Separación o divorcio: Trastornos psicológicos en los padres y los hijos

Revista de la Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría, ISSN 0211-5735, Vol. 24, Nº. 92, 2004, pags. 91-112 12/2004; DOI: 10.4321/S0211-57352004000400006
Source: OAI


Tras señalar el papel psicológico para los hijos del grupo familiar, se ha revisado la literatura científica sobre las consecuencias que acarrean en los niños las separaciones o divorcios, resaltando las ventajas e inconvenientes de la custodia compartida o en solitario, así como las características de los síndromes denominados de Alienación Parental, progenitor Malicioso, e Interferncia severa que tanto alteran el proceso de la ruptura de la pareja y un trastorno más tardío llamado Síndrome de la falsa Memoria.

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    • "Según estudios de parentalidad, se ha establecido que la fi gura parental masculina puede ser igual de sensible y tener la misma capacidad de respuesta ante las necesidades y demandas de un hijo que la fi gura materna (Vallejo, Sánchez-Barraco y Sánchez- Barraco, 2004; Ferrari, 1999; Zicavo, 2006). Se determinó que los padres que están cerca de sus bebés, ejercen en ellos una infl uencia cognitiva positiva y signifi cativa (Vallejo et al., 2004). Lo que refuerza la idea de investigar en esta área poco visible socialmente. "
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    ABSTRACT: The article discusses the understanding of the experiences of male parents committed to their parenthood in regards to physical and emotional distance with their children, after a separation process. It is a study of social relevance, because culturally the mother is the one that is linked both emotionally and physically to the children, while the father is often considered both the provider of the family and the one that ought to leave the offspring’ side, by social mandate, in an imminent separation with his wife. This study addresses (from the social phenomenology perspective) five men of the Eighth Region, Chile. It is concluded that for them, this fracture has become stable and painful experience. They expressed the desire to be parents and claimed to have practical qualities in caring for children despite socio-legal obstacles that limit the continuity of parenting in spite of their efforts to maintain a stable relationship with their children; the study addresses the consequences in their personal and social life.
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    ABSTRACT: Parental alienation is an important phenomenon that mental health professionals should know about and thoroughly understand, especially those who work with children, adolescents, divorced adults, and adults whose parents divorced when they were children. We define parental alienation as a mental condition in which a child—usually one whose parents are engaged in a high-conflict divorce—allies himself or herself strongly with one parent (the preferred parent) and rejects a relationship with the other parent (the alienated parent) without legitimate justification. This process leads to a tragic outcome when the child and the alienated parent, who previously had a loving and mutually satisfying relationship, lose the nurture and joy of that relationship for many years and perhaps for their lifetimes. The authors of this article believe that parental alienation is not a minor aberration in the life of a family, but a serious mental condition. The child's maladaptive behavior—refusal to see one of the parents—is driven by the false belief that the alienated parent is a dangerous or unworthy person. We estimate that 1% of children and adolescents in the U.S. experience parental alienation. When the phenomenon is properly recognized, this condition is preventable and treatable in many instances. There have been scores of research studies and hundreds of scholarly articles, chapters, and books regarding parental alienation. Although we have located professional publications from 27 countries on six continents, we agree that research should continue regarding this important mental condition that affects hundreds of thousands of children and their families. The time has come for the concept of parental alienation to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and the International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Edition (ICD-11).
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