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Supplementation with a Proprietary Blend of Ancient Peat and Apple Extract May Improve Body Composition without Affecting Hematology in Resistance-Trained Men

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Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.
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ARTICLE
Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and
apple extract may improve body composition without
affecting hematology in resistance-trained men
Jordan M. Joy, Paul H. Falcone, Roxanne M. Vogel, Matt M. Mosman, Michael P. Kim, and Jordan R. Moon
Abstract: Adenosine-5=-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the
potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to
increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to
determine the supplement’s effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five
healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this
study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts
(TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a
2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and
ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time
(p< 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm
2
) versus
PLA (–0.08 cm
2
), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p< 0.05) interaction existed
for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: –20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT:
+4.9; PLA: –3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and
apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood
chemistry in healthy males.
Key words: ElevATP, strength training, weight lifting, muscle mass, fat mass, blood chemistry, safety, periodization, sports
nutrition, sport.
Résumé : L’adénosine-5=-triphosphate (« ATP ») est surtout connue comme la source de l’énergie cellulaire. Une plus forte
concentration d’ATP aurait le potentiel d’améliorer la composition corporelle. Un nouveau mélange exclusif d’extraits de tourbe
ancienne et de pomme augmenterait, selon des études, la concentration d’ATP possiblement par l’amélioration de la production
d’ATP dans la mitochondrie. Cette étude se propose donc de déterminer les effets sur la composition corporelle de la consom-
mation de ce supplément combinée a
`12 semaines d’un entraînement contre résistance. Vingt-cinq hommes (âge : 27,7 ± 4,8 ans,
taille : 176,0 ± 6,5 cm, masse corporelle : 83,2 ± 12,1 kg) en bonne santé et entraînés a
`la résistance participent a
`cette étude. Les
sujets consomment a
`raison d’une fois par jour soit une portion (150 mg) du mélange exclusif d’extraits de tourbe ancienne et de
pomme (« TRT ») soit un placebo (« PLA »). Le programme supervisé d’entraînement contre résistance consiste en 8 semaines
d’entraînement périodisé par ondulation suivi d’une phase de dépassement d’une durée de 2 semaines et d’une phase de
diminution d’une durée de 2 semaines. On évalue la composition corporelle par absorptiométrie a
`rayons X en double énergie
et par ultrasonographie aux semaines 0, 4, 8, 10 et 12. On évalue les signes vitaux et les marqueurs sanguins aux semaines 0, 8 et
12. On observe une interaction groupe-temps significative (p< 0,05) de la surface de section transversale mesurée par ultrasonog-
raphie, laquelle augmente dans le groupe TRT (+0,91 cm
2
) vs PLA (–0,08 cm
2
); il en est de même de l’épaisseur du muscle (TRT :
+0,46 cm; PLA: +0,04 cm). On observe aussi une interaction groupe-temps significative (p< 0,05) en ce qui concerne la créatinine
(TRT : +0,06; PLA : +0,15 mg/dL), les triglycérides (TRT : +24,1; PLA : –20,2 mg/dL) et les VLDL (TRT : +4,9; PLA : –3,9 mg/dL) dont les
valeurs demeurent dans la normale clinique. La supplémentation au moyen d’un mélange exclusif d’extraits de tourbe ancienne
et de pomme peut améliorer l’hypertrophie du muscle squelettique causée par un entraînement contre résistance, et ce, sans
modifier la masse adipeuse et la chimie sanguine d’hommes en bonne santé. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
Mots-clés : ElevATP, entraînement a
`la force, haltérophilie, masse musculaire, masse adipeuse, chimie sanguine, sécurité,
périodisation, nutrition sportive, sport.
Introduction
Adenosine-5=-triphosphate (ATP) and ATP metabolites are in-
volved in a myriad of biological processes including cardiac func-
tion, neurotransmission, blood flow, and muscle contraction
(Agteresch et al. 1999;Kushmerick and Conley 2002), and it is
strongly suggested that increased ATP levels correlate with im-
proved health and performance (Jordan et al. 2004;Herda et al.
2008;Swamy et al. 2011). Direct supplementation with exogenous
ATP has produced mixed results in terms of increasing ATP when
measured in whole blood (Jordan et al. 2004;Arts et al. 2012;
Received 12 May 2015. Accepted 7 July 2015.
J.M. Joy, P.H. Falcone, R.M. Vogel, M.M. Mosman, and M.P. Kim. MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO 80239, USA.
J.R. Moon. MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO 80239, USA; Department of Sports Exercise Science, US Sports
Academy, Daphne, AL 36526, USA.
Corresponding author: Jordan R. Moon (e-mail: jordan@musclepharm.com).
1171
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Burnstock et al. 2012). Therefore, an indirect approach for increas-
ing endogenous ATP levels may be desirable. Previously, oral sup-
plementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple
extracts has been demonstrated to increase intracellular ATP
levels in whole blood and muscle, suggesting increased activity
of bodily processes that produce or release endogenous ATP
(Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2013,2014).
Reyes-Izquierdo et al. (2014) determined that a 150-mg dose of
this blend of ancient peat and apple extracts significantly in-
creased ATP in cellular fraction of blood compared with placebo.
Specifically, blood ATP was increased by 40% at 60 min following
ingestion and dropped to 28% at 120 min following ingestion. A mus-
cle biopsy was conducted in 1 resting subject, and ATP levels in mus-
cle tissue were observed to increase 281% at 60 min and 433% at
120 min following ingestion (Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2014). Preliminary
reports from this laboratory suggest this occurs without increases in
reactive oxygen species, which may be associated with increased ATP
production (Chang et al. 2010). In fact, ancient peat and apple ex-
tracts may actually decrease reactive oxygen species (Reyes-Izquierdo
et al. 2013), possibly blunting the increase in reactive oxygen species
caused by resistance training (Alessio et al. 2000).
Despite these observations, supplementation for indirect ATP
enhancement is yet to be evaluated for potential to induce body
composition changes in response to resistance training. However,
the existing data on a blend of ancient peat and apple extracts
for increasing both whole blood and muscle ATP levels
(Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2013,2014) support the plausibility that
chronic supplementation may yield changes in body composition.
Additionally, because this is a novel ingredient, chronic supple-
mentation must be verified as safe. Therefore, the purpose of this
study was to determine the effects of a proprietary blend of an-
cient peat and apple extracts on body composition and hemato-
logical safety markers. It was hypothesized that the supplement
will increase lean muscle mass and muscle hypertrophy without
producing a change in body fat or hematological safety markers.
Materials and methods
Participants
Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age,
27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg)
completed this study. Thirty-three subjects were recruited, and
3 subjects did not complete the study because of scheduling con-
flicts, 3 were not compliant with protocols, and 2 sustained inju-
ries during the study. Each subject was required to be capable of
lifting 1.5× their body weight in the squat and deadlift and 1× body
weight in the bench press. At baseline, the placebo (PLA) group
was able to squat 1.71 ± 0.21, bench press 1.45 ± 0.19, and deadlift
2.17 ± 0.25 times their body weight, and the treatment (TRT) group
was able to squat 1.66 ± 0.24, bench press 1.31 ± 0.20, and deadlift
1.93 ± 0.27 times their body weight. Approval for research with
human subjects was obtained from a registered MusclePharm Sports
Science Institute IRB, and subjects were provided with written in-
formed consent documents prior to participation in the study.
Experimental design
Subjects were randomly assigned to either the PLA (n= 11) or
TRT (n= 14) groups. They were instructed to consume 1 serving of
either PLA or TRT (ElevATP; VDF FutureCeuticals Inc., Momence,
Ill., USA; 150 mg) 45 min prior to training on training days or at a
similar time of day on rest days (for detailed supplement compo-
sition, see Reyes-Izquierdo et al. (2013)). Supplement vials were
weighed to ensure compliance. Both subjects and researchers
were blinded to the PLA and TRT groups. The researchers received
2 sets of supplements labeled A and B from a third-party manu-
facturer. The blind was broken only after the completion of data
analysis. Subjects were resistance-trained under the guidance of a
certified strength and conditioning specialist 3 days per week for
8 weeks followed by a 2-week overreach and 2-week taper phase
corresponding to weeks 9–10 and 11–12, respectively, in a design
similar to that previously described (Wilson et al. 2013). A euca-
loric diet consisting of 50% calories from carbohydrates, 25% from
protein, and 25% from fat was prescribed to all subjects at the
onset of the study, and diets were tracked weekly via 3-day food
logs. Total calories were determined for each individual based on
the Mifflin St. Jeor equation adjusted for activity level. Subjects
were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12 for all body composition
variables. Blood draws and vital signs measurements were con-
ducted at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Body composition variables collected
consisted of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-determined
lean soft tissue (LST), fat mass (FM), and body fat percentage (BF%),
and ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle
thickness (MT), and fat thickness (FT).
Resistance training program
Weeks 1–8 consisted of 1 muscle hypertrophy-oriented workout
comprising barbell back squat, bench press, deadlift, incline
bench press, power squat, hammer strength isolateral bench
press, leg press, leg extension, leg curl, and triceps extension
performed for 3 sets of 6–12 repetitions at 65%–80% 1-repetition
maximum (1RM) intensity; 1 power day comprising barbell back
squat, bench press, and deadlift performed for 5 sets of 2–5 repe-
titions at 40%–60% 1RM intensity with a goal of high velocity of
movement; and 1 strength-oriented day comprising barbell back
squat, bench press, deadlift, shoulder press, and pulldown per-
formed for 3 sets of 1–5 repetitions at 85%–100% 1RM intensity.
After performing the main exercises on the power day, subjects
performed bent over row, pulldown, dumbbell row, shoulder
press, lateral raise, and bicep curl exercises for the goal of muscle
hypertrophy as described for chest and leg exercises. Following
the resistance exercises on the strength day, participants per-
formed 2–6 sets of 10- to 30-s Wingates with 2–4 min of rest on a
cycle ergometer. Participants rested 48–72 h between each train-
ing day, and 30–120 s between sets on the hypertrophy day or
2–5 min between sets on the power and strength days. During the
overreach phase, participants performed high-volume workouts,
similar to the hypertrophy-oriented workouts performed during
weeks 1–8, on Monday through Thursday with a strength-oriented
workout or performance testing conducted on Friday for weeks 9
and 10, respectively. The taper weeks consisted of 1 power day on
Mondays then strength and power day on both Wednesdays and
Fridays performed at low volume for back squat, bench press, and
deadlift only. Each training cycle began with the lowest intensity
of the range provided, and intensity progressively increased as
repetitions decreased and rest time increased from session to ses-
sion.
Measurements
Urine specific gravity (USG) was determined on each body com-
position testing day to ensure measurements were conducted in a
euhydrated state. Adequate hydration was considered to be a USG
of 1.000–1.030. On 3 occasions, a participant was required to drink
water until another urine sample could be submitted and verified
for adequate hydration status. Body weight was determined using
a calibrated column scale (SECA, Chino, Calif., USA). Body compo-
sition was analyzed for whole-body LST, FM, and BF% as well as
segmental LST using DEXA (Lunar Prodigy Primo, General Elec-
tric, Fairfield, Conn., USA) using enCORE software (version 15;
Madison, Wis., USA). Test–retest reliability for DEXA LST, BF%, and
FM, as measured using 15 subjects, resulted in an average intra-
class correlation (ICC) of >0.99. CSA, MT, and FT were determined
using ultrasound (Logiq e, General Electric). Ultrasonography-
determined CSA was measured at 75% femur length, as defined as
the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superior
aspect of the patella. MT of the quadriceps was measured at
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50% femur length, defined as the distance from the greater tro-
chanter of the femur to the lateral epicondyle of the femur. MT
was defined as the combined thickness of the vastus lateralis and
vastus intermedius. The distance from the superficial aspect the
femur to the deep aspect of the superficial fascia of the vastus
lateralis was measured. FT was measured at the same site as MT,
and it was defined as the distance from the superficial aspect of
the vastus lateralis fascial layer to the deep aspect of the hypoder-
mis. Test–retest reliability for ultrasound measurements, as deter-
mined using 5 subjects, resulted in an average ICC > 0.99. Vital
signs were determined using an automated digital sphygmoma-
nometer (Omron Corp., Kyoto, Japan). Blood draws were per-
formed via venipuncture by a trained phlebotomist. Following a
10-h fast, all subjects submitted a blood sample for analysis in the
morning to control for diurnal variations. Blood variables con-
sisted of white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin,
hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemo-
globin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood
cell distribution width, platelets (absolute), neutrophils (percent
and absolute), lymphocytes (percent and absolute), monocytes
(percent and absolute), eosinophils (percent and absolute), basophils
(percent and absolute), serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),
creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, BUN:creatinine,
sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, calcium, protein,
albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin, bilirubin, alkaline phospha-
tase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total
cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,
very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol. Blood variables were analyzed by a third
party (Laboratory Corporation of America, Denver, Colo., USA).
Inter-test reliability results from 12 men and women measured up
to 1 week apart at the aforementioned laboratory resulted in no
significant differences from day-to-day (p> 0.05) and an average
inter-test coefficient of variation of 6.9% for all tests.
Statistical analyses
A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to assess group,
time, and group × time interactions with a significant pvalue
considered as ≤0.05. Bonferroni post hoc analyses were used to
locate differences following a significant group × time interaction.
Dependent ttests were conducted to determine within-group
time effects for all body composition variables and hematology
variables with a significant interaction. On 2 occasions, a depen-
dent variable was significantly different between groups at base-
line, and ANCOVAs were performed to assess group, time, and
group × time interactions. Independent ttests were conducted on
the delta values for each time point. Statistica (version 10, Statsoft,
Tulsa, Okla., USA) was used for all statistical analyses.
Results
A significant main effect for time and a group × time (p< 0.05)
interaction (observed power > 0.99) was present for CSA. CSA was
significantly increased in TRT versus PLA at weeks 8, 10, and 12
(Table 1). Moreover, CSA increased in TRT compared with PLA
between all time-points except for between weeks 0 and 4 using
independent ttests (p< 0.05; Fig. 1). There was a significant main
effect for time and a group × time (p< 0.05) interaction (observed
power = 0.92) observed for MT (Fig. 2,Table 1). Wherein, MT in-
creased to a greater extent in TRT than PLA from pre-training to
weeks 10 and 12. A significant main effect for time (p< 0.05) was
found for body weight, FT, LST, FM, BF%, and LST of the arms, legs,
and trunk, but no significant group × time interactions existed for
these variables (Table 1).
No changes were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pres-
sure or heart rate. A significant group × time (p< 0.05) interaction
(observed power = 0.89) was present for creatinine, which in-
creased from pre- to post-training in both TRT and PLA (TRT: +0.06;
PLA: +0.15 mg/dL). There was a significant group × time (p< 0.05)
effect (observed power = 0.89) for triglycerides from pre- to post-
Table 1. Body composition data.
Variable Group Pre-training Week 4 Week 8 Week 10 Post-training p
CSA (cm
2
) PLA 3.60±1.57 3.85±1.49a 3.73±1.32 3.61±1.27 3.52±1.39bc <0.001
TRT 4.07±1.52 4.24±1.4a 4.52±1.41*ab 4.66±1.50*abc 4.99±1.63*abcd
MT (cm) PLA 5.50±0.72 5.47±0.50 5.53±0.74 5.43±0.66c 5.55±0.68d 0.001
TRT 5.25±0.73 5.58±0.63a 5.58±0.68a 5.62±0.65*a 5.71±0.68*abcd
FT (cm) PLA 0.52±0.20 0.49±0.19 0.53±0.19 0.48±0.18 0.53±0.16 0.83
TRT 0.40±0.39 0.43±0.45 0.46±0.47 0.39±0.33 0.45±0.41
LST (kg) PLA 65.3±8.1 65.2±6.5 65.7±6.6 66.2±6.8 65.5±6.9 0.75
TRT 67.4±6.2 68.0±6.2 68.4±6.0 69.3±6.2 67.8±5.4
FM (kg) PLA 16.7±5.6 18.6±6.3 18.4±6.6 18.5±6.9 18.5±6.5 0.47
TRT 13.4±10.3 14.2±9.8 14.5±9.6 14.6±10.1 15.1±9.8
BF% PLA 20.1±5.4 21.8±5.5 21.4±5.8 21.3±5.9 21.6±5.7 0.37
TRT 15.5±8.0 16.3±7.5 16.5±7.4 16.3±7.4 17.2±7.7
Body weight (kg) PLA 83.7±10.5 86.3±10.6 86.1±11.5 87.3±12.1 86.4±11.7 1.00
TRT 82.8±13.6 85.2±13.6 85.2±14.0 85.9±13.8 85.3±13.5
R leg LST (kg) PLA 10.6±1.7 10.9±1.9 10.9±1.5 11.2±1.7 10.9±1.3 0.39
TRT 11.3±1.1 11.5±1.2 11.7±1.1 11.6±1.2 11.5±1.1
L leg LST (kg) PLA 10.5±1.5 10.8±1.7 10.8±1.4 11.1±1.6 10.7±1.1 0.35
TRT 11.1±1.1 11.3±1.2 11.4±1.1 11.4±1.0 11.3±0.9
R arm LST (kg) PLA 4.7±0.6 4.5±0.5 4.3±0.5 4.2±0.5 4.1±0.5 0.84
TRT 4.8±0.7 4.6±0.7 4.3±0.5 4.4±0.6 4.2±0.7
L arm LST (kg) PLA 4.5±0.5 4.5±0.4 4.1±0.5 4.0±0.4 4.0±0.5 0.61
TRT 4.5±0.7 4.4±0.7 4.0±0.5 4.1±0.6 4.1±0.7
Trunk LST (kg) PLA 30.8±4.3 30.2±2.9 31.2±3.4 31.5±3.5 31.6±4.6 0.27
TRT 31.3±3.2 31.8±3.5 32.5±3.9 33.7±4.2 30.4±8.4
Note: Data are presented as means ± SD. The pvalue is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a group by
time interaction. Significant time effects (p< 0.05) are indicated by a, different from baseline; b, different from week 4;
c, different from week 8; and d, different from week 10, for variables with a significant interaction. BF%, body fat
percentage; CSA, cross-sectional area; FT, fat thickness; FM, fat mass; L, left; LST, lean soft tissue; MT, muscle
thickness; PLA, placebo; R, right; TRT, ancient peat and apple extracts.
*Significantly different from PLA at the corresponding time point (p≤ 0.05).
Joy et al. 1173
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training (TRT: +24.1; PLA: –20.2 mg/dL). Finally, a significant group ×
time (p< 0.05) interaction (observed power = 0.89) existed for
VLDL from pre- to post-training (TRT: +4.9; PLA: –3.9 mg/dL). How-
ever, differences were present for triglycerides and VLDL at base-
line. Further analysis using ANCOVA revealed no significant
difference for triglycerides (p= 0.09) or VLDL (p= 0.11). No other
significant interactions were observed for any safety markers, and
each marker remained within the physiological reference range
(Tables 2,3, and 4).
Discussion
The results of this study support the hypotheses of the supple-
ment enhancing skeletal muscle adaptations while not affecting
body fat or safety markers. Although no interactions were observed
for any measurement of LST between groups, both CSA and MT in-
creased while measures of body fat content and body weight were
unchanged. In the PLA group, CSA tended to decline following the
overreach and taper phases, while TRT increased. We hypothesized
that the PLA group was unable to adapt to the overreach stimulus,
whereas the supplement aided this adaptation. Moreover, no abnor-
mal changes in vital signs or blood markers were detected. Creati-
nine increased to a greater extent in PLA compared with TRT, and
PLA had elevated triglycerides and VLDL at baseline versus TRT,
which appeared to normalize throughout the trial. Furthermore,
each blood marker remained within the clinical reference range.
With these considerations, it is unlikely that these changes were
produced by supplementation.
Previous reports on direct ATP supplementation and resistance
training are in agreement with the present results. Wherein, mus-
cle mass increased without changes in fat mass (Wilson et al.
2013). Although it has also been reported that 12 weeks of direct
ATP supplementation is safe (Wilson et al. 2013), and Coolen et al.
(2011) observed no changes in blood markers following 4 weeks
direct supplementation with 5 g/day of ATP, it may not be appro-
priate to compare direct and indirect ATP enhancement because
of their dissimilar compositions and dosage levels and because
their respective mechanisms of action are likely different.
The blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may be capable of
promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy by increasing whole-
blood ATP levels (Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2013,2014) with a subse-
quent augmentation of blood flow. ATP and adenosine have been
known to induce vasodilation following release from the erythro-
cytes via production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin (Nyberg et al.
2010;Sprague et al. 2011), and it has been recently demonstrated
that exogenous ATP supplementation is capable of increasing
exercise-induced blood flow (Jäger et al. 2014). Improved blood
flow may increase nutrient delivery. Thus, there is a possibility for
a greater effect of circulating amino acids (Morgan et al. 1971;Bohé
et al. 2003), glucose (Baron et al. 1994;Baron and Clark 1997), and
oxygen (Buchheit et al. 2009), which may enhance anabolic signal-
ing and/or acute exercise performance, leading to amplified
chronic adaptations (Buchheit et al. 2009;Rodriguez et al. 2009).
In addition to increasing whole-blood ATP levels, a proposed
mechanism of action for ancient peat and apple extracts is intra-
cellular ATP production (Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2013,2014). With
greater ATP levels, it can be speculated that cyclic adenosine
monophosphate-induced inhibition of the mammalian target of
Fig. 1. Changes in cross-sectional area. Delta values between corresponding weeks are presented as means ± SD. *, Significantly different from
placebo (PLA). Significance was determined by independent ttests. †, Significant within-group difference. TRT, ancient peat and apple extracts.
0 - 4
0 - 8
0 - 10
0 - 12
4 - 8
4 - 10
4 - 12
8 - 10
8 - 12
10 - 12
0 - 4
0 - 8
0 - 10
0 - 12
4 - 8
4 - 10
4 - 12
8 - 10
8 - 12
10 - 12
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
PLA
TRT
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Weeks
cm
2
Fig. 2. Changes in muscle thickness. Delta values between corresponding weeks are presented as means ± SD. *, Significantly different from
placebo (PLA). Significance was determined by independent ttests. †, Significant within-group difference. TRT, ancient peat and apple extracts.
0 - 4
0 - 8
0 - 10
0 - 12
4 - 8
4 - 10
4 - 12
8 - 10
8 - 12
10 - 12
0 - 4
0 - 8
0 - 10
0 - 12
4 - 8
4 - 10
4 - 12
8 - 10
8 - 12
10 - 12
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
PLA
TRT
*
*
*
*
Weeks
cm
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Table 2. Vital signs and blood lipid data.
Variable Treatment Pre-training Week 8 Post-training
Reference
interval p
SBP (mm Hg) PLA 127±12.0 126.0±12.2 127.0±12.2 90–120 0.98
TRT 125.0±13.3 123.1±10.6 123.9±11.1
DBP (mm Hg) PLA 76.1±9.4 77.0±8.0 76.4±9.4 60–80 0.38
TRT 76.7±10.4 73.1±7.5 76.1±5.5
Heart rate (beats/min) PLA 68.9±10.6 70.1±10.1 70.0±7.7 <100 0.79
TRT 59.0±8.2 63.4±7.3 63.0±7.0
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) PLA 175.9±41.9 175.1±43.2 172.8±41.0 100–199 0.55
TRT 162.1±27.8 160.1±21.2 157.3±23.9
Triglycerides (mg/dL) PLA 109.7±53.0 81.4±37.9 89.5±33.3 0–149 0.09*
TRT 68.1±28.5 67.7±29.6 92.3±43.5
HDL (mg/dL) PLA 50.1±13.3 47.6±12.6 48.5±11.2 >39 0.63
TRT 53.5±13.8 52.1±15.0 51.0±16.5
VLDL (mg/dL) PLA 21.9±10.5 16.3±7.6 18.0±6.8 5–40 0.11*
TRT 13.6±5.8 13.6±6.0 18.5±8.9
LDL (mg/dL) PLA 103.9±31.7 111.2±31.2 106.4±31.0 0–99 0.32
TRT 94.9±31.1 94.4±24.8 87.9±23.2
Note: Data are presented as means ± SD. The pvalue is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a group by
time interaction. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL, high-denisty lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PLA,
placebo; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TRT, ancient peat and apple extracts; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein.
*Indicates the pvalue of an ANCOVA in place of an ANOVA.
Table 3. Hematology data.
Variable Treatment Pre-training Week 8 Post-training
Reference
interval p
WBC (×10E3/uL) PLA 5.7±1.5 5.7±1.0 5.7±1.2 3.4–10.8 0.83
TRT 5.8±1.6 5.9±1.7 6.0±1.2
RBC (×10E6/uL) PLA 5.3±0.3 5.4±0.4 5.4±0.3 4.14–5.80 0.22
TRT 5.3±0.3 5.3±0.3 5.3±0.2
Hemoglobin (g/dL) PLA 16.2±1.2 16.4±1.3 16.4±1.0 12.6–17.7 0.20
TRT 16.1±0.5 16.0±0.6 16.2±0.6
Hematocrit (%) PLA 47.7±3.0 48.5±3.3 48.6±2.7 37.5–51.0 0.35
TRT 47.3±1.5 47.5±1.3 47.9±1.6
MCV (fL) PLA 89.7±3.1 89.7±2.7 89.6±2.7 79–97 0.69
TRT 90.1±4.8 90.6±3.9 90.1±4.6
MCH (pg) PLA 30.5±1.1 30.3±1.0 30.2±0.9 26.6–33.0 0.88
TRT 30.7±1.4 30.6±1.4 30.5±1.4
MCHC (g/dL) PLA 34.0±1.0 33.8±0.6 33.7±0.7 31.5–35.7 0.82
TRT 34.1±0.8 33.8±0.6 33.8±0.8
RDW (%) PLA 13.6±0.5 13.4±0.4 13.4±0.4 12.3–15.4 0.09
TRT 13.2±0.6 13.3±0.6 13.2±0.6
Platelets (×10E3/uL) PLA 236.7±29.1 239.4±45.4 241.6±31.6 155–379 0.37
TRT 246.6±40.9 251.9±39.5 232.1±35.5
Neutrophils (%) PLA 53.5±8.3 49.0±6.7 49.5±9.1 40–74 0.35
TRT 50.9±10.1 51.0±7.7 50.3±8.6
Lymphocytes (%) PLA 35.1±6.9 38.9±6.5 38.2±8.3 14–46 0.27
TRT 36.4±9.1 36.7±5.9 37.3±7.4
Monocytes (%) PLA 8.7±1.8 9.4±2.1 9.4±2.4 4–12 0.63
TRT 9.4±2.4 9.5±2.1 9.1±1.6
Eosinophils (%) PLA 2.1±1.2 2.4±2.4 2.5±2.3 0–5 0.13
TRT 2.7±2.2 2.3±1.9 2.9±2.3
Basophils (%) PLA 0.6±0.7 0.4±0.7 0.4±0.7 0–3 0.59
TRT 0.6±0.5 0.5±0.5 0.6±0.5
Neutrophils (absolute) (×10E3/uL) PLA 3.1±1.4 2.8±0.8 2.9±1.0 1.4–7.0 0.60
TRT 3.1±1.4 3.0±1.2 3.1±0.9
Lymphs (absolute) (×10E3/uL) PLA 1.9±0.1 2.2±0.3 2.1±0.4 0.7–3.1 0.21
TRT 2.0±0.5 2.1±0.5 2.2±0.6
Monocytes (absolute) (×10E3/uL) PLA 0.5±0.2 0.5±0.1 0.5±0.2 0.1–0.9 0.76
TRT 0.5±0.2 0.6±0.2 0.5±0.2
Eos (absolute) (×10E3/uL) PLA 0.1±0.1 0.1±0.1 0.1±0.1 0.0–0.4 0.51
TRT 0.2±0.1 0.2±0.1 0.2±0.1
Baso (absolute) (×10E3/uL) PLA 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 0.0–0.2 0.21
TRT 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0
Note: Data are presented as means ± SD. The pvalue is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a group by
time effect. MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin; MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV,
mean corpuscular volume; PLA, placebo; RBC, red blood cell count; RDW, red blood cell distribution width; TRT,
ancient peat and apple extracts; WBC, white blood cell count.
Joy et al. 1175
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rapamycin may be attenuated, thereby permitting enhanced ana-
bolic signaling and possibly muscle protein synthesis (Xie et al.
2011). An improved resistance to fatiguing exercise is also possible
via this mechanism, such as with previous research on creatine
monohydrate, which increases ATP availability (Racette 2003),
and previous research regarding creatine’s capabilities for in-
creasing muscle mass has been well established (Buford et al.
2007). However, more thorough research is required before con-
sidering this as a viable mechanism because of the fact that pre-
viously enhanced intramuscular ATP levels have only been
examined in 1 resting subject (Reyes-Izquierdo et al. 2014). Yet, the
blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may be advantageous to
direct ATP supplementation for these reasons, as direct ATP sup-
plementation may only exert extracellular effects because of
rapid degradation to its metabolites (Hochachka et al. 1991;
Gorman et al. 2007;Mortensen et al. 2011;Jäger et al. 2014). The
present study was limited by not measuring ATP levels either in
whole-blood or muscle tissue. Thus, it cannot be determined if the
effects reported by Reyes-Izquierdo et al. (2013,2014) persist in a
chronic setting, as the supplement’s effects may be attenuated
with daily administration. A second limitation of the study in-
cludes the lack of a nonexercising control group.
This is the first study examining the effects of indirect ATP
enhancement with supplementation on body composition. Daily
supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and
apple extracts may be beneficial for enhancing the hypertrophic
effects of resistance training on skeletal muscle without augment-
ing body fat content or safety parameters. Therefore, strength
athletes, bodybuilders, and contact sport athletes may have an
interest using this supplement. It is possible that this effect is
exerted via increased blood flow, anabolic signaling, and/or en-
hanced energy status. However, future research is necessary to
elaborate on the mechanisms of the present observations, and
possibly in a younger versus older population. Future research
may also be interested in determining the combined effects of a
blend of ancient peat and apple extracts with creatine and/or
nitrate, as both are thought to affect ATP availability.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors claim no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements
The authors thank the participants and VDF FutureCeuticals
Inc. for funding this investigation.
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Table 4. Blood chemistry data.
Variable Treatment Pre-training Week 8 Post-training
Reference
interval p
Serum glucose (mg/dL) PLA 90.5±11.0 89.3±3.6 90.2±5.4 65–99 0.91
TRT 87.9±8.8 87.9±6.0 86.6±6.5
BUN (mg/dL) PLA 17.3±4.9 17.8±3.9 17.5±4.2 6–20 0.94
TRT 18.6±6.3 18.7±4.1 17.8±4.1
Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) PLA 0.97±0.12 1.04±0.12a 1.13±0.17*ab 0.76–1.27 0.01
TRT 0.98±0.09 1.04±0.09a 1.05±0.12a
eGFR (mL/min/1.73) PLA 105.6±12.9 98.7±12.5 91.0±14.9 >59 0.06
TRT 105.3±10.4 99.5±10.6 98.1±12.5
BUN/creatinine ratio PLA 18.0±5.9 17.3±4.0 15.8±4.4 8–19 0.63
TRT 18.7±5.4 18.1±3.9 17.0±3.3
Serum sodium (mmol/L) PLA 138.8±1.8 139.6±1.3 140.4±2.1 134–144 0.75
TRT 139.1±1.0 139.1±1.7 140.4±1.9
Serum potassium (mmol/L) PLA 4.4±0.4 4.5±0.5 4.3±0.3 3.5–5.2 0.10
TRT 4.3±0.3 4.5±0.2 4.5±0.3
Serum chloride (mmol/L) PLA 102.1±1.6 101.0±1.4 102.4±2.2 97–108 0.94
TRT 101.1±1.7 100.2±1.9 101.1±1.9
Carbon dioxide (mmol/L) PLA 23.6±2.4 22.1±1.5 22.5±1.5 19–28 0.36
TRT 23.9±1.8 22.6±1.2 24.1±1.2
Serum calcium (mg/dL) PLA 9.4±0.4 9.4±0.3 9.3±0.3 8.7–10.2 0.44
TRT 9.5±0.4 9.4±0.3 9.5±0.2
Serum protein (g/dL) PLA 7.1±0.3 6.9±0.3 6.9±0.3 6.0–8.5 0.82
TRT 7.0±0.2 6.8±0.3 6.9±0.3
Serum albumin (g/dL) PLA 4.4±0.3 4.6±0.2 4.6±0.2 3.5–5.5 0.76
TRT 4.5±0.2 4.6±0.2 4.7±0.3
Globulin (g/dL) PLA 2.6±0.2 2.3±0.2 2.3±0.2 1.5–4.5 0.93
TRT 2.6±0.2 2.2±0.2 2.2±0.3
Albumin:globulin ratio PLA 1.7±0.2 2.0±0.2 2.0±0.3 1.1–2.5 0.84
TRT 1.8±0.2 2.1±0.3 2.2±0.3
Bilirubin (mg/dl) PLA 0.6±0.2 0.6±0.2 0.6±0.2 0.0–1.2 0.35
TRT 0.7±0.3 0.7±0.4 0.6±0.2
Alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) PLA 76.4±13.8 81.3±14.6 79.9±16.1 39–117 0.40
TRT 73.4±18.4 83.4±23.0 84.5±24.2
AST (IU/L) PLA 25.5±7.8 26.9±7.4 25.8±8.9 0–40 0.06
TRT 32.9±13.1 27.5±8.5 24.6±5.9
ALT (IU/L) PLA 23.7±4.9 24.3±7.0 22.5±6.3 0–44 0.61
TRT 27.6±12.7 25.1±7.3 25.1±6.0
Note: Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The pvalue is derived from an ANOVA and representative
of a main effect for group by time. Significant time effects are indicated by a, different from pre-training; and
b, different from week 8. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen;
eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; PLA, placebo; TRT, ancient peat and apple extracts.
*Significantly different from PLA at the corresponding time point (p≤ 0.05).
1176 Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. Vol. 40, 2015
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... Despite these observations, supplementation for indirect ATP enhancement is yet to be evaluated for potential to augment performance in response to resistance training. However, the existing data on ancient peat and apple extracts for increasing both whole blood and muscle ATP levels [8,9] and muscle mass [16] support the plausibility for chronic supplementation yielding positive augmentation of performance following resistance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts on athletic performance. ...
... Supplement vials were weighed to ensure compliance. Subjects were resistance trained under the guidance of a certified strength and conditioning specialist 3 days per week for 8 weeks followed by a 2 week overreach and 2 week taper phase corresponding to weeks 9-10 and 11-12, respectively, in a design identical to that previously described [16]. A eucaloric diet consisting of 50 % calories from carbohydrates, 25 % from protein, and 25 % from fat was prescribed to all subjects at the onset of the study, and diets were tracked weekly via 3-day food logs. ...
... The resistance training program performed by all subjects has been previously reported [16]. Briefly, weeks 1-8 (standard resistance training phase) consisted of one muscle hypertrophy-oriented workout, one poweroriented workout, and one strength-oriented workout featuring cycle ergometer Wingates following strength training. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Increased cellular ATP levels have the potential to enhance athletic performance. A proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been supposed to increase ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on athletic performance when used during 12 weeks of supervised, periodized resistance training. Methods Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract (TRT) or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) daily. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2 week overreach and a 2 week taper phase. Strength was determined using 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) testing in the barbell back squat, bench press (BP), and deadlift exercises. Peak power and peak velocity were determined during BP at 30 % 1RM and vertical jump tests as well as a 30s Wingate test, which also provided relative power (watt:mass) ResultsA group x time interaction was present for squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, and vertical jump peak power and peak velocity. Squat and deadlift 1RM increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to post. Vertical jump peak velocity increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to week 10 as did vertical jump peak power, which also increased from pre to post. Wingate peak power and watt:mass tended to favor TRT. Conclusions Supplementing with ancient peat and apple extract while participating in periodized resistance training may enhance performance adaptations. Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov registration ID: NCT02819219, retrospectively registered on 6/29/2016
... Previous reports on indirect ATP enhancement are sparse. However, the beneficial effects of ancient peat and apple extracts have recently been shown to positively enhance muscle mass [24]. Moreover, direct ATP supplementation may be efficacious for positively augmenting performance [23,30,44] and body composition [44]. ...
... The precise methods of the present study have previously been published with the exception of a difference in treatment [24]. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the PLA (n = 11) or TRT (n = 10) groups. ...
... There was also a significant increase in whole-body lean mass between groups over time, which only increased over time in the present study. Moreover, the present results concerning muscle mass are consistent with the observations of supplementation with ancient peat and apple extracts without caffeine [24]. Wilson et al. [44] reported no interactions for all measured blood markers, while the present study observed a possible effect for creatinine and eGFR, yet the relevance of these observations may be undue. ...
Article
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Background Increased ATP levels may enhance training-induced muscle accretion and fat loss, and caffeine is a known ergogenic aid. A novel supplement containing ancient peat and apple extracts has reported enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and it has been coupled with an extended-release caffeine. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on body composition when used in conjunction with 12 weeks of resistance training. Methods Twenty-one resistance-trained subjects (27.2 ± 5.6y; 173.5 ± 5.7 cm; 82.8 ± 12.0 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented daily with either 1 serving of the supplement (TRT), which consisted of 150 mg ancient peat and apple extracts, 180 mg blend of caffeine anhydrous and pterostilbene-bound caffeine, and 38 mg B vitamins, or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) 45 min prior to training or at the same time of day on rest days. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using DEXA and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Results Significant group x time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris, which increased in TRT (+1.07 cm²) versus PLA (−0.08 cm²), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.49 cm; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group x time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.00 mg/dL; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (TRT: −0.70 mL/min/1.73; PLA: −14.6 mL/min/1.73), which remained within clinical ranges, but no other significant observations were observed. Conclusions Supplementation with a combination of extended-release caffeine and ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without adversely affecting blood chemistry.
... ElevATP ™ is a blend of plant bio-inorganic trace minerals and a polyphenol-rich apple extract [4]. A single oral dose of ElevATP ™ has been shown to increase whole blood ATP levels as well as muscle levels of ATP in healthy resting subjects [4,9]. It was also reported that once daily dosing with ElevATP ™ for twelve weeks resulted in improved resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry [9]. ...
... A single oral dose of ElevATP ™ has been shown to increase whole blood ATP levels as well as muscle levels of ATP in healthy resting subjects [4,9]. It was also reported that once daily dosing with ElevATP ™ for twelve weeks resulted in improved resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry [9]. This current pilot study was performed on sedentary young healthy subjects taking a single dose of ElevATP ™ prior to 20 minutes'-long step exercise. ...
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Background: Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) serves as a cellular source of energy for metabolic processes. Maintaining high levels of intracellular ATP has the potential to enhance performance. ElevATP™, a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract, has twice been reported to increase intracellular blood levels of ATP in resting subjects after a single dose per os. More recently, resistance-trained males supplemented with ElevATP™ for 12 weeks, have shown increased resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. For this pilot study, we determined the acute effects of a single dose of ElevATP™ on the exercise output of subjects with sedentary lifestyles. Methods and findings: Nine healthy subjects were evaluated before, during, and after 20 minute duration stepping exercise in a blinded three-way crossover study of placebo and a single dose of ElevATP™. Two lots of ElevATP™ (Lot A and Lot B) were each compared to placebo in all subjects. Four (4) female and five (5) male subjects that did not regularly exercise were evaluated. Mean subject age was 27.3 ± 5.0 years and BMI was 28.97 ± 6.6 kg/m². ElevATP™ supplemented subjects (Lot A and Lot B) took a significantly greater number of steps and burned more calories than when treated with placebo. Post-exercise analysis has shown no significant changes in blood lactate or glucose levels between ElevATP™ (Lota A or Lot B) and placebo treatments. Conclusion: All nine subjects experienced an increase in exercise performance after ingesting a single dose of either of the two tested lots of ElevATP™, compared to a placebo control.
... Test-retest reliability for DEXA measurements in15 subjects, resulted in an average intraclass correlation (ICC) of > 0.99. Ultrasonography-determined (Logiq e, General Electric Corporation, Boston, MA) CSA of the rectus femoris and combined muscle thickness (MT) of the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius were measured as previously described [13]. Briefly, CSA measurements were conducted on the anterior thigh at 75% femur length, defined as the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superior aspect of the patella, and MT measurements were conducted at 50% femur length, defined as the distance from the greater trochanter to the lateral epicondyle of the femur. ...
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Background: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. Methods: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily. Isocaloric diets provided 1.8 g protein/kg body weight. Results: Both groups increased (p < 0.05) in lean soft tissue (DT Pre: 58.3 ± 10.3 kg; DT Post: 61.1 ± 11.1 kg; NT Pre: 58.3 ± 8.6 kg; NT Post: 60.3 ± 8.2 kg), cross-sectional area (CSA, DT Pre: 3.4 ± 1.5 cm2; DT Post: 4.1 ± 1.7 cm2; NT Pre: 3.3 ± 1.6 cm2; NT Post: 3.7 ± 1.6 cm2) and strength in the leg press (DT Pre: 341 ± 87.3 kg; DT Post: 421.1 ± 94.0 kg; NT Pre: 450.0 ± 180.3 kg; NT Post: 533.9 ± 155.4 kg) and bench press (DT Pre: 89.0 ± 27.0 kg; DT Post: 101.0 ± 24.0 kg; NT Pre 100.8 ± 32.4 kg; NT Post: 109.1 ± 30.4 kg) with no difference between groups in any variable (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Both NT and DT protein consumption as part of a 24-h nutrition approach are effective for increasing strength and hypertrophy. The results support the strategy of achieving specific daily protein levels versus specific timing of protein ingestion for increasing muscle mass and performance. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03352583 .
... A recent supplement on the market is ancient peat and apple extract, which is sold under the label of "elevATP". This supplement has been shown to increase blood levels of ATP [22], increase exercise levels in sedentary individuals from a single dose [23], and enhance responses to chronic resistance training [24]. The supplement Huperzine has been shown to have positive effects on brain function, specifically decreasing cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in the rodent model after hypobaric hypoxia [25], and has been shown in conjunction with other supplements to enhance upper body strength endurance performance [6] and anaerobic sprint performance [26]. ...
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Recently, the use of pre-workout supplements has become popular. Research has shown their ability to increase performance for single bouts but little exists showing their ability to maintain this increase in performance over multiple bouts. Purpose: To investigate the effects of supplements on power production and the maintenance of upper and lower body tasks. Methods: Twenty-three males (22.9 ± 3.6 years, 175.6 ± 6.5 cm, 86.9 ± 15.1 kg, 19.1 ± 8.4 BF% mean ± standard deviation (SD)) were familiarized with the testing protocols and maximal bench press performances were attained (109.1 ± 34.0 kg). Utilizing a double-blind crossover design, subjects completed three trials of five countermovement vertical jumps before and after a high-intensity cycle sprint protocol, which consisted of ten maximal 5 s cycle ergometer sprints utilizing 7.5% of the subject’s body weight as resistance, with 55 s of recovery between each sprint. Subjects ingested in a randomized order a commercially available pre-workout supplement (SUP), placebo + 300 mg caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and minimum power (MNP) were recorded for each sprint. Subjects performed a velocity bench press test utilizing 80% of their predetermined one repetition maximum (1RM) for 10 sets of 3 repetitions for maximal speed, with one-minute rests between sets. Maximal velocity from each set was recorded. For analysis, bike sprint and bench press data were normalized to the placebo trial. Results: Cycle sprint testing showed no significant differences through the testing sessions. In the bench press, the peak velocity was higher with both the SUP and CAF treatments compared to the placebo group (1.09 ± 0.17 SUP, 1.10 ± 0.16 CAF, and 1 ± 0 PLA, p < 0.05) and the supplement group was higher than the PLA for mean velocity (1.11 ± 0.18 SUP and 1 ± 0 PLA, p < 0.05). Vertical jump performance and lactate levels were not significantly different (RMANOVA showed no significant differences from any treatments). Conclusions: Supplementation with a pre-workout supplement or placebo with caffeine showed positive benefits in performance in bench press velocity.
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Il mondo delle diete per lo sportivo si rivela talvolta problematico in quanto diverse fonti (o alcune “mode”) promuovono introiti proteici troppo elevati, nonché l’utilizzo di prodotti sintetici a scopo integrativo, o piani alimentari del tutto sbilanciati. È ampiamente condiviso che la ripartizione del fabbisogno giornaliero di nutrienti debba essere: carboidrati 55-65%, grassi 20-25% e proteine 10-15%. La fonte di energia a più rapida utilizzazione per la sintesi di ATP è fornita dai carboidrati convertiti in glucosio. Una maggiore assunzione determina la loro conversione in lipidi. Alcune evidenze indicano livelli raccomandati di proteine pari a 0,8 grammi al giorno per chilo di peso corporeo in persone sedentarie, a 1 grammo in caso di allenamento leggero, a 1,2-1,6 grammi in atleti di resistenza con programmi di allenamento pesante, a 1,2-1,7 grammi in atleti di forza con programmi di allenamento pesante, a 2 grammi nell’atleta adolescente e in caso di programmi intensivi o gare di resistenza. Gli alimenti di origine vegetale contengono “proteine incomplete”, ma una corretta combinazione delle diverse proteine vegetali (contenute in frutta, verdura, cereali integrali, legumi, frutta secca e semi) consente l’assunzione di tutti gli amminoacidi con il vantaggio di una minore introduzione di grassi saturi contenuti nei prodotti di origine animale.
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Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP(R), TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP(R), TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased blood flow, along with significant elevations in brachial dilation. Conclusions Oral ATP administration can increase post-exercise blood flow, and may be particularly effective during exercise recovery.
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Purpose: elevATP™, a supplement containing plant-derived inorganic microelements and apple polyphenols, was previously shown to increase endogenous whole blood ATP levels in healthy human subjects. In this report, we tested the supplement in a larger cohort and assessed the effect of the supplement in muscle. Methods: Twenty healthy, fasted, and resting adult human subjects participated in this acute, placebo-controlled, single-dose crossover clinical study. Oral placebo was administered on the first day of testing followed by a single, 150 mg dose of elevATP™ on the second day. Blood was collected immediately prior to treatment, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Whole blood ATP, plasma ATP, hemoglobin, blood lactate, and blood glucose levels were collected. A muscle biopsy was performed on one resting study subject before, and 60 and 120 minutes after, a single dose of elevATP™. Results: elevATP™ increased whole blood levels of ATP by 40% after 60 minutes (p<0.0001) and by 28% after 120 min (p=0.0009) versus baseline, pre-supplementation levels. ATP plasma levels did not increase after elevATP™ administration under these experimental conditions. Intramuscular ATP levels from biopsy of one patient increased significantly at 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of elevATP™ and reached higher levels than ATP measured in whole blood. Conclusions: These results indicate that elevATP™ increases intracellular ATP in blood cells, confirming results from a previous study, and suggest that it may increase ATP in muscle tissue. Further clinical testing is needed to confirm tissue- and organ-specific changes in ATP levels following ingestion of elevATP™.
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Background: Increased physical activities elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to dysfunction and integrity of cells thus inducing oxidative stress which intern may affect overall physical performance. Polyphenols are well known for their excellent antioxidant potency. In this study, the effect of selected polyphenols with established health benefits viz., catachin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid and quercetin was investigated with respect to swimming performance in rats. Methods: The animals were force fed with aqueous mixture of polyphenols at 25 mg/rat/day and subjected to swimming exercise until exhaustion. Results: Rats fed with poly phenols showed a significant increase in swimming time, and the activities of Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine pyruvic kinase (CPK) were lowered. Polyphenols increased the concentration of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen in muscle lowered the activities of and. Polyphenols increased the concentration of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen in muscle and reduced MDA levels in the liver, muscle and blood but increased DNA and RNA concentration in muscle. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated combination of polyphenols used enhanced the swimming performance of the rats.Keywords: Polyphenols, Exercise capacity, ROS, ATP, Catachin, Chlorogenic acid, Ellagic acid and Quercetin
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