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Evaluation of selected quality features of creams with addition of jojoba oil designed for dry skin Ocena wybranych wyróżników jakości kremów z dodatkiem oleju jojoba przeznaczonych do suchej skóry

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Introduction. Jojoba oil is now a valued component of the cosmetics produced in form of emulsion. That liquid wax has a composition similar to human sebum. Due to the rich content of active ingredients it displays moisturizing, re-fatting, regenerating, bacteriostatic action and the effect of soothing the skin inflammation. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of concentration of jojoba oil on the selected physico-chemical properties of rich creams for dry skin. Materials and methods. The research material consisted in emulsions designed on the basis of the literature and own experience. The impact of jojoba oil concentration on: stability (thermal and load test), viscosity test (rotational viscometer, DV-I+ Brookfield) and moisturizing properties (CM 825 Corneometer, Courage Khazaka) on the original creams was discussed. A sensory evaluation of tested emulsions was also conducted (methodology invented). The point of reference in the evaluation was to compare the results of the research with those obtained of high-quality commercial product. Results. Jojoba oil in the proposed concentrations (c=1,5-7,5% wt.) does not result in a loss of stability of the emulsion produced. The function of the increasing concentration of the additive the viscosity of the cosmetics and their moisturizing effect also increases. Original creams exhibit favorable sensory parameters, especially in the case of participation of the jojoba oil at the level of 6.0 % and 7.5%. Conclusions. There is a close relationship between the concentration of jojoba oil and the final physicochemical and functional properties of greasy creams for dry skin. The introduction of this wax to the cream recipe has a beneficial effect on the characteristics of the designed cosmetics. The results of the work may give rise to practical applications in formulating the composition of cosmetic products in the form of an emulsion. Wprowadzenie. Olej jojoba jest obecnie cenionym składnikiem kosmetyków wytwarzanych w formie emulsji. Ten ciekły wosk charakteryzuje się składem zbliżonym do ludzkiego sebum. Ze względu na bogatą zawartość składników aktywnych wykazuje działanie: nawilżające, natłuszczające, regenerujące, bakteriostatyczne i łagodzące stany zapalne skóry. Cel. Celem pracy była ocena wpływu stężenia oleju jojoba na wybrane właściwości użytkowe i fizykochemiczne kremów tłustych przeznaczonych do cery suchej. Materiał i metody. Materiał badawczy stanowiły emulsje zaprojektowane w oparciu o dane literaturowe i doświadczenia własne. Dyskutowano wpływ stężenia oleju jojoba na: stabilność (test termiczny i obciążeniowy), lepkość (wiskozymetr rotacyjny Brookfield DV-I+) i właściwości nawilżające (Corneometer CM 825 Courage Khazaka) oryginalnych kremów. Przeprowadzono także ocenę sensoryczną (metodyka własna) badanych emulsji. Punktem odniesienia w ocenie było porównanie rezultatów badań z otrzymanymi dla wysokiej jakości produktu handlowego. Wyniki. Olej jojoba w proponowanych stężeniach (c=1,5-7,5 %wt.) nie powoduje utraty stabilności wytworzonych emulsji. W funkcji rosnącego stężenia dodatku wzrasta także lepkość otrzymanych kosmetyków i ich działanie nawilżające. Oryginalne kremy wykazują korzystne parametry sensoryczne, szczególnie w przypadku udziału oleju jojoba na poziomie 6,0 i 7,5% wag. Wnioski. Istnieje ścisły związek między stężeniem oleju jojoba a finalnymi właściwościami fizykochemicznymi i użytkowymi tłustych kremów przeznaczonych do cery suchej. Wprowadzenie tego wosku do receptury kremu wpływa korzystnie na charakterystyki zaprojektowanych kosmetyków. Wyniki pracy mogą stanowić podstawę do praktycznych zastosowań przy komponowaniu składu kosmetyków w formie emulsji. Słowa kluczowe: olej jojoba, kremy do suchej skóry, jakość
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132 Pol J Cosmetol 2015, 18(2): 132-137
Evaluation of selected quality features of creams with
addition of jojoba oil designed for dry skin
Ocena wybranych wyróżników jakości kremów z dodatkiem oleju jojoba przeznaczonych
do suchej skóry
M Z, A M, A N
Katedra Chemii, Wydział Materiałoznawstwa, Technologii i Wzornictwa Uniwersytetu Technologiczno-Humanistycznego w
Radomiu
Introduction. Jojoba oil is now a valued component of the cosmetics
produced in form of emulsion. That liquid wax has a composition
similar to human sebum. Due to the rich content of active ingredients
it displays moisturizing, re-fatting, regenerating, bacteriostatic action
and the effect of soothing the skin inflammation.
Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of concentration
of jojoba oil on the selected physico-chemical properties of rich creams
for dry skin.
Materials and methods. The research material consisted in emulsions
designed on the basis of the literature and own experience. The impact
of jojoba oil concentration on: stability (thermal and load test), viscosity
test (rotational viscometer, DV-I+ Brookfield) and moisturizing properties
(CM 825 Corneometer, Courage Khazaka) on the original creams was
discussed. A sensory evaluation of tested emulsions was also conducted
(methodology invented). The point of reference in the evaluation was
to compare the results of the research with those obtained of high-
quality commercial product.
Results. Jojoba oil in the proposed concentrations (c=1,5-7,5% wt.)
does not result in a loss of stability of the emulsion produced. The
function of the increasing concentration of the additive the viscosity
of the cosmetics and their moisturizing effect also increases. Original
creams exhibit favorable sensory parameters, especially in the case of
participation of the jojoba oil at the level of 6.0 % and 7.5%.
Conclusions. There is a close relationship between the concentration
of jojoba oil and the final physicochemical and functional properties
of greasy creams for dry skin. The introduction of this wax to the
cream recipe has a beneficial effect on the characteristics of the
designed cosmetics. The results of the work may give rise to practical
applications in formulating the composition of cosmetic products in
the form of an emulsion.
Key words: jojoba oil, creams for dry skin, quality
Adres do korespondencji / Address for correspondence
Małgorzata Zięba
Katedra Chemii, Wydział Materiałoznawstwa, Technologii i Wzornictwa UT-H
ul. Chrobrego 27, 26-600 Radom
tel. 48 361 75 89, e-mail: m.zieba@uthrad.pl
© Polish Journal of Cosmetology 2015, 18(2): 132-137
www.kosmet.pl
Nadesłano: 29.04.2015
Zakwalifikowano do druku: 09.06.2015
Wprowadzenie. Olej jojoba jest obecnie cenionym składnikiem
kosmetyków wytwarzanych w formie emulsji. Ten ciekły wosk
charakteryzuje się składem zbliżonym do ludzkiego sebum. Ze względu
na bogatą zawartość składników aktywnych wykazuje działanie:
nawilżające, natłuszczające, regenerujące, bakteriostatyczne i łagodzące
stany zapalne skóry.
Cel. Celem pracy była ocena wpływu stężenia oleju jojoba na
wybrane właściwości użytkowe i fizykochemiczne kremów tłustych
przeznaczonych do cery suchej.
Materiał i metody. Materiał badawczy stanowiły emulsje zaprojektowane
w oparciu o dane literaturowe i doświadczenia własne. Dyskutowano
wpływ stężenia oleju jojoba na: stabilność (test termiczny
i obciążeniowy), lepkość (wiskozymetr rotacyjny Brookfield DV-I+)
i właściwości nawilżające (Corneometer CM 825 Courage Khazaka)
oryginalnych kremów. Przeprowadzono także ocenę sensoryczną
(metodyka własna) badanych emulsji. Punktem odniesienia w ocenie
było porównanie rezultatów badań z otrzymanymi dla wysokiej jakości
produktu handlowego.
Wyniki. Olej jojoba w proponowanych stężeniach (c=1,5-7,5 %wt.) nie
powoduje utraty stabilności wytworzonych emulsji. W funkcji rosnącego
stężenia dodatku wzrasta także lepkość otrzymanych kosmetyków i ich
działanie nawilżające. Oryginalne kremy wykazują korzystne parametry
sensoryczne, szczególnie w przypadku udziału oleju jojoba na poziomie
6,0 i 7,5% wag.
Wnioski. Istnieje ścisły związek między stężeniem oleju jojoba
a finalnymi właściwościami fizykochemicznymi i użytkowymi tłustych
kremów przeznaczonych do cery suchej. Wprowadzenie tego wosku do
receptury kremu wpływa korzystnie na charakterystyki zaprojektowanych
kosmetyków. Wyniki pracy mogą stanowić podstawę do praktycznych
zastosowań przy komponowaniu składu kosmetyków w formie emulsji.
Słowa kluczowe: olej jojoba, kremy do suchej skóry, jakość
Introduction
The most common type of care cosmetics are
creams. Their function is to maintain the hydrophilic-
lipophilic balance of the skin, smooth it out, and deliver
active ingredients. Creams are prepared in the form of
emulsion. It is a homogenous system, which may con-
sist of the ingredients mutually immiscible. Thus the
formulation can be incorporated into both fat-soluble
non-polar compounds and water-soluble components.
In terms of applications, emulsions are classified as:
133Zięba M. Evaluation of selected quality features of creams with addition of jojoba oil designed for dry skin
nutritional, semi-rich, rich, moisturizing. The ones
that are particularly important in protecting against
harmful weather conditions, i. e. the wind, low and
high temperatures, are the greasy creams. Their efficacy
and the care effect depends largely on the composition
of the oil phase. All materials included in the oil phase
of the emulsion act as so-called cream base. They form
protective a film of occlusive action on the skin surface,
which prevents the loss of water from the deeper layers.
They are therefore a suitable type of cosmetic product
in the case for dry skin. The ingredients commonly used
in the oil phase are the following: petrolatum, silicone
oils, beeswax, esters, for example: myristate, isopropyl
palmitate, oil macerates with herbs. A strong trend to
use in cosmetic creams fat materials of natural origin,
mainly vegetable oils and waxes has been observed
recently. This is due not only to their nutritional proper-
ties (presence of EFAs, vitamins, phytosterols), but also
to the introduction of biodegradable plant components
into the recipes [1-5].
Numerous reports in the literature indicate the
cosmetic advantages of the use of jojoba oil. The
current knowledge on the impact of this component
on the physicochemical properties of the emulsion
is, however, insufficient. Therefore, the overriding
objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of con-
centration of jojoba oil on selected physicochemical
and utility properties in rich creams for dry skin.
Jojoba oil in cosmetics
Jojoba oil is a liquid wax, gold-yellow in color,
without odor. It solidifies at a temperature below 8° C,
may be heated up to 300° C. It is resistant to oxidation.
It consists of squalene, vitamins (A, E, F), saturated
and unsaturated alcohols, fatty acids and their esters,
phytosterols [6-9].
The use of jojoba oil as a component in cosmetics
affect: elasticity of the skin, shortness of the surface
lines and wrinkles. It causes the skin to become more
elastic and smooth. It can be used even for very sen-
sitive skin because it does not clog pores. It is also
hypoallergenic and well absorbed through the skin.
Jojoba oil has a chemical composition similar to the
composition of sebum produced by human skin. Dry
skin produces too small amount of sebum, therefore
jojoba oil perfectly complements its deficiencies. It is
interesting that in the case of excessive secretion of
sebum (greasy skin) jojoba oil inhibits its production.
Using the wax as a component of creams, cosmetics
manufacturers receive products leaving no greasy film
on the skin [10-13].
Jojoba oil can be a natural sunscreen with SPF of
about 4. In addition, using jojoba oil, one can even
achieve olive colour tan. It also plays a major role in
the treatment of acne, psoriasis, and even dandruff.
In the case of acne it regulates sebum production and
soothes inflammations. In contrast, in the presence of:
dandruff, psoriasis and egzema it has a moisturizing
and soothing effect. In addition, it has a bacteriostatic
effect and added to the formulation it prolongs its life
[14-16].
Analysis of the market of dry skin creams containing
vegetable oils
An analysis of the market for 50 dry skin creams
available on the Polish market in 2014 from March
to June has been performed. The market analysis was
carried out in large-area stores, drug stores, perfumer-
ies and pharmacies in Radom. The research was car-
ried out in terms of the following rates of the cream:
price, the capacity of the package, and the presence of
vegetable fat in the formulation. Figure 1 shows the
analysis of pricing of the preparations calculated per
100 ml of product.
below 20 PLN
25%
20.01 - 40 PLN
27%
40.01 - 60 PLN
21%
60.01 - 80 PLN
8%
80.01 - 100 PLN
8%
above 100 PLN
11%
Fig. 1. The prices of dry skin creams calculated per 100
ml
The prices of the creams containing plant deriva-
tives are quite high (Fig. 1). 27% of analyzed cosmetics
is a price in the range 20.01-40.00 PLN per 100 ml of
the product. The price of a quarter of emulsions is at a
level of 20 PLN per 100 ml of the cream. Nearly 20% of
the creams are the priced in range from 40.01 to 60.00
PLN. The cosmetics in the range of 80.01-100.00
PLN and 60.01-80.00 PLN per 100 ml constitute 8%
share in the market. The analysis shows that a fairly
large group of preparations is priced over 100.00 PLN.
They represent 11% of the total. The capacity of the
packaging of dry skin creams has also been analyzed
and the results are shown in Fig. 2.
The analysis in terms of the volume of packages
(Fig. 2) shows that the largest number of creams for
dry skin (74%) on the market, is available in packs of
50 ml. 12% of the creams are sold in packs of 75 ml.
The packaging of 40 ml constitutes 6% of the whole.
A small group of emulsions is sold in pots with a capac-
ity of 150 ml (4%). Among the formulations analyzed,
2% of the creams were packaged in 100 ml and 200
ml containers. The market analysis also included the
creams for dry skin in relation to the content of veg-
etable fats (Tab. I).
134 Pol J Cosmetol 2015, 18(2): 132-137
Table I. The vegetable fats occurring in the dry skin creams
Vegetable fat name Number of creams
Wheat germ oil 1
Avocado oil 1
Soybean oil 6
Olive oil 3
Jojoba oil 2
Primrose oil 1
Grape seed oil 2
Sunower oil 5
Rapeseed oil 1
Sweet almond oil 1
Peach kernel oil 1
Bran oil 1
Groundnut oil 1
Babbasu palm oil 1
Argan oil 1
Table 1 shows the vegetable fats occurring in the
analyzed creams. The most frequent were: soybean oil
(6) and sunflower oil (5). In three creams the olive
oil was used. In contrast, jojoba oil and grape seed oil
were the components in two emulsions. Other oils were
used each in a single formulation.
The market analysis of the dry skin creams showed
that despite many cosmetic advantages of jojoba oil
presented in the literature [6-16] this raw material
is not a popular component of the emulsion formula-
tions. In addition, it was also found that despite many
descriptions of cosmetic benefits of jojoba oil [6-16],
there are no data on the impact of this vegetable fat
on physicochemical and functional properties of the
cosmetic emulsions.
Aim
The aim of the work was to develop original for-
mulas for dry skin creams containing jojoba oil (INCI:
Simmondsia Chinensis Seed Oil) at various concentra-
tions and the verification of the quality of the emulsion
produced by the evaluation of: stability, viscosity of
the creams and skin moisturizing capabilities. The
experiment also included a sensory analysis of the
cosmetics. The original properties of the lotions with
added jojoba oil have been compared with respect to
the properties of the base lotion (without the addition
of the oil), and the commercial product.
Materials & Methodology
The composition of the rich cream was based on the
literature data [5, 10] and own studies [14, 17-19].
The names of the raw materials used are given accord-
ing to the INCI nomenclature. The obtained lotions
differed in the concentration of jojoba oil in the formu-
lation. Table II shows the composition of the original
lotions.
Table II. Recipes of the original rich creams containing jojoba oil
Phase Trade name INCI name Concentration
[% wt.]
Oil Crodamol
PTIS
Pentaerythrityl
Tetraisostearate
3.0
Absorption
Base
Parafnum Liquidum
and Lanolin Alcohol and
Oleyl Alcohol
3.0
Cetiol SB45 Butyrospermum Parkii 0.75
Eumulgin B1 Ceteareth-12 1.5
Lanette O Cetearyl Alcohol 9.0
Eumulgin B2 Ceteareth-20 2.25
Cithrol GMS Glyceryl Stearate 6.0
Jojoba oil Simmondsia Chinensis
Seed Oil
X
Water Sorbitol Sorbitol 1.5
Glycerine Gliceryn 3.0
Water Aqua do 100
Preservative Preservative 0.3
Glamour 0338 Perfume 0.3
The commercial product contains the follow-
ing ingredients (INCI): Petrolatum, Aqua (Water),
Paraffinum Liquidum (Mineral Oil), Helianthus
Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Olea Europaea
(Olive) Fruit Oil, Cetyl Alcohol, Ceresin, Lanolin
Alcohol, BHA, Ethylparaben, Methylparaben, Parfum
(Fragrance), Linalool, Citronellol, Hexyl Cinnamal,
Geraniol, Benzyl Salicylate, Benzyl Alcohol, Limonene,
Hydroxycitronellal, Citral, Amyl Cinnamal, Cinnamyl
Alcohol, Citric Acid.
Stability evaluation
The stability evaluation consisted in conducting
two types of tests: the centrifugal and the thermal.
The centrifugal test was performed using a centrifuge
MPW-2 type, under the conditions of rotational speed
equal to 2000 rpm. The thermal test was carried out by
subjecting the preparations alternating to low (t=4°C,
Fig. 2. The capacity of packaging of the analyzed creams
for dry skin
40 ml
6%
50 ml
74%
75 ml
12%
100 ml
2%
150 ml
4%
200 ml
2%
135Zięba M. Evaluation of selected quality features of creams with addition of jojoba oil designed for dry skin
the cooler Amica) and high (t=40°C incubator CL-65
by ELKON) temperatures for a period of 7 days. The
observation of the preparations was carried out every
24 hours.
Viscosity
The viscosity measurements were performed on
a Brookfield DV-I + viscometer. The indications of the
value η was done with the speed of 50 rpm at 22°C.
The values η were noted after 3 seconds after the start
of the instrument.
Evaluation of the moisturizing capacities
The ability of skin hydrating by the original
creams immediately after the application of the cream
(0 min.), and at intervals of 15 minutes over a period
of one hour after the application of the emulsion
(Corneometer CM 825, Courage Khazaka).
Sensory evaluation
In carrying out the tests the following features
were taken into account: the traction, the consistency,
the uniformity, the pillow effect, the distribution, the
absorption, the tackiness, the greasiness, oiling and
polishing. Each parameter was scored in a numerical
scale of 1 to 5, wherein: 5 – very good, 4 good,
3 – satisfactory, 2 – poor, 1 bad. The evaluation
procedures of each parameter have been described in
the literature [14].
Results
Stability evaluation
Stability is an essential factor which cosmetic
creams should meet. On the basis of the conducted
study it can be concluded that the addition of jojoba
oil, regardless of the percentage, does not adversely af-
fect the stability of the formulation. The formulations
have not changed their appearance, and no delamina-
tion has been observed.
Viscosity
The viscosity (η) of the emulsion determines
their properties, e.g.: absorption, spreadability on the
surface of the body or the ease of dispensing from the
package. It thus constitutes an important aspect of
evaluation of the quality of the cosmetics. The mea-
surement results are shown in Fig. 3.
Based on the results (Fig. 3), it was observed that
with increasing concentration of jojoba oil the viscos-
ity of the emulsion increases. The lowest viscosity was
displayed by the base formulation (η=12300 mPa•s),
while the highest value of η was that of the cream
containing 7.5% jojoba oil (η=31750 mPa•s). For
comparative purposes, the viscosity of the commercial
product was measured. The η value of the market
product was 2-fold less than the maximum, obtained
for the original emulsion.
Evaluation of the moisturizing capacities.
An important element for the proper functioning
of the epidermis as the barrier is the appropriate con-
tent of water in the stratum corneum. With the proper
moisture, the epidermis is flexible and resilient. The
results are shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 3. Viscosity of the original creams containing jojoba oil
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
viscosity [mPa . s]
Trade
product
0 1,5 3 4,5 6 7,5
concentration of jojoba oil [% wt.]
Fig. 4 Moisturizing factor of the skin after using the original
creams containing jojoba oil
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
moisturizing factor [a.u.]
Control
area
Trade
product
0 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5
concentration of jojoba oil [% wt.]
0 min.
15 min.
30 min.
45 min.
60 min.
Based on the results of the skin moisturization
after the application of creams containing jojoba oil
(Fig. 4) an increase was found in the efficiency of the
skin moisturization as a function of increasing concen-
tration of the additive in the recipe. The lowest degree
of moisturizing was reported for the control field that
was not treated with any cosmetic (42 a.u.). Using the
base emulsion caused an increase in the skin moistur-
izing by 8 units of measure. Even the introduction of
the smallest oil concentration (c=1.5%) immediately
after application of the cream resulted in an increase in
the measured value of 13.3 a.u. relative to the control
area.
136 Pol J Cosmetol 2015, 18(2): 132-137
The maximum proposed addition of the wax
(c=7.5%) improved the skin hydration to the value of
60 a.u. The most preferred moisturizing immediately
after application was recorded for the commercial
cream (65.5 a.u.).
For all of the emulsion it was also observed that the
passing time reduces the value of the skin’s moisture.
It should be noted, however, that after 60 minutes after
application of cosmetics the most favorable moisture
levels persisted after using the cream with the addi-
tion of 7.5% jojoba oil (52.3 a.u.), and this value was
higher both in comparison with the control field (42
a.u.) as and the base formula (43 a.u.) and the com-
mercial product (46.3 a.u.).
Sensory evaluation
Sensory testing was performed to evaluate the
acceptability of the products by the consumer and to
compare various characteristics of the formulations.
Sensory evaluation is also helpful in improving the
products and the quality control. The results of tests
are shown in Fig. 5a-5g.
Analyzing the sensory profiles (Fig. 5a-5g) re-
vealed that both the base recipe and the recipes con-
taining vegetable wax, received high marks of their
sensory parameters at levels equal to or close to the
maximum (5 points). The creams formulated with
jojoba oil at a concentration of c=1.5% and c=3%
have been rated identically. As regards the indicated
cosmetics, anointment, greasiness and the absorp-
tion of fat obtained 4 points. The maximal marks (5
points) for all evaluated parameters were awarded to
the commercial emulsion: and the ones with 6% and
7.5% addition of jojoba oil.
Conclusions
Formation of quality of skin care cosmetics, includ-
ing the ones received in the form of an emulsion, is
carried out by quantitative and qualitative selection of
ingredients in a formulation that meet specific func-
tions. Currently, a trend has been observed to replace
synthetic hydrophobic components of the emulsion
(e.g. silicone oils and mineral oils) with ingredients
of natural origin. Particularly noteworthy are the ex-
tracts, oils and vegetable butters and waxes. Thanks to
many active substances they exhibit multifunctional
operation and beneficial effect on the skin. However,
the introduction of new materials into such thermo-
dynamically unstable systems as emulsions, requires
detailed cognitive and application studies.
The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect of the concentration of jojoba oil on the selected
discriminants of the quality of creams for dry skin.
The obtained results were compared with the results
for the formulation without the addition of jojoba oil
and for the commercial product.
As discriminants of the quality of the greasy
creams the following factors were suggested: the emul-
sion stability, the viscosity, the moisturizing abilities
and the sensory evaluation of the creams. Based on
the conducted laboratory tests it was found that:
introduction of jojoba oil supplement to the cream
does not change its stability.
Regardless of the concentration of the added oil
the manufactured formulations remained the stability
of their form. Similar results were also obtained for
the commercial cosmetic;
jojoba oil increases the viscosity of the emulsion,
up to 2.5-fold relative to the cream without oil. The
commercial cream was also characterized by a lower
η value in comparison with creams produced;
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
0
1
2
3
4
5
Adhesion
Consistency
Homogeneity
Effect of pillow
Spreading
Absorption
Stickiness
Oiliness
Greasing
Smoothness
Fig. 5. The sensory evaluation of the original creams con-
taining jojoba oil
a. Trade product b. Basic cream
c. 1.5% wt. of jojoba oil d. 3% wt. of jojoba oil
e. 4.5% wt. of jojoba oil f. 6% wt. of jojoba oil
g. 7.5% wt. of jojoba oil
137Zięba M. Evaluation of selected quality features of creams with addition of jojoba oil designed for dry skin
• Simmondsia Chinensis Seed Oil is an effective
moisturizing raw material. With the increase in
the share of the proposed component increased
the degree of hydration of the skin, and the best
results were obtained after an hour of application
for the cream with 7.5% jojoba oil content. This
result was also better than the one obtained for the
commercial emulsion;
the original formulations were awarded high marks
in sensory parameters, at 4-5 points, which is
associated with high consumer acceptability.
Summing up the research performed a generaliza-
tion can be formulated that the purpose of the work
has been achieved. Original cream formulations may
be a prerequisite for further research on modifying the
recipes of cosmetic emulsions containing vegetable
fats. It has been demonstrated that by the addition of
jojoba oil to the creams for dry skin their properties
may be favorably designed.
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... Jojoba oil is a mixture of long-chain (C36-C46) esters of fatty acid and fatty alcohol, distinguishing it from other vegetable oils, which are triglyceride-based ( Figure 2) (Mokhtari et al. 2019). This gold-yellow odorless oxidation-resistant wax is liquid at room tempera-ture, which is another unique characteristic differentiating it from other natural waxes used in cosmetics (Le Dréau et al. 2009;Zięba et al. 2015). ...
... For instance, it was reported that the addition of jojoba hydrolyzed ester to lotions can enhance skin hydration by reduction of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) (Meyer et al. 2008). In a separate study, increasing concentrations of jojoba oil in cream formulations enhanced their moisturizing properties (Zięba et al. 2015). Nevertheless, it is exceedingly difficult to elucidate the impact of jojoba in this setup, separating its impact from the rest of the formula. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K. Schneider is an evergreen shrub widely grown in Israel, the Middle East, South America, Africa, India and Australia used as an agricultural crop for commercial purposes and as a source of its non-edible natural wax. It is widely used in pharmaceutics and cosmetic formulation due to its unique structural characteristics and beneficial health effects. In addition, extensive work has been published on the plant’s health-promoting activities, ranging from antioxidant activities to the treatment of cancer. Being a rich source of natural liquid wax, the majority of research regarding jojoba focuses on its applications, as well as on the ability to exploit the residual plant materials obtained in its production. To date, several potent phytochemicals have been attributed to its medicinal properties, e.g. simmondsin and phenolic compounds. The current review emphasizes the evidence-based medicinal qualities of the wax and plant extracts and highlights the gaps of knowledge in these research areas and the importance of acquiring additional understanding of jojoba distinctive traits.
... Distinguishably, jojoba differs from other related oil seed shrubs such as corn, peanut and soybean in which the production of oils as the essential storage lipid, jojoba wax comprise 50% of seed dry mass (Al-Obaidi et al. 2013). Previously, jojoba oil has been recorded to have a strong potency in skin treatment and cosmetics industry; these valuable oils are vital in the manufacture of skin care moisturizers (Zięba et al. 2015). In addition to that, jojoba is utilized to fight and reduce desertification in wide areas (Sánchez et al. 2016) and also in the production of hair conditioner and curing agent for psoriasis and acne (Odoms 2012). ...
Chapter
The main goal of this chapter is to discuss the multiple usage of plants, one of which is its usage for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications besides their potential role in improving the environment. The chapter will be focusing on a few plants which have medicinal properties and potential pharmaceutical/industry applications. Generally, medicinal plants used for traditional medicine play a significant role in the healthcare of the majority of people in many developing countries. At the same time, those plants can play a bigger role in solving many environmental issues like the gradual conversion of habitable land used for agriculture into a desert and reduce the carbon footprint. In this chapter, we will be discussing and reviewing the major role of multiple usage of shrubs growing or potentially can be grown in arid and semi-arid areas such as jojoba, Aloe vera, Moringa and Acacia.
Article
Jojoba is one of the finest cosmetic ingredients In the world. It is excellent oxidative stability properties rank it as one of the top cosmetic materials, in use today. It is a complex mixture of naturally occurring long chained linear esters with many functional cosmetic properties that are far superior to tri-glycerides. Because of Its stability towards rancidity it serves as a standard oil-phase base for the cosmetic industry. Jojoba oil has got the first priority in the preparation of personal care hygiene products. Today jojoba oil is an important ingredient of many cosmetic and hair care products. Jojoba oil is relatively shelf-stable when compared with other vegetable oils. Adding some jojoba oil to skin creams can help skin tone. Substantial quantity of good quality oil can be obtained from jojoba seeds for preparation of cosmetic base. Extraction of oil from Jojoba seeds Is also easy and it does not require any type of high cost sophisticated machinery. Jojoba seeds retain low moisture content. This gives an indication that good quality of oil with superior shelf life can be obtained from it. Superior shelf life of cosmetic base oil Is essential to store the cosmetics over a longer period. Due to its chemical closeness to human sebum it can support the natural balance of the skin by forming a nongreasy film that holds moisture In while controlling the flow of sebum. It won't clog the pores and its regulating action is frequently helpful with acne. Jojoba provides excellent spread ability and lubricity. Hypoallergenic and pure, Jojoba oil is perfect for any skin type especially those with large molecular structure. Since it blends well with the natural sebum of skin, jojoba oil may be effective in curbing over production of sebum - a condition that occurs in oily skins that are prone to acne. So it balances sebum level In skin.
Article
As the jojoba oil was used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, dietetic food, animal feeding, lubrication, polishing and bio-diesel fields, it was important to study its aging at high temperature by oxidative process. In this work a FT-MIR methodology was developed for monitoring accelerate oxidative degradation of jojoba oils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate various samples according to their origin and obtaining process, and to differentiate oxidative conditions applied on oils. Two spectroscopic indices were calculated to report simply the oxidation phenomenon. Results were confirmed and deepened by multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square method (MCR-ALS). It allowed identifying chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment according to a SIMPLISMA pretreatment.
Elements of cosmetic dermatology
  • J Mierzejewski
Mierzejewski J. Elements of cosmetic dermatology. Wyd Politechniki Radomskiej, Radom, 2008: 28-32. (in Polish)
Facial skin and care with the use of herbal materials -combination, acne-infected, sensitive and senile (wrinkled types)
  • K Jędrzejko
  • W Woszczyk
Jędrzejko K, Woszczyk W. Facial skin and care with the use of herbal materials -combination, acne-infected, sensitive and senile (wrinkled types). Pol J Cosmetol 2006, 9(2): 92-102. (in Polish)
Cosmetics Formulation
  • R Glinka
Glinka R. Cosmetics Formulation. Oficyna Wyd MA, Łódź, 2003: 73. (in Polish)
Vegetable oils and their use in cosmetics. Warsaw Voice
  • J Góra
Góra J. Vegetable oils and their use in cosmetics. Warsaw Voice, Warszawa 2009: 34. (in Polish)
  • R Czerpak
  • A Jabłonowska-Trypuć
Czerpak R, Jabłonowska-Trypuć A. Plant Cosmetic Raw Materials. MedPharm-Polska, Wrocław 2010: 45-46. (in Polish)
Lexicon of cosmetic raw materials
  • J Arct
  • K Pytkowska
Arct J, Pytkowska K. Lexicon of cosmetic raw materials. Wyd WSZKiPZ, Warszawa 2010: 56. (in Polish)
Cosmetic from the desert – jojoba. Szczecin Medical Informator
  • M Woźniak
Woźniak M. Cosmetic from the desert – jojoba. Szczecin Medical Informator 2009, 31(10): 12. (in Polish)
Natural compounds in cosmetics
  • R Glinka
  • J Góra
Glinka R, Góra J. Natural compounds in cosmetics. Warsaw Voice, Warszawa 2000: 14. (in Polish)