set of key variables) as the root cause of aggression. Rather, it seeks to present an organizational structure for understanding both (a) the process by which a given risk factor promotes aggression and (b) how multiple risk factors interrelate to aggravate or mitigate the aggression-promoting tendencies of each. As detailed in this chapter, I³ theory suggests that scholars can predict whether an individual will behave aggressively in a given situation by examining the main and interactive effects of the instigating triggers, impelling forces, and inhibiting forces at play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research has suggested that sex offenders are deficient in several areas of emotional functioning such as empathy, emotional perception, emotional management and interpersonal functioning. It is unclear, however, whether sex offenders display a general deficit in emotional functioning or whether their emotional deficits are specific to the circumstances in which offences occur. The present study aimed to provide a broad assessment of the emotional functioning of sex offenders by assessing their emotional intelligence (EI) using an abilities-based emotional intelligence test. Nineteen sex offenders, 18 non-sex offending prisoners and 19 controls were administered the Perception, Assimilation and Management branch subtests from the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The results indicated that the sex offenders were not significantly different than the control group, as assessed by these three branches of the MSCEIT. The results lend support to the suggestion that the emotional deficits displayed by sex offenders may be offence-specific. Implications for the use of the MSCEIT in sex offending populations and the role of EI in relapse prevention programmes are discussed.
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Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
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The Anger Rumination Scale was constructed to measure the tendency to focus attention on angry moods, recall past anger experiences, and think about the causes and consequences of anger episodes. Principal axis analysis demonstrated a four factor structure of the scale, which was also supported with a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. The Anger Rumination Scale was demonstrated to have adequate internal consistency and one month test-retest reliability. The convergent and discriminant validity of the scale were supported by an expected pattern of correlations between the Anger Rumination Scale and the measures of anger experience, anger expression, negative affectivity, emotional attention, satisfaction with life, and social desirability. Normative data is provided for a sample of 408 college-age men and women.
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Interpersonal provocation is a common and robust antecedent to aggression. Four studies identified angry rumination and reduced self-control as mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. Following provocation, participants demonstrated decreased self-control on an unpleasant task relative to a control condition (Study 1). When provoked, rumination reduced self-control and increased aggression. This effect was mediated by reduced self-control capacity (Study 2). State rumination following provocation, but not anger per se, mediated the effect of trait rumination on aggression (Study 3). Bolstering self-regulatory resources by consuming a glucose beverage improved performance on a measure of inhibitory control following rumination (Study 4). These findings suggest that rumination following an anger-inducing provocation reduces self-control and increases aggression. Bolstering self-regulatory resources may reduce this adverse effect.
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In recent years, there has been increasing interest in indirect aggression as the most common aggressive behaviour in adulthood. Despite this interest, there are not a great many instruments for measuring this behaviour in adults. The aim of our study was to develop the Spanish adaptation of one of the few instruments that does exist: the Indirect Aggression Scale, in its aggressor and target versions. The analysis of these scales in a sample of 935 university students showed that the aggressor and target versions of the scales had good reliabilities, but that a one-factor structure seemed more feasible than the three-factor structure initially proposed. Taking this one-dimensionality, we developed short versions of the scales, which also showed good reliabilities. The aggressor version presented good convergent validity with direct aggression and impulsivity measures. Finally, none of the scales showed differences associated with sex.
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Over the last few years the majority of authors who submitted manuscripts for publication in European Journal of Psychological Assessment selected confirmatory factor analysis as their method for test construction. This is a very agreeable development. Confirmatory factor analysis is based on a well-developed model of measurement that is closely linked to the corresponding model of the covariance matrix. As a consequence, parameter estimation occurs in close agreement with the model of measurement as well as with the model of the covariance matrix. One very useful property of this method is that the model must provide a complete account for the variances and covariances of the items. This way, structural deviations from the basic assumptions of a model become apparent if the items of a prospective measure show other properties than the expected ones. Unfortunately, many submissions reporting the results of confirmatory factor analysis are deficient in one way or the other, so that some guidelines in modeling traits and abilities in test construction may prove helpful for future submissions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Covariance structure analysis uses χ–2 goodness-of-fit test statistics whose adequacy is not known. Scientific conclusions based on models may be distorted when researchers violate sample size, variate independence, and distributional assumptions. The behavior of 6 test statistics was evaluated with a Monte Carlo confirmatory factor analysis study. The tests performed dramatically differently under 7 distributional conditions at 6 sample sizes. Two normal-theory tests worked well under some conditions but completely broke down under other conditions. A test that permits homogeneous nonzero kurtoses performed variably. A test that permits heterogeneous marginal kurtoses performed better. A distribution-free test performed spectacularly badly in all conditions at all but the largest sample sizes. The Santorra-Bentler scaled test performed best overall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Salguero, J. M., Extremera, N. & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2012). A meta-mood model of rumination and depression: Preliminary test in a non-clinical population. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. Depressive rumination and trait meta-mood (emotional attention, emotional clarity and emotional repair) have been suggested as vulnerability factors leading to depression, but less is known about the associations among them. In this study, we examined the relationships between trait meta-mood, rumination and depressive symptomatology. Using structural equation analysis in a large sample of a non-clinical population we found a preliminary test of the role of trait meta-mood dimensions in rumination and depressive symptomatology. Results indicated that attention to feelings has two pathways in its relation with rumination and depressive mood. On the one hand, emotional attention was associated with emotional clarity, and emotional clarity with emotional repair, which was related to lower depressive symptomatology, in part, by reducing rumination. On the other hand, emotional attention was directly associated with ruminative thoughts which, in turn, were related to higher depressive mood. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of beliefs about emotions in the treatment of depression.
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Angry rumination is perseverative thinking about a personally meaningful anger-inducing event and is a risk factor for aggression. This article presents a new model for understanding angry rumination across five levels of analysis: cognitive, neurobiological, affective, executive control, and behavioral. The type of rumination that occurs at the cognitive level moderates affective responding and neurobiological activation, which influences executive control and aggression. Angry rumination recruits brain regions implicated in cognitive control, emotion regulation, negative affect, physiological arousal, social cognition, and self-reflection on emotional states. Moreover, angry rumination temporarily reduces self-control, which can increase aggression. The article suggests a functional account of angry rumination, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and proposes future research directions based on hypotheses derived from the model.
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Comments on the article by to M. K. Underwood et al (see record 2001-07498-007) which identifies 10 significant methodological challenges for understanding aggression and gender in children. The author offers his opinions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the eyes of the American public, crime and violence now rank as the most important problems facing this country (Berke, 1994), and homicide is now the leading cause of death among urban males aged 15 to 24 (Centers for Disease Control, 1991; Huesmann & Miller, 1994). The problem is acutely American: Teenagers in the United States are at least four times more likely to be murdered than are teenagers in 21 other industrialized countries (Goldstein, 1992). These rapid changes in American society have been paralleled by changes in the research on the development of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Research in the past 20 years has increasingly focused on the development of chronically antisocial individuals (e.g., Why does this person become more violent than most people?) in contrast to research on specieswide patterns in aggressive behavior (e.g., Why is the human species aggressive?). This shift has been exemplified in numerous longitudinal studies of individual differences in aggressive behavioral development across the life span. Important breakthroughs have been made in the genetic, biological, socialization, environmental, and contextual factors relating to aggression and other antisocial behavior. These advances have shaped much of this chapter. Four questions guide the organization of this chapter. What is the developmental course of aggression and antisocial behavior in human beings? What factors lead humans to aggress against each other? What stability and change occur in the life course of individual differences in antisocial behavior? Why do some individuals become more antisocial than others? The first two questions address the issues of specieswide human aggression. The last two questions address the developmental course and determinants of individual differences in aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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a b s t r a c t Integrating theories of attachment and maladaptive rumination, the present study tested the hypothesis that Emotional Intelligence (EI) abilities mediate relationships between insecure adult attachment orien-tations (Anxiety and Avoidance) and dysfunctional rumination (Brooding and Depression-related). The results showed that attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively associated with brooding and depression-related rumination, and EI abilities mediated these associations. Emotion perception and management abilities partially mediated the relationship of anxious attachment with brooding rumina-tion, and fully mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment and brooding rumination. Using and understanding emotion abilities fully mediated links between anxious and avoidant attachment and depression related rumination. The results highlight the role of emotion-information processing in the adoption of maladaptive rumination in insecure attachment.
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This chapter reviews the literatures on the normative development of antisocial behavior and how individual differences in antisocial behavior develop across the life span. The literature can be integrated with a model that includes biological (genetic, neural, and temperament) and socialization (parenting, peer, academic, and neighborhood) factors in antisocial development. These factors operate as main effects that cumulate, interaction effects that moderate each other, and developmental processes that mediate each other and transact across time. Social information processing factors (e.g., selective attention, hostile attributional bias, incompetent social problem-solving skills, and response evaluation biases) have been found to mediate these effects. Interventions that address these factors have proven partially successful in preventing antisocial development and may be targets for future efforts. Keywords: biological factors; individual differences; intervention; normative development; social information processing; socialization factors
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This paper presents two experiments concerning trait emotional intelligence (‘trait EI’). In study 1, ten high and ten low trait EI individuals were selected from a sample of 85 persons to participate in a computerized experiment involving the recognition of morphed emotional expressions. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants were faster at identifying the expressions than their low trait EI counterparts. In study 2, trait EI scores from 102 persons were residualized on the Big Five and subsequently 15 high and 15 low trait EI individuals were selected to participate in a mood induction experiment. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants exhibited greater sensitivity to the mood induction procedure than their low trait EI counterparts. The findings are discussed in terms of the construct validity of trait EI, with particular emphasis on the issue of incremental validity vis-à-vis broad personality traits. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between bullying, victimization and a number of social-emotional variables such as trait emotional intelligence, empathy and self-efficacy in 206 elementary school 6th graders in Greece. Results indicated that boys reported significantly more direct and indirect bullying behaviors than girls, and higher victimization. Bullyingwas negatively correlated with overall self-efficacy and its academic component, trait emotional intelligence, empathy and its cognitive component, while victimization was negatively correlated with overall self-efficacy and its three dimensions, trait emotional intelligence, affective and cognitive empathy.Gender, trait emotional intelligence, and cognitive empathy significantly predicted bullying, whereas victimization was predicted by gender, trait emotional intelligence and affective empathy.
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Although rumination following a provocation can increase aggression, no research has examined the processes responsible for this phenomenon. With predictions derived from the General Aggression Model, three experiments explored the impact of two types of post-provocation rumination on the processes whereby rumination augments aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to distraction, self-focused rumination uniquely increased the accessibility of arousal cognition, whereas provocation-focused rumination uniquely amplified the accessibility of aggressive action cognition. In Experiment 2, provocation-focused rumination uniquely increased systolic blood pressure. In Experiment 3, both types of rumination increased aggressive behaviour relative to a distraction condition. Angry affect partially mediated the effects of both provocation- and self-focused rumination on aggression. Self-critical negative affect partially mediated the effect of self-focused rumination but not provocation-focused rumination. These findings suggest that provocation-focused rumination influences angry affect, aggressive action cognition, and cardiovascular arousal, whereas self-focused rumination increases self-critical negative affect, angry affect, and arousal cognition. These studies enhance our understanding of why two types of post-provocation rumination increase aggressive behaviour.
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This paper describes the development of a psychometric measure of indirect aggression for use in an adult population. Items were generated from a series of qualitative interviews. Two versions of the scale were developed; the Indirect Aggression Scale Aggressor version (IAS-A) and Target version (IAS-T). Both versions of the scale were administered to separate samples (nA=294; nT=294). Scales were analysed using item analysis of internal consistency, as well as exploratory factor analysis. Both versions were found to have the same consistent three sub-scales: social exclusion, use of malicious humour, and guilt induction. Preliminary psychometric evaluation suggests that the scales are both sufficiently reliable (with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from .81 to .89) and valid. There were no gender differences in either using or being the victim of indirect aggression, and the behaviour was significantly negatively correlated with age. Future validation and potential usage of the measures are discussed.
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Rumination has been widely studied and is a crucial component in the study of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression. However, rumination means different things in the context of different theories, and has not been uniformly defined or measured. This article aims to review models of rumination, as well as the various ways in which it is assessed. The models are compared and contrasted with respect to several important dimensions of rumination. Guidelines to consider in the selection of a model and measure of rumination are presented, and suggestions for the conceptualization of rumination are offered. In addition, rumination's relation to other similar constructs is evaluated. Finally, future directions for the study of ruminative phenomena are presented. It is hoped that this article will be a useful guide to those interested in studying the multi-faceted construct of rumination.
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Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), in primary schoolchildren. The main aim was to examine the construct validity of trait EI in middle and late childhood by exploring its relationships with cognitive ability, emotion perception, and social behaviour. The sample comprised 140 children aged between 8 and 12 years (M=9.26 years, SD=1.00 year; 63 girls) from two English state primary schools. Pupils completed the TEIQue-CF, the standard progressive matrices (SPM), the guess who peer assessment, the social skills training (SST) test, and the assessment of children's emotion skills (ACES) during formal class periods. The procedure took approximately two hours with a short break between assessments. Trait EI scores were positively related both to peer-rated prosocial behaviour and to overall peer competence. They also predicted emotion perception accuracy beyond overall peer competence. As hypothesized in trait EI theory, the construct was unrelated to IQ (Raven's matrices) and academic performance. Trait EI is successfully operationalized through the TEIQue-CF and has important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.
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This meta-analytic review of 148 studies on child and adolescent direct and indirect aggression examined the magnitude of gender differences, intercorrelations between forms, and associations with maladjustment. Results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring boys) in direct aggression and trivial gender differences in indirect aggression. Results also indicated a substantial intercorrelation (r = .76) between these forms. Despite this high intercorrelation, the 2 forms showed unique associations with maladjustment: Direct aggression is more strongly related to externalizing problems, poor peer relations, and low prosocial behavior, and indirect aggression is related to internalizing problems and higher prosocial behavior. Moderation of these effect sizes by method of assessment, age, gender, and several additional variables were systematically investigated.
Article
Covariance structure analysis uses chi 2 goodness-of-fit test statistics whose adequacy is not known. Scientific conclusions based on models may be distorted when researchers violate sample size, variate independence, and distributional assumptions. The behavior of 6 test statistics is evaluated with a Monte Carlo confirmatory factor analysis study. The tests performed dramatically differently under 7 distributional conditions at 6 sample sizes. Two normal-theory tests worked well under some conditions but completely broke down under other conditions. A test that permits homogeneous nonzero kurtoses performed variably. A test that permits heterogeneous marginal kurtoses performed better. A distribution-free test performed spectacularly badly in all conditions at all but the largest sample sizes. The Satorra-Bentler scaled test statistic performed best overall.
Article
Does a recently introduced ability scale adequately measure emotional intelligence (EI) skills? Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; J. D. Mayer, P. Salovey, & D. R. Caruso, 2002b), the authors examined (a) whether members of a general standardization sample and emotions experts identified the same test answers as correct, (b) the test's reliability, and (c) the possible factor structures of EI. Twenty-one emotions experts endorsed many of the same answers, as did 2,112 members of the standardization sample, and exhibited superior agreement, particularly when research provides clearer answers to test questions (e.g., emotional perception in faces). The MSCEIT achieved reasonable reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis supported theoretical models of EI. These findings help clarify issues raised in earlier articles published in Emotion.
Article
The construct of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) provides a comprehensive operationalization of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In the first part of the present study (N=274, 92 males), we performed two joint factor analyses to determine the location of trait EI in Eysenckian and Big Five factor space. The results showed that trait EI is a compound personality construct located at the lower levels of the two taxonomies. In the second part of the study, we performed six two-step hierarchical regressions to investigate the incremental validity of trait EI in predicting, over and above the Giant Three and Big Five personality dimensions, six distinct criteria (life satisfaction, rumination, two adaptive and two maladaptive coping styles). Trait EI incrementally predicted four criteria over the Giant Three and five criteria over the Big Five. The discussion addresses common questions about the operationalization of emotional intelligence as a personality trait.
Technical manual for the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires (TEIQue)
  • K V Petrides
Petrides, K. V. (2009). Technical manual for the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires (TEIQue). London: London Psychometric Laboratory.
Relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression in adults and adolescents: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence using an ability measure
  • E García-Sancho
  • J M Salguero
  • P Fernández-Berrocal
García-Sancho, E., Salguero, J. M., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2015b). Relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression in adults and adolescents: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence using an ability measure. (manuscript submitted).